Ischemic Stroke Management Medical Interventional and Surgical Management

Ischemic Stroke Management Medical Interventional and Surgical Management

by Alejandro Spiotta (Author), Roberto Crosa Erroyzarena (Author)

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A complete guide to improving stroke treatment and patient outcomes from international experts!

Of the more than 795,000 estimated strokes that occur annually in the U.S., 87% are ischemic due to blockages, while the remaining 13% are hemorrhagic associated with spontaneous bleeding in the brain. Ischemic Stroke Management: Medical, Interventional and Surgical Management by esteemed neurosurgeons Alejandro Spiotta, Roberto Crosa, and an impressive group of international contributors details evidence-based medical, interventional, and neurosurgical treatment of ischemic stroke.

Twelve chapters cover complete management of ischemic stroke, from symptom manifestation to interventions in the ER, OR, and NICU. The first chapters cover stroke epidemiology, intravenous thrombolysis in stroke, and the crucial role stroke centers play in ensuring timely treatment of this devastating disease. Subsequent chapters discuss diagnostic imaging techniques in acute ischemic stroke, neurosurgical interventions for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, and neuroanesthesia considerations.

Key Features

With contributions from South America to Europe, North America to Asia, authors share diverse experiences treating stroke patients, delivering a unique international perspective

Endovascular neurosurgery ischemic stroke approaches and discussion of scientific evidence

Mechanical thrombectomy utilizing Catch, Trevo, and Solitaire stent retrievers and the evolution of direct clot aspiration approaches

Special topics include neurocritical care of acute ischemic stroke, pediatric stroke, and emerging state-of-the-art techniques

Truly global viewpoints encompassed in this unique book make it a must-read for trainee and veteran neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists across the world. This resource is also an essential bookshelf addition for medical centers worldwide that treat stroke patients.

This book includes complimentary access to a digital copy on https://medone.thieme.com.

Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Li et al. performed a study to explore the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) and determine which intervention is most suitable for such patients.

They searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 13.0 and RevMan 5.3.

Endoscopic surgery (ES), minimally invasive surgery combined with urokinase (MIS + UK), minimally invasive surgery combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (MIS + rt-PA), and craniotomy were associated with higher survival rates and a lower risk of intracranial rebleeding than standard medical care (SMC) in patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. The order from highest to lowest survival rate was ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from lowest to highest intracranial rebleeding risk was ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, MIS + rt-PA, and SMC. Additionally, compared with SMC, all four surgical interventions (ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, and craniotomy) improved the prognosis and reduced the proportion of patients with serious disability. The order from most to least favorable prognosis was MIS + rt-PA, ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from highest to lowest proportion of patients with serious disability was ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC.

This study revealed that the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions (ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy) were superior to those of SMC in the patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. Among them, ES was the most reasonable and effective intervention. ES was found not only to improve the survival rate and prognosis but also to have the lowest risk of intracranial rebleeding and the lowest proportion of patients with serious disability 1).


Some studies indicated that the endoscope-assisted keyhole approach might be an efficiency, safety, and minimal invasiveness surgical intervention for intracerebral hemorrhage 2) 3)

Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the full potential and limitations of this promising technique 4).

The residual hematoma cannot be measured intraoperatively from the endoscopic view, and it is difficult to determine the precise location of the endoscope within the hematoma cavity.

Use of ultrasound guidance minimized the occurrence of brain injury due to hematoma evacuation 5).

Case series

Among 35 patients with putaminal or subcortical hemorrhage that was evacuated endoscopically, 14 cases (40%) presented both findings of neurological grade IV for severity and hematoma volume exceeding 70 mL in the recent 3 years (endoscope group), whereas 8 cases with the same conditions were treated by conventional craniotomy for the preceding 3-year period (craniotomy group). Between these two groups, mean age was higher and duration of surgery was shorter in the endoscope group, but no significant differences in hematoma size or evacuation rate were recognized. In the 10 cases that presented with signs of cerebral herniation (neurological grade IVb) and required emergent decompression, the preparation time for surgery tended to be shorter in the endoscope group, although the difference was not significant. Additional ventricular drainage was performed in 7 cases and showed a supplemental effect of reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). Consequently, all patients in the endoscope group were rescued without decompressive large craniectomy, even with symptoms of cerebral herniation. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery has the potential to offer an effective therapeutic option for comatose patients with large supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhages, matching conventional craniotomy for emergent treatment in terms of mortality and management of ICP 6).

Case reports

A 47-year-old man was admitted sustaining 13 points in Glasgow coma scale with brain computed tomography (CT) scan showing a temporal contusion. Guided by a 3D reconstructed CT, using the program OsiriX®, the posterior limit of the hematoma was identified. A burr hole was placed at the posterior temporal region, and we used the neuroendoscope to assist the hematoma evacuation. The postoperative tomography showed adequate hematoma removal. He was discharged from hospital 48 h after surgery. Two weeks later, he was conscious and oriented temporally. This endoscopic-assisted technique can provide safe removal of traumatic hematomas of the temporal lobe 7).

References

1)

Li M, Mu F, Su D, Han Q, Guo Z, Chen T. Different surgical interventions for patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage: A network meta-analysis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2019 Nov 20;188:105617. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105617. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31775069.
2)

Nagasaka T, Tsugeno M, Ikeda H, Okamoto T, Inao S, Wakabayashi T. Early recovery and better evacuation rate in neuroendoscopic surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage using a multifunctional cannula: preliminary study in comparison with craniotomy. Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2011;20(3):208–213.
3)

Cho D-Y, Chen C-C, Chang C-S, Lee W-Y, Tso M. Endoscopic surgery for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage: comparing endoscopic surgery, stereotactic aspiration, and craniotomy in noncomatose patients. Surgical Neurology. 2006;65(6):547–555.
4)

Beynon C, Schiebel P, Bösel J, Unterberg AW, Orakcioglu B. Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery for treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haematomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2015 Jul;38(3):421-8; discussion 428. doi: 10.1007/s10143-015-0606-6. Epub 2015 Feb 17. PubMed PMID: 25687253.
5)

Sadahiro H, Nomura S, Goto H, Sugimoto K, Inamura A, Fujiyama Y, Yamane A, Oku T, Shinoyama M, Suzuki M. Real-time ultrasound-guided endoscopic surgery for putaminal hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jun 5:1-5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26047414.
6)

Yamashiro S, Hitoshi Y, Yoshida A, Kuratsu JI. Effectiveness of Endoscopic Surgery for Comatose Patients with Large Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhages. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2015 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26369719.
7)

Nascimento CN, Amorim RL, Mandel M, do Espírito Santo MP, Paiva WS, Andrade AF, Teixeira MJ. Endoscopic-assisted removal of traumatic brain hemorrhage: case report and technical note. J Surg Case Rep. 2015 Nov 3;2015(11). pii: rjv132. doi: 10.1093/jscr/rjv132. PubMed PMID: 26537390.

Prophylactic plasma transfusion

Prophylactic plasma transfusion

Review findings show uncertainty for the utility and safety of prophylactic FFP use. This is due to predominantly very low-quality evidence that is available for its use over a range of clinically important outcomes, together with lack of confidence in the wider applicability of study findings, given the paucity or absence of study data in settings such as major body cavity surgery, extensive soft tissue surgery, orthopaedic surgery, or neurosurgery. Therefore, from the limited RCT evidence, we can neither support nor oppose the use of prophylactic FFP in clinical practice 1).


Prophylactic transfusion of plasma in severe traumatic brain injury without intracranial hemorrhage has not been demonstrated to improve outcome. In all situations of product transfusion, patients should be closely observed for signs of volume overload and the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury. The benefit of product transfusion should always be weighed against the risk of a transfusion-related complication 2).


West et al. in 2011 reviewed the literature in an attempt to clarify best clinical practice with regard to this issue. Although the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time-INR are useful laboratory tests to measure specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade, in the absence of active bleeding or a preexisting coagulopathy, their utility as predictors of overall bleeding risk is limited. Several studies have shown an imperfect correlation between mild elevations in the INR and subsequent bleeding tendency. Furthermore, FFP transfusion is not always sufficient to achieve normal INR values in patients who have mild elevations (< 2) to begin with. Finally, there are risks associated with FFP transfusion, including potential transfusion-associated [disease] exposures as well as the time delay imposed by laboratory testing and transfusion administration prior to initiation of procedures. The authors propose that the current concept of a “normal” INR value warrants redefinition to make it a more meaningful clinical tool. Based on their review of the literature, the authors suggest that in a hemodynamically stable patient population there is a range of mildly prolonged INR values for which FFP transfusion is not beneficial, and is potentially harmful. 3)

In 2006 a paper presented the recommendations of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSaPS; French Safety Agency for Health Products). A panel of experts reviewed and graded the literature on platelet transfusions; recommendations were formulated. Threshold platelet counts (PC) for transfusions in the perioperative context have not been clearly defined and should be determined by the existence of hemorrhagic risk factors. In the case of commonly practiced invasive procedures, the recommendation is to transfuse in order to achieve PC > 50,000 x microL-1. In the absence of platelet dysfunction, regardless of the type of surgery, the standard hemorrhagic risk threshold for surgery is 50,000 x microL-1. It has not been proven that the risk threshold is different according to the type of surgery. For neurosurgery and ophthalmologic surgery involving the posterior segment of the eye, a PC of 100,000 x microL-11 is required. For axial regional anesthesia, a PC of 50,000 x microL-11 is sufficient for spinal anesthesia; a PC of 80,000 x microL-11 has been proposed for epidurals. During massive transfusion, prophylactic platelet infusion cannot be recommended beyond a loss of two blood volumes in less than 24 h (Professional Consensus). As for the therapeutic transfusion of plasma and/or platelets, as much as possible, platelet deficit should be documented with test results (PC and fibrinogen) before transfusing. In the event of bleeding, platelet transfusion may precede plasma infusion. However, although this recommendation has been the subject of several professional consensus agreements, it is not based on any randomized studies. Threshold PC for perioperative transfusions have not been clearly defined and most recommendations are the result of a professional consensus 4)5).

References

1)

Huber J, Stanworth SJ, Doree C, Fortin PM, Trivella M, Brunskill SJ, Hopewell S, Wilkinson KL, Estcourt LJ. Prophylactic plasma transfusion for patients without inherited bleeding disorders or anticoagulant use undergoing non-cardiac surgery or invasive procedures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Nov 28;11:CD012745. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012745.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 31778223.
2)

Reddy GD, Gopinath S, Robertson CS. Transfusion in Traumatic Brain Injury. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015 Nov;17(11):46. doi: 10.1007/s11940-015-0379-9. PubMed PMID: 26407615.
3)

West KL, Adamson C, Hoffman M. Prophylactic correction of the international normalized ratio in neurosurgery: a brief review of a brief literature. J Neurosurg. 2011 Jan;114(1):9-18. doi: 10.3171/2010.7.JNS091857. Epub 2010 Sep 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 20815695.
4)

Samama CM, Djoudi R, Lecompte T, Nathan N, Schved JF; French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) Expert Group. Perioperative platelet transfusion. Recommendations of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) 2003. Minerva Anestesiol. 2006 Jun;72(6):447-52. PubMed PMID: 16682914.
5)

Samama CM, Djoudi R, Lecompte T, Nathan-Denizot N, Schved JF; Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé expert group. Perioperative platelet transfusion: recommendations of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSaPS) 2003. Can J Anaesth. 2005 Jan;52(1):30-7. PubMed PMID: 15625253.
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