They account for 60% of paediatric intramedullary tumours, making them the most common spinal cordtumour in children.
The peak incidence of spinal astrocytomas occurs in the third decade, with the mean age at presentation being 29 years. Males are somewhat affected more commonly than females (M:F = 3:2) 1) 2) 3).
All astrocytomas are characterised by hypercellularity and the absence of a surrounding capsule. In contrast to cord ependymomas, a cleavage plane is not present in most intramedullary spinal astrocytomas.
High grade tumours are more likely to demonstrate extensive leptomeningeal spread seen in up to 60% of spinal cord glioblastomas.
The most common location of astrocytomas is the thoracic cord (67%), followed by the cervical cord (49%), and tumour may of course involve both regions. Involvement of the entire spinal cord (holocord presentation) may occur and is more common in children than in adults. Isolated conus medullaris involvement is seen only rarely (3%) and involvement of the filum terminale is rare (whereas this is the typical location of myxopapillary ependymomas).
Astrocytomas are typically long multisegment intramedullary masses that cause diffuse cord expansion. The average length of involvement is 4-7 vertebral body segments 5,7.
Can be often normal however as these tumours are slow growing bony remodelling is not infrequently visible, with posterior vertebral body scalloping or thinning of the pedicle or laminae. Scoliosis is also present in a reasonable number of patients, especially in children presenting with holocord involvement 5. These features are however less common than in spinal ependymomas.
On CT expansion of the cord is frequently visible, but due to the lower contrast resolution compared to MRI can be subtle. If contrast is administered contrast enhancement is frequently visible.
May show non specific multisegmental cord enlargement, and may results in a block to normal flow of contrast past the lesion, although this is more common with ependymoma.
As astrocytomas arise from cord parenchyma (rather than the central canal as is the case for ependymomas), they typically have an eccentric location within the spinal cord. They may be exophytic, and even appear largely extramedullary. They usually have poorly defined margins. Peritumoral edema is present in 37% 8. Intratumoural cysts are present in approximately 21% and peritumoral cysts are present in aproximately 16% 8.
Unlike ependymomas, haemorrhage is uncommon.
Reported signal characteristics include:
T1: isointense to hypointense
T1 C+ (Gd)
vast majority enhance (used to thought that all enhance but this is not the case)
usually patchy enhancement
more common in adults
scoliosis and bony remodelling more common
central location in spinal canal
haemorrhage is common
may rarely present as a subarachnoid haemorrhage
hemosiderin staining especially at the superior and inferior margins (so-called hemosiderin capping) is common focal, intense homogeneous contrast enhancement more frequent and more prominent cysts (intratumoral and polar)
Somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring are routinely used but it is unclear if they improve outcomes. The operating microscope and bipolar cautery are essential surgical tools; the ultrasound and ultrasonic surgical aspirator are useful surgical adjuncts. Laminectomy is performed on adults while laminoplasty is favored for pediatric patients.
Outcome for low-grade astrocytomas is less favorable than that of ependymomas with regard to both recurrence and function though many have prolonged survival. There is no correlation of extent of resection and recurrence. Outcome for high-grade tumors is extremely poor; tumor progression is relentless; median survival is thirteen months in children and six months in adults 5).
Cord astrocytomas in children tend to be associated with a good prognosis, as they behave much like grade I cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and displace neural tissue rather than infiltrate it.
A retrospective review of 46 consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated from 1992 to 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify variables associated with survival.
The majority of patients (67.4%) underwent surgical resection, with the remaining only receiving biopsy. Of those who underwent resection, only 12.5% of patients underwent gross total resection, all of whom had low-grade astrocytomas. Of all patients, 30.7% worsened compared with their preoperative baseline. The occurrence of worsening increased with high tumor grade (52.9% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.086) and an increased extent of resection (66.7% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.0069). Resection did not provide a survival benefit compared with biopsy alone (P = 0.53). Multivariate analysis revealed high-grade histology (hazard ratio, 11.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.41-53.2; P = 0.0021), tumor dissemination (hazard ratio, 4.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-14.8; P = 0.023), and an increasing number of tumor involved levels (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.74; P = 0.058) to be associated with worse survival.
As surgical intervention is associated with a higher rate of neurological complications and lacks a clear benefit, the resection of spinal cord astrocytomas should be reserved for select cases and should be used sparingly 6).