Update: Cranioplasty timing

Cranioplasty timing

There is an increasing body of evidence in the recent literature, which demonstrates that cranioplasty may also accelerate and improve neurological recovery. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms for this improvement remain essentially unknown, there are a rapidly growing number of neurosurgeons adopting this concept.

Cranioplasty performed between 15 and 30 days after initial craniectomy may minimize infectionseizure, and bone flap resorption, whereas waiting > 90 days may minimize hydrocephalus but may increase the risk of seizure 1).


Communicating hydrocephalus is an almost universal finding in patients after hemicraniectomy. Delayed time to cranioplasty is linked with the development of persistent hydrocephalus, necessitating permanent CSF diversion in some patients.

Waziri et al., propose that early cranioplasty, when possible, may restore normal intracranial pressure dynamics and prevent the need for permanent CSF diversion in patients after hemicraniectomy 2).

Factors

One modifiable factor that may alter the risk of cranioplasty is the timing of cranioplasty after craniectomy. Case series suggest that early cranioplasty is associated with higher rates of infection while delaying cranioplasty may be associated with higher rates of bone resorption.

When considering ideal timing for cranioplasty, predominant issues include residual brain edema, brain retraction into the cranial vault, risk of infection, and development of delayed post-traumatic hydrocephalus.


Waiting to perform cranioplasty is important to prevent the development of devitalized autograft or allograft infections.

It is generally accepted to wait 3 to 6 months before reconstructive surgery. If there is an infected area, this waiting period can be as long as one year.

Cranioplasty is performed after craniectomy when intracranial pressure is under control for functional and aesthetic restorations and for protection, but it may also lead to some neurological improvement after the bone flap placement 3) 4) 5).

Timing of cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy for trauma

The optimal timing of cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy for trauma is unknown.

After decompressive craniectomy for trauma, early (<12 weeks) cranioplasty does not alter the incidence of complication rates. In patients <18 years of age, early (<12 weeks) cranioplasty increases the risk of bone resorption. Delaying cranioplasty (≥12 weeks) results in longer operative times and may increase costs 6).

Timing of cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction

Patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction frequently develop hydrocephalus after decompressive hemicraniectomy. Hydrocephalus itself and known shunt related complications after ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation may negatively impact patients outcome.

A later time point of cranioplasty might lead to a lower incidence of required shunting procedures in general 7).

References

1)

Morton RP, Abecassis IJ, Hanson JF, Barber JK, Chen M, Kelly CM, Nerva JD, Emerson SN, Ene CI, Levitt MR, Chowdhary MM, Ko AL, Chesnut RM. Timing of cranioplasty: a 10.75-year single-center analysis of 754 patients. J Neurosurg. 2018 Jun;128(6):1648-1652. doi: 10.3171/2016.11.JNS161917. Epub 2017 Aug 11. PubMed PMID: 28799868.
2)

Waziri A, Fusco D, Mayer SA, McKhann GM 2nd, Connolly ES Jr. Postoperative hydrocephalus in patients undergoing decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Neurosurgery. 2007 Sep;61(3):489-93; discussion 493-4. PubMed PMID: 17881960.
3)

Honeybul S, Janzen C, Kruger K, Ho KM. The impact of cranioplasty on neurological function. Br J Neurosurg. 2013;27:636–641. doi: 10.3109/02688697.2013.817532.
4)

Jelcic N, De Pellegrin S, Cecchin D, Della Puppa A, Cagnin A. Cognitive improvement after cranioplasty: a possible volume transmission-related effect. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2013;155:1597–1599. doi: 10.1007/s00701-012-1519-6.
5)

Di Stefano C, Sturiale C, Trentini P, Bonora R, Rossi D, Cervigni G, et al. Unexpected neuropsychological improvement after cranioplasty: a case series study. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:827–831. doi: 10.3109/02688697.2012.692838.
6)

Piedra MP, Nemecek AN, Ragel BT. Timing of cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy for trauma. Surg Neurol Int. 2014 Feb 25;5:25. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.127762. PubMed PMID: 24778913; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3994696.
7)

Finger T, Prinz V, Schreck E, Pinczolits A, Bayerl S, Liman T, Woitzik J, Vajkoczy P. Impact of timing of cranioplasty on hydrocephalus after decompressive hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2016 Dec 9;153:27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2016.12.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28012353.

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