Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery

Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery 1st Edition

by George I. Jallo (Editor), Karl Kothbauer (Editor), Violette Recinos (Editor)
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Pediatric neurosurgery has witnessed considerable technological advances, resulting in more efficacious outcomes for young patients with hydrocephalus, epilepsy, brain tumors, spinal deformities, and a host of other conditions. The art of pediatric neurosurgery is a delicate balancing act—taking into account child and parents and emotional and disease challenges. As such, the management of serious neurological conditions in pediatric patients must encompass the big picture in addition to treating underlying pathologies.
Handbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery by George Jallo, Karl Kothbauer, and Violette Recinos covers the full depth and breadth of this uniquely rewarding subspecialty including congenital, developmental, and acquired disorders. The latest information is provided on anatomy, radiological imaging, and principles guiding the surgical and nonsurgical management of a full spectrum of neurological pathologies impacting infants and children. The book is divided into 11 sections and 56 chapters with state-of-the-art procedures, best practices, and clinical pearls from top pediatric neurosurgeons.
Key Features
Cranial disorders including Chiari malformations, encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, and craniosynostosis
Benign and malignant tumors—from the hypothalamus and optic pathways to the brainstem and spinal column
Spinal abnormalities such as spina bifida, tethered cord, and scoliosis
Clinical questions and answers at the end of chapters—ideal for self-testing and exam prep
Comprehensive and compact, this is the perfect backpack reference for neurosurgery residents and pediatric neurosurgery fellows to carry on rounds. It is also a must-have resource for seasoned pediatric neurosurgeons and all practitioners entrusted with the neurological care of pediatric patients.

Update: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion complications

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion complications

A 2-page survey was distributed to attendees at the 2015 Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS) meeting. Respondents were asked to categorize 18 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion-related adverse events as either: “common and acceptable,” “uncommon and acceptable,” “uncommon and sometimes acceptable,” or “uncommon and unacceptable.” Results were compiled to generate the relative frequency of these responses for each complication. Responses for each complication event were also compared between respondents based on practice location (US vs. non-US), primary specialty (orthopedics vs. neurosurgery) and years in practice.
Of 150 surveys distributed, 115 responses were received (76.7% response rate), with the majority of respondents found to be US-based (71.3%) orthopedic surgeons (82.6%). Wrong level surgery, esophageal injury, retained drain, and spinal cord injury were considered by most to be unacceptable and uncommon complications. Dysphagia and adjacent segment disease occurred most often, but were deemed acceptable complications. Although surgeon experience and primary specialty had little impact on responses, practice location was found to significantly influence responses for 12 of 18 complications, with non-US surgeons found to categorize events more toward the uncommon and unacceptable end of the spectrum as compared with US surgeons.
These results serve to aid communication and transparency within the field of spine surgery, and will help to inform future quality improvement and best practice initiatives 1).

Vocal cord palsy

Cervical adjacent segment disease

Hoarseness

Hoarseness, approximately in 5% 2).

Dysphagia

Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles 3).
Postoperative dysphagia is a significant concern.
Dexamethasone, although potentially protective against perioperative dysphagia and airway compromise, could inhibit fusion, a generally proinflammatory process.

Postoperative hemorrhage

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, although uncommon, may occur and can be a potentially serious complication. Little is known regarding the fusion rate after durotomy in ACDF.
In a single-institution retrospective review, 14 patients who experienced CSF leak after ACDF between 1995 and September 2014 were identified.
The median follow-up was 13.1 months. The diagnoses included spondylosis/degenerative disc disease (n = 10), disc herniation with radiculopathy (n = 3), and kyphotic deformity (n = 1). Of ACDFs, 7 were 1-level, 5 were 2-level, and 2 were 3-level procedures. The posterior longitudinal ligament was intentionally opened in all cases, and the microscope was used in 9 cases. Durotomy was discovered intraoperatively in all cases and was generally repaired with a combination of fibrin glue and synthetic dural replacement. Lumbar drainage was used in 5 patients, and 3 patients reported orthostatic headaches, which resolved within 1 month. Two patients reported hoarseness, and 8 patients reported dysphagia; all cases were transient. Follow-up imaging for fusion assessment was available for 12 patients, and a 100% fusion rate was achieved with no postoperative infections.
ACDFs with CSF leak had a 100% fusion rate in this series, with generally excellent clinical outcomes, although it is difficult to conclude definitively that there is no effect on fusion rates because of the small sample size. However, given the relative rarity of this complication, this study provides important data in the clinical literature regarding outcomes after CSF leak in ACDFs 4).

Pharyngoesophageal perforation

Spinal subdural hematoma

A spinal subdural hematoma is a rare clinical entity with considerable consequences without prompt diagnosis and treatment. Throughout the literature, there are limited accounts of spinal subdural hematoma formation following spinal surgery. This report is the first to describe the formation of a spinal subdural hematoma in the thoracic spine following surgery at the cervical level. A 53-year-old woman developed significant paraparesis several hours after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion of C5-6. Expeditious return to operating room for anterior cervical revision decompression was performed, and the epidural hematoma was evacuated without difficulty. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a subdural hematoma confined to the thoracic level, and the patient was returned to the operating room for a third surgical procedure. Decompression of T1-3, with evacuation of the subdural hematoma was performed. Postprocedure, the patient’s sensory and motor deficits were restored, and, with rehabilitation, the patient gained functional mobility. Spinal subdural hematomas should be considered as a rare but potential complication of cervical discectomy and fusion. With early diagnosis and treatment, favorable outcomes may be achieved 5).

Carotid artery compression

Legatt et al., report herein a case of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery in which findings on somatosensory evoked potential(SSEP) monitoring led to the correction of carotid artery compression in a patient with a vascularly isolated hemisphere (no significant collateral blood vessels to the carotid artery territory). The amplitude of the cortical SSEP component to left ulnar nerve stimulation progressively decreased in multiple runs, but there were no changes in the cervicomedullary SSEP component to the same stimulus. When the lateral (right-sided) retractor was removed, the cortical SSEP component returned to baseline. The retraction was then intermittently relaxed during the rest of the operation, and the patient suffered no neurological morbidity. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated a vascularly isolated right hemisphere. During anterior cervical spine surgery, carotid artery compression by the retractor can cause hemispheric ischemia and infarction in patients with inadequate collateral circulation. The primary purpose of SSEP monitoring during ACDF surgery is to detect compromise of the dorsal column somatosensory pathways within the cervical spinal cord, but intraoperative SSEP monitoring can also detect hemispheric ischemia. Concurrent recording of cervicomedullary SSEPs can help differentiate cortical SSEP changes due to hemispheric ischemia from those due to compromise of the dorsal column pathways. If there are adverse changes in the cortical SSEPs but no changes in the cervicomedullary SSEPs, the possibility of hemispheric ischemia due to carotid artery compression by the retractor should be considered 6).

Heterotopic Ossification

Heterotopic ossification (HO) has been reported following total hip, knee, cervical arthroplasty, and lumbar arthroplasty, as well as following posterolateral lumbar fusion using recombinant human morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). Data regarding HO following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with rhBMP-2 are sparse. A subanalysis was done of the prospective, multicenter, investigational device exemption trial that compared rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) versus allograft in ACDF for patients with symptomatic single-level cervical degenerative disc disease.
To assess differences in types of HO observed in the treatment groups and effects of HO on functional and efficacy outcomes, clinical outcomes from previous disc replacement studies were compared between patients who received rhBMP-2/ACS versus allograft. Rate, location, grade, and size of ossifications were assessed preoperatively and at 24 months, and correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS Heterotopic ossification was primarily anterior in both groups. Preoperatively in both groups, and including osteophytes in the target regions, HO rates were high at 40.9% and 36.9% for the rhBMP-2/ACS and allograft groups, respectively (p = 0.350). At 24 months, the rate of HO in the rhBMP-2/ACS group was higher than in the allograft group (78.6% vs 59.2%, respectively; p < 0.001). At 24 months, the rate of superior-anterior adjacent-level Park Grade 3 HO was 4.2% in both groups, whereas the rate of Park Grade 2 HO was 19.0% in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with 9.8% in the allograft group. At 24 months, the rate of inferior-anterior adjacent-level Park Grade 2/3 HO was 11.9% in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with 5.9% in the allograft group. At 24 months, HO rates at the target implant level were similar (p = 0.963). At 24 months, the mean length and anteroposterior diameter of HO were significantly greater in the rhBMP-2/ACS group compared with the allograft group (p = 0.033 and 0.012, respectively). Regarding clinical correlation, at 24 months in both groups, Park Grade 3 HO at superior adjacent-level disc spaces significantly reduced range of motion, more so in the rhBMP-2/ACS group. At 24 months, HO negatively affected Neck Disability Index scores (excluding neck/arm pain scores), neurological status, and overall success in patients in the rhBMP-2/ACS group, but not in patients in the allograft group.
Implantation of rhBMP-2/ACS at 1.5 mg/ml with polyetheretherketone spacer and titanium plate is effective in inducing fusion and improving pain and function in patients undergoing ACDF for symptomatic single-level cervical degenerative disc disease. At 24 months, the rate and dimensions (length and anteroposterior diameter) of HO were higher in the rhBMP-2/ACS group. At 24 months, range of motion was reduced, with Park Grade 3 HO in both treatment groups. The impact of Park Grades 2 and 3 HO on Neck Disability Index success, neurological status, and overall success was not consistent among the treatment groups. The study data may offer a deeper understanding of HO after ACDF and may pave the way for improved device designs 7).

Subsidence

There is evidence documenting relatively frequent complications in stand-alone cage assisted ACDF, such as cage subsidence and cervical kyphosis 8).
Subsidence irrespective of the measurement technique or definition does not appear to have an impact on successful fusion and/or clinical outcomes. A validated definition and standard measurement technique for subsidence is needed to determine the actual incidence of subsidence and its impact on radiographic and clinical outcomes 9).


The results of a observational study were in accordance with those of the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), suggesting substantial pain reduction both after anterior cervical interbody fusion (AIF) and Cervical total disc replacement, with slightly greater benefit after arthroplasty. The analysis of atypical patients suggested that, in patients outside the spectrum of clinical trials, both surgical interventions appeared to work to a similar extent to that shown for the cohort in the matched study. Also, in the longer-term perspective, both therapies resulted in similar benefits to the patients 10).

Case series

Analysis of 1000 consecutive patients undergoing Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in an outpatient setting demonstrated surgical complications occur at a low rate (<1%) and can be appropriately diagnosed and managed in 4-hour ASC PACU window. Comparison with inpatient ACDF surgery cohort demonstrated similar results, highlighting that ACDF can be safely performed in an outpatient ambulatory surgery setting without compromising surgical safety. To decrease cost of care, surgeons can safely consider performing 1- and 2-level ACDF in an ASC environment 11).


A retrospective case series of 37 patients, paying special attention to immediate complications related to the use of mechanical retraction of soft tissue (dysphagia, dysphonia, esophageal lesions and local hematoma); and a comparative analysis of the outcomes after changes in the retraction method.
All selected cases had a positive neurological symptom response in relation to neuropathic pain. Dysphagia and dysphonia were found during the first 72 h in 94.1% of the cases in which automatic mechanical retraction was used for more than one hour during the surgical procedure. A radical change was noted in the reduction of the symptoms after the use of only manual protective blades without automatic mechanical retraction: 5.1% dysphagia and 0% dysphonia in the immediate post-operative period, P = 0.001.
Soft tissue damage due to the use of automatic retractors in MACDF is not minor and leads to general discomfort in the patient in spite of good neurological results. These problems most often occur when automatic retractors are used continuously for more than 1 hour, as well as when they are used in multiple levels. Dysphagia, dysphonia and local pain decreased with the use of transient manual blades for retraction, and with intermittent release following minimally invasive principles 12).
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Wilson JR, Radcliff K, Schroeder G, Booth M, Lucasti C, Fehlings M, Ahmad N, Vaccaro A, Arnold P, Sciubba D, Ching A, Smith J, Shaffrey C, Singh K, Darden B, Daffner S, Cheng I, Ghogawala Z, Ludwig S, Buchowski J, Brodke D, Wang J, Lehman RA, Hilibrand A, Yoon T, Grauer J, Dailey A, Steinmetz M, Harrop JS. Frequency and Acceptability of Adverse Events After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Survey Study From the Cervical Spine Research Society. Clin Spine Surg. 2018 Apr 27. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000645. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29708891.
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Morpeth JF, Williams MF. Vocal fold paralysis after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. Laryngoscope. 2000 Jan;110(1):43-6. PubMed PMID: 10646714.
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Karikari IO, Jain D, Owens TR, Gottfried O, Hodges TR, Nimjee SM, Bagley CA. Impact of Subsidence on Clinical Outcomes and Radiographic Fusion Rates in Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Systematic Review. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2014 Feb;27(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 24441059.
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McGirt MJ, Mehrlich M, Parker SL, Asher AL, Adamson TE. 165 ACDF in the Outpatient Ambulatory Surgery Setting: Analysis of 1000 Consecutive Cases and Comparison to Hospital Inpatient ACDF. Neurosurgery. 2015 Aug;62 Suppl 1:220. doi: 10.1227/01.neu.0000467129.12773.a3. PubMed PMID: 26182011.

Invasive meningioma

Invasive meningioma

Invasive intracranial meningioma is a common neoplasm of central nervous system, which can infiltrate adjacent tissues (dura materarachnoid membrane, vascular space and skull) without atypical hyperplasia 1) 2)
In general, the pathological nature of meningioma determines its association with the brain parenchyma, which is that benign meningioma is usually compressive to the brain parenchyma due to its expansive growth, and malignant meningioma is invasive into the neighboring brain parenchyma due to its intrusive growth 3) 4). However, clinical observations have indicated that there is a sub-group of benign meningioma displaying a malignant growth pattern, that is, invasion into the neighboring brain tissue 5) 6) 7) 8) 9).
According to the experience gained in 19 cases, it was observed that there were certain features shared by these invasive benign meningiomas. The peak age of onset was ~50 years; the main manifestation was mild focal neurological deficits, which included dysphasia, and decreased sensation and muscle power of the contralateral limb. The MRI findings usually had the following characteristics: The lesions were located at the convexity of the cerebral hemisphere involving the central lobe, with an extensive base at the dural matter and evident ‘tail sign’; there was a minimal boundary between the tumor and the neighboring brain cortex; finally, and probably most importantly, the apex of tumor often enwrapped the normal brain tissue and associated vessels.
Due to the malignant growth, it was challenging to completely remove this benign meningioma while ensuring that neurological function remained intact. Resection of the earliest 4 cases was performed according to the traditional extra-capsular strategy, which was to coagulate and divide the tumor base first, and then continue the dissection along the interface between the tumor and brain parenchyma. This approach inevitably damaged the vessels transiting from and into the tumor. The observation that all 4 cases had permanent neurological deficits confirmed the disadvantage associated with this surgical strategy. Following careful analysis of the surgical outcomes, the resection method was modified by combining intra- and extra-capsular approaches. The first step was the same as the classical method, which was to coagulate and divide the tumor base. Afterwards, intra-capsular extirpation of the central part of the tumor was performed. Care was taken not to damage the transit vessels when approaching the tumor-brain interface. The enucleation of the central part of the tumor created a working space, which greatly facilitated the identification of the transit vessels. After this, the tumor was separated from brain parenchyma along the sub-arachnoid membrane. The use of a sponge during this dissection process was important. Finally, it was critical to separate the enwrapped brain cortex and associated vessels from the invading ‘cauliflower-like’ nodules of the meningioma. It is recommended that no efforts are spared in this process, since the enwrapped brain tissue may have retained its ability to function. The observation that there was only 1 case with mild neurological impairment post-operatively in the later 15 cases confirms the advantage of the modified strategy.
In summary, the present study further revealed the clinical features of the invasive benign meningioma and indicated the advantage of combined intra-extra capsular strategy for the surgical resection 10).


Identification of risk factors for perioperative epilepsy remains crucial in the care of patients with meningioma. Moreover, associations of brain invasion with clinical and radiological variables have been largely unexplored. Brain invasion was identified as a new and strong predictor for preoperative, but not postoperative, seizures. Although also associated with increased peritumoral edema, seizures in patients with invasive meningioma might be facilitated substantially by cortical invasion itself. Consideration of seizures in consultations between the neurosurgeon and neuropathologist can improve the microscopic detection of brain invasion 11).

Case series

2018

Hess et al., hypothesized that invasion of the cortex and subsequent increased edema facilitate seizures, and they compared radiological data and perioperative seizures in patients with brain-invasive meningioma or noninvasive meningioma.
Correlations of brain invasion with tumor and edema volumes and preoperative and postoperative seizures were analyzed in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Totals of 108 (61%) females and 68 (39%) males with a median age of 60 years and harboring totals of 92 (52%) grade I, 79 (45%) grade II, and 5 (3%) grade III tumors were included. Brain invasion was found in 38 (22%) patients and was absent in 138 (78%) patients. The tumors were located at the convexity in 72 (41%) patients, at the falx cerebri in 26 (15%), at the skull base in 69 (39%), in the posterior fossa in 7 (4%), and in the ventricle in 2 (1%); the median tumor and edema volumes were 13.73 cm3 (range 0.81-162.22 cm3) and 1.38 cm3 (range 0.00-355.80 cm3), respectively. As expected, edema volume increased with rising tumor volume (p < 0.001). Brain invasion was independent of tumor volume (p = 0.176) but strongly correlated with edema volume (p < 0.001). The mean edema volume in noninvasive tumors was 33.0 cm3, but in invasive tumors, it was 130.7 cm3 (p = 0.008). The frequency of preoperative seizures was independent of the patients’ age, sex, and tumor location; however, the frequency was 32% (n = 12) in patients with invasive meningioma and 15% (n = 21) in those with noninvasive meningioma (p = 0.033). In contrast, the probability of detecting brain invasion microscopically was increased more than 2-fold in patients with a history of preoperative seizures (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.13-5.88; p = 0.025). In univariate analyses, the rate of preoperative seizures correlated slightly with tumor volume (p = 0.049) but strongly with edema volume (p = 0.014), whereas seizure semiology was found to be independent of brain invasion (p = 0.211). In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, tumor location, tumor and edema volumes, and WHO grade, rising tumor volume (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03; p = 0.042) and especially brain invasion (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.52-18.15; p = 0.009) were identified as independent predictors of preoperative seizures. Nine (5%) patients developed new seizures within a median follow-up time of 15 months after surgery. Development of postoperative epilepsy was independent of all clinical variables, including Simpson grade (p = 0.133), tumor location (p = 0.936), brain invasion (p = 0.408), and preoperative edema volume (p = 0.081), but was correlated with increasing preoperative tumor volume (p = 0.004). Postoperative seizure-free rates were similar among patients with invasive and those with noninvasive meningioma (p = 0.372).
Brain invasion was identified as a new and strong predictor for preoperative, but not postoperative, seizures. Although also associated with increased peritumoral edema, seizures in patients with invasive meningioma might be facilitated substantially by cortical invasion itself. Consideration of seizures in consultations between the neurosurgeon and neuropathologist can improve the microscopic detection of brain invasion12).

2017

From February 2014 to February 2016, 59 patients with invasive meningioma were enrolled in a study. Invasive meningioma was confirmed in all patients by operation. Information about clinical manifestations, pathological features, preoperative imaging and surgical treatment were collected and analyzed. After surgery, pathological specimens were collected, and cases were confirmed as invasive meningioma by pathological examination. The course of disease ranged from 15 days to 7 years (average, 13.2 months). We used World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for classification of meningioma in the nervous system tumors as our reference. Symptoms were as follows: Intracranial hypertension (29 cases), cranial nerve dysfunction (10 cases), epilepsy (11 cases) and other symptoms (9 cases). We had 56 cases of WHO grade I; 6 cases of WHO grade II and 7 cases of WHO grade III. Surgical removal was: Simpson grade I (56 cases), Simpson grade II (2 cases), Simpson grade III and above (56 cases). We used before surgery imaging data to formulate our surgical plan. In general, during surgeries we did not proceed to complete resection, because in the majority of cases, some key structures were invaded and meningioma was very deep and any attempt for total resection could easily lead to significant damage to these structures 13).

1995

A study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between histological invasiveness and proliferating potential and clinical recurrence in meningioma. In 39 meningiomas, the histological findings at the tumour-brain interface zone were classified into 3 types, consisting of 29 cases of non-invasion (NON). 7 cases of nodular invasion (NOD), and 3 cases of intermingled invasion (INT). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) indices were studied. PCNA indices (mean +/- standard error) of NON, NOD. and INT were 1.7 +/- 0.1%, 5.2 +/- 0.5%, and 7.5 +/- 0.7%. respectively, and the AgNOR indices (dot number/nucleus) were 1.50 +/- 0.03, 2.00 +/- 0.04, and 2.22 +/- 0.07, respectively. Significant differences were found among the three types in both parameters. Clinically, tumour recurrence was observed in 1/29 NON, 4/7 NOD, and 2/2 INT cases, indicating a higher incidence of recurrence in invasive meningiomas (NOD plus INT). Four of 32 patients who underwent gross total removal of the tumours showed recurrence, and all of these four tumours were invasive meningiomas. The results of the present study showed that tumour invasiveness as measured by PCNA + AgNOR indices correlated well with high proliferative potential and clinical recurrence 14).
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Hess K, Spille DC, Adeli A, Sporns PB, Brokinkel C, Grauer O, Mawrin C, Stummer W, Paulus W, Brokinkel B. Brain invasion and the risk of seizures in patients with meningioma. J Neurosurg. 2018 Apr 27:1-8. doi: 10.3171/2017.11.JNS172265. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29701550.
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Hou W, Ma Y, Xing H, Yin Y. Imaging characteristics and surgical treatment of invasive meningioma. Oncol Lett. 2017 May;13(5):2965-2970. doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.5833. Epub 2017 Mar 9. PubMed PMID: 28521402; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5431211.
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Suwa T, Kawano N, Oka H, Ito H, Kameya T. Invasive meningioma: a tumour with high proliferating and “recurrence” potential. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1995;136(3-4):127-31. PubMed PMID: 8748841.
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