Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm (size > 2.5 cm)

Case reports

Bendok et al. presented the case of a 61-year-old female who was brought to the emergency room after she had partial complex seizures. CT and MRI of the brain revealed a right temporal lobe mass which was initially thought to be a tumor. The patient was therefore referred to us for further management. The round nature of the lesion raised suspicion for an aneurysm. A CT angiography was performed followed by a diagnostic conventional cerebral angiogram and confirmed the presence of a giant thrombosed aneurysm 1).


A video case illustrates key surgical steps required in safe management of a giant recurrent previously coiled MCA aneurysm. The patient described in this case was a 68-year old male who presented with a sudden onset severe headache and dizziness. The patient had a history of a prior coil embolization of a 12 mm left middle cerebral artery aneurysm at an outside hospital. Imaging demonstrated recurrence of now a giant left middle cerebral artery aneurysm with coil compaction and left temporal lobe edema. MRI further demonstrated thrombus in the aneurysm and aneurysm wall enhancement concerning for impending rupture. Given the aneurysm size, imaging features and mass effect, the aneurysm was treated with microsurgical clipping. This case is valuable to the literature with a clear video case illustration of aneurysm dome excision, aneurysm endarterectomy and picket fence aneurysm neck reconstruction. Aneurysm dome excision is critical for treatment of giant aneurysms causing mass effect and was only used in this case as thrombus and coil mass did not allow for direct clipping across the neck without compromise of the MCA M2 branch. Hence, this video highlights key technical tenets, such as safe thrombus removal and adequate cleaning of the endoluminal surface and preparedness for bypass in challenging cases 2).


A 64-year-old woman who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2005. She was treated with coiling of the aneurysm at an outside institution. She presented to the clinic with headaches and was found on angiography to have giant recurrence of the aneurysm. To allow adequate exposure for clipping, Arko et al. performed the surgery through a cranio-orbito-zygomatic (COZ) skull base approach, which is demonstrated. The surgery was performed in an operating room/angiography hybrid suite allowing for high quality intraoperative angiography. The technique and room flow are also demonstrated. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/eePcyOMi85M 3).

Videos

Left pterional craniotomy for thrombectomy and clipping of ruptured left MCA giant aneurysm

Cranio-orbito-zygomatic approach of a giant MCA aneurysm in a hybrid angio/OR suite

References

1)

Bendok BR, Abi-Aad KR, Rahme R, Turcotte EL, Welz ME, Patra DP, Hess R, Kalen B, Krishna C, Batjer HH. Tulip Giant Aneurysm Amputation and “Shingle Clip Cut Clip” Technique for Microsurgical Reconstruction of a Giant Thrombosed Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm. World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 2. pii: S1878-8750(19)32108-4. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.192. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31377441.
2)

Glauser G, Piazza M, Choudhri O. Aneurysm Dome Excision and Picket Fence Clip Reconstruction of a Previously Coiled Recurrent Giant MCA Aneurysm: Technical Nuances. World Neurosurg. 2019 Apr 1. pii: S1878-8750(19)30913-1. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.233. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30947002.
3)

Arko L, Quach E, Sukul V, Desai A, Gassie K, Erkmen K. Cranio-orbito-zygomatic approach for a previously coiled/recurrent giant MCA aneurysm in a hybrid angio/OR suite. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Jul;39(VideoSuppl1):V8. PubMed PMID: 26132625.

Awake surgery in pediatric patient

Awake surgery in pediatric patient

Awake brain surgery (ABS) in children remains a subject of controversial debate for the potential psychological limitations that are related to this type of procedure. However, the tolerance and benefits of ABS in adults advocate for increased application of ABS in children.

Literature review

literature review was performed using the MEDLINE(PubMed) electronic database applying the following MeSHterms to the keyword search within titles and abstracts: “awake brain surgery children,” “awake brain surgery pediatric,” “awake craniotomy children,” “awake craniotomy pediatric,” and “awake surgery children.” Of the initial 753 results obtained from these keyword searches, a full text screening of 51 publications was performed, ultimately resulting in 18 eligible articles for this review.

A total of 18 full-text articles reporting the results of 50 patients were included in the analysis. Sixteen of the 18 studies were retrospective studies, comprising 7 case series, 9 case reports, and 2 reviews. Eleven studies were conducted from anesthesiological (25 patients) and 7 from neurosurgical (25 patients) departments. Most of the patients underwent ABS for supratentorial lesions (26 patients), followed by epilepsy surgery (16 patients) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) (8 patients). The median age was 15 years (range 8-17 years). Persistent deficits occurred in 6 patients, (12%), corresponding to minor motor palsies (4%) and neuropsychological concerns (8%). An awake procedure was aborted in 2 patients (4%) due to cooperation failure and anxiety, respectively.

Despite well-documented beneficial aspects, ABS remains mainly limited to adults. This review confirms a reliable tolerability of ABS in selected children; however, recommendations and guidelines for its standardized implementation in this patient group are pending. Recommendations and guidelines may address diagnostic workup and intra-operative handling besides criteria of eligibility, psychological preparation, and coordinated neuropsychological testing in order to routinely offer ABS to children 1).

Case series

Huguet et al., reported the psychological assessment, evaluation algorithm, and outcome of pediatric patients, who underwent ABS for surgical treatment of lesions in eloquent areas. Psychological selection criteria and the specifications of psychological support are described. A retrospective review and analysis of psychological assessment and psychological outcome of pediatric patients, who underwent ABS between 2005 and 2018 at the Department of pediatric neurosurgery, of Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, was performed. Long-term psychological outcomes are reported. ABS was proposed to 18 children aged between 9 and 17 years and their families. After psychological evaluation of the individual patient and their familial surrounding, five boys and 12 girls (n = 17) were accounted eligible for ABS. They underwent asleep-awake-asleep brain surgery with intraoperative testing. In 16 cases, ABS could be performed as planned. Psychological alterations were postoperatively observed in 3 patients, symptoms of a post-traumatic stress disorder in 1 patient. The precise preoperative evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio in children plays a crucial role in anticipating a good psychological outcome. Professional psychological preparation and support of the child and his or her family are the key elements for successful completion of ABS 2).


Balogun et al., from The Hospital for Sick Children, reported the experience of awake craniotomy and cortical stimulation for epilepsy and supratentorial tumors located in and around eloquent areas in a pediatric population (n=10, five females). The presenting symptom was mainly seizures and all children had normal neurological examinations. Neuroimaging showed lesions in the left opercular (n=4) and precentral or peri-sylvian regions (n=6). Three right-sided and seven left-sided awake craniotomies were performed. Two patients had a history of prior craniotomy. All patients had intra-operative mapping for either speech or motor or both using cortical stimulation. The surgical goal for tumor patients was gross total resection, while for all epilepsy procedures, focal cortical resections were completed without any difficulty. None of the patients had permanent post-operative neurologic deficits. The patient with an epileptic focus over the speech area in the left frontal lobe had a mild word finding difficulty post-operatively but this improved progressively. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 27 months. Pediatric awake craniotomy with intra-operative mapping is a precise, safe and reliable method allowing for resection of lesions in eloquent areas. Further validations on larger number of patients will be needed to verify the utility of this technique in the pediatric population 3).


Ard et al., presented the experience with the use of dexmedetomidine, an alpha2 agonist, in two children undergoing awake craniotomy. General anesthesia with the laryngeal mask airway was used for parts of the procedure not requiring patient cooperation to reduce the duration of wakefulness and abolish the discomfort of surgical stimulation. Dexmedetomidine was used as a primary anesthetic for brain mapping of the cortical speech area. The asleep-awake-sleep technique provided adequate sedation and analgesia throughout the surgery and allowed the patient to complete the necessary neuropsychological tests. This is the first description of the use of dexmedetomidine in pediatric neurosurgery 4).

References

1)

Lohkamp LN, Mottolese C, Szathmari A, Huguet L, Beuriat PA, Christofori I, Desmurget M, Di Rocco F. Awake brain surgery in children-review of the literature and state-of-the-art. Childs Nerv Syst. 2019 Aug 3. doi: 10.1007/s00381-019-04279-w. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31377911.
2)

Huguet L, Lohkamp LN, Beuriat PA, Desmurget M, Bapteste L, Szathmari A, Mottolese C, Di Rocco F. Psychological aspects of awake brain surgery in children-interests and risks. Childs Nerv Syst. 2019 Jul 27. doi: 10.1007/s00381-019-04308-8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31352575.
3)

Balogun JA, Khan OH, Taylor M, Dirks P, Der T, Carter Snead Iii O, Weiss S, Ochi A, Drake J, Rutka JT. Pediatric awake craniotomy and intra-operative stimulation mapping. J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Nov;21(11):1891-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.07.013. Epub 2014 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 25282393.
4)

Ard J, Doyle W, Bekker A. Awake craniotomy with dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2003 Jul;15(3):263-6. PubMed PMID: 12826975.

Common carotid artery occlusion treatment

Common carotid artery occlusion treatment

No consensus exists for treatment of asymptomatic patients, and decisions for treatment of symptomatic patients are controversial and made according to each case 1). The 2011 American Heart Association guidelines recommend open surgery or endovascular intervention to treat symptomatic ischemic lesions affecting the anterior cerebral circulation caused by Common carotid artery occlusion 2) In contrast, the 2009 European Society of Cardiology Protocol has no specific recommendations on this matter, 3) which emphasizes the need for further studies.

Literature review

A review of English-language medical literature from 1965 to 2012 was conducted using the PubMed and EMBASE databases to find all studies involving management of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). The search identified 21 articles encompassing 146 patients/arteries (73.2% men; mean age 65 ± 6.9 years).

The majority of the patients (93.8%) were symptomatic. Most of the patients (61.5%) had ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) patent, while an occluded ICA and a patent ECA were found in 26.6% of the patients. Eighty per cent of the patients treated underwent a surgical bypass procedure, with the subclavian artery as the most common inflow vessel (64.1%). During the first 30 days of the procedure two strokes (1.5%) were reported. During a follow-up period spanning an average of 25.6 ± 11.2 months nine patients (6.6%) experienced a clinical cerebrovascular event. Seven restenoses (5.1%) and two reocclusions (1.5%) also occurred-eight after open surgical and one after endovascular repair.

The necessity to intervene to a CCAO remains controversial. Open surgical management of symptomatic CCA occlusive disease is a safe, durable, and effective therapeutic strategy with low perioperative cerebrovascular morbidity 4).

Case series

Hecht et al. from the Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Charité and Department of Neurology, Aarhus, analyzed the experience with surgical revascularization of CCA-occlusion to develop an algorithm for selection of the most suitable bypass strategy according to the Riles classification.

During a 10-year period, 16 out of 288 patients with cerebrovascular disease and compromised hemodynamic reserve underwent revascularization for unilateral CCA-occlusion. The utilized bypass strategies included (1) a saphenous vein graft from the subclavian artery (SA) to the internal carotid artery (ICA), (2) a radial artery graft from the V3 segment of the vertebral artery (VA) to a superficial branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), or (3) a saphenous vein graft from the SA to a deep branch of the MCA.

In CCA-occlusion with maintained external carotid artery (ECA)/ICA patency (Riles type 1A), an SA-ICA bypass was performed (25%). In cases without ECA/ICA patency (Riles type 1B or 2) but suitable VA, a VA-MCA bypass was grafted (31%). In cases with unsuitable VA, a long SA-MCA interposition bypass was performed (38%). Transient postoperative neurological deficits occurred in 5 patients (31%) with 1 patient (6%) suffering permanent neurological worsening and 1 mortality (6%). Overall, no difference was found between the median preoperative mRS (2; range, 1-4) and the mRS at the time point of the last follow-up (2; range, 1-6; p = 0.75). The long-term graft patency was 94%.

Although surgical revascularization for CCA-occlusion is feasible, it is associated with a higher risk than standard bypass grafting. Considering the poor natural history of CCA-occlusion, however, this risk may be justified in carefully selected patients 5).


Eight patients with common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion underwent bypass with saphenous vein to either the carotid bifurcation (five), the internal carotid artery (two), or the external carotid artery (one). Indications included ipsilateral transient ischemic attack (two), recent nondisabling hemispheric stroke (two), and transient nonhemispheric cerebral symptoms (two). Two asymptomatic patients with CCA occlusion and contralateral internal carotid stenosis underwent prophylactic revascularization prior to planned aortic surgery. There were no perioperative strokes, occlusions, or deaths. Late ipsilateral stroke occurred in two patients, and one patient had a single transient ischemic attack after 2 years. The four patients with preoperative transient cerebral ischemia experienced relief of their symptoms. Duplex ultrasound is an accurate screening modality for distal patency. Collateral filling of the internal or external carotid artery can usually be demonstrated after aortic arch or retrograde brachial contrast injection. End-to-end distal anastomosis after endarterectomy eliminates the original occlusive plaque as a potential source of emboli. The subclavian artery is preferred for inflow on the left. The CCA origin is easily accessible for inflow on the right. Bypass of the occluded CCA is safe and may be effective in relieving transient cerebral ischemic symptoms, although long-term ipsilateral neurologic sequelae may still occur 6).

References

1)

Takagi T, Yoshimura S, Yamada K, Enomoto Y, Iwama T. Angioplasty and stenting of totally occluded common carotid artery at the chronic stage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50(11):998-1000. PubMed PMID: 21123985.
2)

Brott TG, Halperin JL, Abbara S, Bacharach JM, Barr JD, Bush RL, Cates CU, Creager MA, Fowler SB, Friday G, Hertzberg VS, McIff EB, Moore WS, Panagos PD, Riles TS, Rosenwasser RH, Taylor AJ, Jacobs AK, Smith SC Jr, Anderson JL, Adams CD, Albert N, Buller CE, Creager MA, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Halperin JL, Hochman JS, Hunt SA, Krumholz HM, Kushner FG, Lytle BW, Nishimura RA, Ohman EM, Page RL, Riegel B, Stevenson WG, Tarkington LG, Yancy CW. 2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Developed in collaboration with the American Academy of Neurology and Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Jan 1;81(1):E76-123. doi: 10.1002/ccd.22983. Epub 2011 Feb 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 23281092.
3)

Liapis CD, Bell PR, Mikhailidis D, Sivenius J, Nicolaides A, Fernandes e Fernandes J, Biasi G, Norgren L; ESVS Guidelines Collaborators. ESVS guidelines. Invasive treatment for carotid stenosis: indications, techniques. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009 Apr;37(4 Suppl):1-19. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.11.006. Review. PubMed PMID: 19286127.
4)

Klonaris C, Kouvelos GN, Kafeza M, Koutsoumpelis A, Katsargyris A, Tsigris C. Common carotid artery occlusion treatment: revealing a gap in the current guidelines. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013 Sep;46(3):291-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.06.006. Epub 2013 Jul 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 23870716.
5)

Hecht N, Wessels L, Fekonja L, von Weitzel-Mudersbach P, Vajkoczy P. Bypass strategies for common carotid artery occlusion. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 Aug 3. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-04001-4. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31377956.
6)

Martin RS 3rd, Edwards WH, Mulherin JL Jr, Edwards WH Jr. Surgical treatment of common carotid artery occlusion. Am J Surg. 1993 Mar;165(3):302-6. PubMed PMID: 8447533.
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