Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits. The sportevolved from motorcycle trials competitions held in the United Kingdom.
Motocross is a physically demanding sport held in all-weather conditions.
They have been gaining popularity among children and adolescents, raising concerns for increased risk of concussions in participating youth.
A 25-year-old man sustained a right-sided brachial plexus injury from a high-velocity motocross accident. Physical examination and electromyography were consistent with a pan-brachial plexopathy with no evidence of axonal continuity. The patient underwent a spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve transfer and an intercostal nerve to musculocutaneous nerve transfer with interpositional sural nerve grafts. He recovered MRC 4/5 elbow flexion and MRC 2/5 shoulder abduction and external rotation. Twenty-two months post-injury the patient displayed a flicker of flexion of his flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus to his index finger – he went on to recover a functional pinch. Thirty-six months post-injury the patient displayed a flicker of contraction in brachioradialis with motor unit potentials on electromyography. This case demonstrates that some patients may have capacity for functional recovery after prolonged denervation and highlights the potential impact of anatomical anomalies in the assessment and treatment of peripheral nerve injuries 1).
A 25-year-old man had a T11–T12 fracture dislocation sustained in a motocross accident that resulted in a T11 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (ASIA) grade A traumatic spinal cord injury. He was treated with acute surgical decompression and spinal fixation with fusion, and enrolled in the spinal scaffold study. A 2 × 10 mm bioresorbable scaffold was placed in the spinal cord parenchyma at T12. The scaffold was implanted directly into the traumatic cavity within the spinal cord through a dorsal root entry zone myelotomy at the caudal extent of the contused area. By 3 months, his neurological examination improved to an L1 AIS grade C incomplete injury. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, there were no procedural complications or apparent safety issues related to the scaffold implantation.
Although longer-term follow-up and investigation are required, this case demonstrates that a polymer scaffold can be safely implanted into an acutely contused spinal cord. This is the first human surgical implantation, and future outcomes of other patients in this clinical trial will better elucidate the safety and possible efficacy profile of the scaffold 2).
Nearly half of all motocross competitors under the age of 18 reported concussion symptoms. Preventive measures are necessary to limit the negative impact from concussions. The risk of concussive injury can be decreased for pediatric motocross riders if they receive professional help with proper helmet fitting and through implementation of stricter guidelines regarding sponsorship 3).
Daniels et al. found a high occurrence of head injuries following pediatric off-road motorcycle riding or motocross accidents despite the use of helmets. Additionally, this study severely underestimates the rate of mild TBIs in this patient population. Our data indicate that motocross is a high-risk sport despite the use of protective gear. Riders and parents should be counseled accordingly about the risks prior to participation 4).
Increased degenerative changes in the cervical and thoracic spine were identified in adolescent motocross racers compared with age-matched controls. The long-term consequences of these changes are unknown; however, athletes and parents should be counseled accordingly about participation in motocross activities 5).