Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury

Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury

Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury is common and usually due to cardiac arrest or profound hypotension. The clinical pattern and outcome depend on the severity of the initial insult, the effectiveness of immediate resuscitation and transfer, and the post-resuscitation management on the intensive care unit. Clinical assessment is difficult and so often these days compromised by sedationneuromuscular-blocking drugventilationhypothermia and inotropic management. Investigations can add valuable information, in particular brain MRI shows characteristic patterns depending on the severity of the injury and the timing of imaging. EEG patterns may also suggest the possibility of a good outcome. There is no entirely reliable algorithm of clinical signs or investigations which allow a definitive prognosis but the combination of careful repeated observations and appropriate ancillary investigations allows the neurologist to give an informed and accurate opinion of the likely outcome, and to advise on management. Overall, the prognosis is extremely poor and only a quarter of patients survive to hospital discharge, and often even then with severe neurological or cognitive deficits 1).


In eleven patients (median age of 47 [range 20-71], 8 male and 3 female). There was a linear relationship between ICP and non-invasive estimators of ICP (nICP) with optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography (ONSD) (R = 0.53 [p < 0.0001]), JVP (R = 0.38 [p < 0.001]) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) (R = 0.30 [p < 0.01]). The ability to predict intracranial hypertension was highest for ONSD and TCD (AUC = 0.96 [95% CI: 0.90-1.00] and AUC = 0.91 [95% CI: 0.83-1.00], respectively). Jugular venous bulb pressure (JVP). presented the weakest prediction ability (AUC = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.56-0.94]).

ONSD and TCD methods demonstrated agreement with invasively-monitored ICP, suggesting their potential roles in the detection of intracranial hypertension in hypoxic ischaemic brain injury (HIBI) after cardiac arrest 2).

References

1)

Howard RS, Holmes PA, Koutroumanidis MA. Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Pract Neurol. 2011 Feb;11(1):4-18. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218. Review. PubMed PMID: 21239649.
2)

Cardim D, Griesdale DE, Ainslie PN, Robba C, Calviello L, Czosnyka M, Smielewski P, Sekhon MS. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive measures of intracranial pressure in hypoxic ischaemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2019 Jan 7. pii: S0300-9572(18)30912-2. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.01.002. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30629992.

Breast cancer pituitary metastases

Breast cancer pituitary metastases

Tumors that metastasize to the pituitary gland are unusual, and are typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. The most common metastases to the pituitary are from primary breast and lung cancers.

Cai et al., from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyangpresented a 57 year-old patient with pituitary gland metastasis from breast cancer that was treated with extensive radical mastectomy 16 years prior. The pituitary was the sole site of metastasis. The patient was admitted with the chief complaint of blurred vision for 1 year and episodic headaches for 1 month. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid mass in the sellar region with heterogenous contrast enhancement. The preoperative diagnosis was a pituitary adenomaNeuroendoscopy-assisted tumor resection was conducted through a single-nostril sphenoid sinus approach. A pinkish-white, firm neoplasm was found, with an abundant blood supply and an indistinct boundary between the neoplasm and normal pituitary tissue; complete resection was achieved. The results of immunohistochemical analysis were positive for cytokeratinKi-67antigen, estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and prolactin induced protein. The neoplasm was negative for SALL4mammaglobin, and the Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide. These results were used to reach a final diagnosis of a pituitary gland metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. The patient’s vision improved significantly after surgery, and no recurrence was detected during one year of follow-up.

Pituitary gland metastasis is rare and difficult to differentiate from a pituitary adenoma without a pathologic diagnosis. Surgery is the first choice for treatment. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are combined with endocrine therapy to tailored treatment to the results of immunohistochemistry 1)


An 83-year-old woman developed pituitary metastasis while being treated for metastatic breast cancer. She presented with visual disturbance and headache followed by thirst, nocturia and polyuria. A visual field defect was present. MRI revealed a sellar mass consistent with metastasis to the pituitary gland. She was successfully treated with radiotherapy to the sella and had improvement of her visual symptoms and visual field defect. She then required ongoing treatment for diabetes insipidus. Her symptoms had not shown any sign of recurring up to 9 months after treatment. Pituitary metastases are rare but should be suspected in patients with metastatic cancer who present with features similar to those seen here. With improvements in survival in metastatic breast cancer, pituitary metastases may be seen more commonly and active local treatment is warranted given the possibility of resolution of symptoms related to the pituitary metastases 2).


Kim et al., reported a 65-year-old woman with pituitary metastasis from breast cancer who presented with recent-onset left progressive deterioration of visual acuity and visual field. The clinical diagnosis was made after brain and sellar magnetic resonance imaging showed a large sellar mass compressing the optic chiasm and invading the pituitary stalk. An otorhinolaryngology and neurosurgery team removed the tumor via a transsphenoidal approach, and this procedure obtained symptomatic relief. Postoperatively, metastasis from breast invasive ductal adenocarcinoma was confirmed histologically. We report this unusual case with a review of the relevant literature 3).


A 55-years-old woman presented with diabetes insipidus resulting from metastasis of the tumor to pituitary infundibulum, which is a rare site for metastasis, without significant complaint resulting from metastasis to other part of the body, or other primary diseases. Further evaluation revealed that in spite of previous reports, which metastasis usually happens in end stage of cancer, the patients had primary breast cancer. In subsequent evaluations of the case, hypofunction of adenohypophysis was also detected 4).

References

1)

Cai H, Liu W, Feng T, Li Z, Liu Y. Clinical Presentation and Pathologic Characteristics of Pituitary Metastasis From Breast Carcinoma: Cases and a Systematic Review of the Literature. World Neurosurg. 2019 Jan 7. pii: S1878-8750(18)32949-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.12.126. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30630045.
2)

Gormally JF, Izard MA, Robinson BG, Boyle FM. Pituitary metastasis from breast cancer presenting as diabetes insipidus. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Apr 12;2014. pii: bcr2014203683. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-203683. PubMed PMID: 24729116; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3987639.
3)

Kim YH, Lee BJ, Lee KJ, Cho JH. A case of pituitary metastasis from breast cancer that presented as left visual disturbance. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2012 Feb;51(2):94-7. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2012.51.2.94. Epub 2012 Feb 29. PubMed PMID: 22500201; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3322215.
4)

Poursadegh Fard M, Borhani Haghighi A, Bagheri MH. Breast cancer metastasis to pituitary infandibulum. Iran J Med Sci. 2011 Jun;36(2):141-4. PubMed PMID: 23358184; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3556747.

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM DBS) has been proposed as a treatment option for Parkinson disease dementia.

Low-frequency NBM DBS was safely conducted in patients with Parkinson disease dementia; however, no improvements were observed in the primary cognitive outcomes. Further studies may be warranted to explore its potential to improve troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms 1).


Nombela et al., from Hospital Clínico San CarlosToronto Western Hospital, reported a Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment who underwent DBS surgery targeting the Globus pallidus internus (GPi; to treat motor symptoms) and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM; to treat cognitive symptoms) using a single electrode per hemisphere.

Compared to baseline, 2-month follow-up after GPi stimulation was associated with motor improvements, whereas partial improvements in cognitive functions were observed 3 months after the addition of NBM stimulation to GPi stimulation.

This case explores an available alternative for complete DBS treatment in PD, stimulating 2 targets at different frequencies with a single electrode lead 2).


A global experience is emerging for the use of DBS for these conditions, targeting key nodes in the memory circuit, including the fornix and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Such work holds promise as a novel therapeutic approach for one of medicine’s most urgent priorities 3).

A unique feature in the course of both Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson’s dementia (PDD) is basal forebrain degeneration including the latter’s cholinergic projections to the cortex. Neurostimulation of ascending basal forebrain projections of the Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) may, therefore, represent a new strategy for enhancing the residual nucleus basalis output. The relevance of the cholinergic forebrain for brain plasticity has, for instance, been illustrated by the reshaping of auditory receptive fields during and after stimulation of the NBM in the adult brain 4).

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert is thought to positively affect cognition and might counteract the deterioration of nutritional status and progressive weight loss observed in Alzheimer disease (AD).

A study aims to assess the nutritional status of patients with AD before receiving DBS of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and after 1 year, and to analyze potential associations between changes in cognition and nutritional status.

Nutritional status was assessed using a modified Mini Nutritional Assessment, bioelectrical impedance analysis, a completed 3-day food diary, and analysis of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate.

With a normal body mass index (BMI) at baseline (mean 23.75 kg/m²) and after 1 year (mean 24.59 kg/m²), all but one patient gained body weight during the period of the pilot study (mean 2.38 kg, 3.81% of body weight). This was reflected in a mainly stable or improved body composition, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, in five of the six patients. Mean energy intake increased from 1534 kcal/day (min 1037, max 2370) at baseline to 1736 kcal/day (min 1010, max 2663) after 1 year, leading to the improved fulfillment of energy needs in four patients. The only nutritional factors that were associated with changes in cognition were vitamin B12 level at baseline (Spearman’s rho = 0.943, p = 0.005) and changes in vitamin B12 level (Spearman’s rho = -0.829, p = 0.042).

Patients with AD that received DBS of the nucleus basalis of Meynert demonstrated a mainly stable nutritional status within a 1-year period. Whether DBS is causative regarding these observations must be investigated in additional studies 5).

Case series

Case reports

References

1)

Gratwicke J, Zrinzo L, Kahan J, Peters A, Beigi M, Akram H, Hyam J, Oswal A, Day B, Mancini L, Thornton J, Yousry T, Limousin P, Hariz M, Jahanshahi M, Foltynie T. Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert for Parkinson Disease Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2018 Feb 1;75(2):169-178. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3762. PubMed PMID: 29255885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5838617.
2)

Nombela C, Lozano A, Villanueva C, Barcia JA. Simultaneous Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Interna and the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in the Parkinson-Dementia Syndrome. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2019 Jan 10;47(1-2):19-28. doi: 10.1159/000493094. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30630160.
3)

Sankar T, Lipsman N, Lozano AM. Deep brain stimulation for disorders of memory and cognition. Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jul;11(3):527-34. doi: 10.1007/s13311-014-0275-0. Review. PubMed PMID: 24777384; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4121440.
4)

Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science (1998) 279(5357):1714–810.1126/science.279.5357.1714
5)

Noreik M, Kuhn J, Hardenacke K, Lenartz D, Bauer A, Bührle CP, Häussermann P, Hellmich M, Klosterkötter J, Wiltfang J, Maarouf M, Freund HJ, Visser-Vandewalle V, Sturm V, Schulz RJ. Changes in Nutritional Status after Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer’s Disease – Results of a Phase I Study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(8):812-8. doi: 10.1007/s12603-015-0496-x. PubMed PMID: 26412285.
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