Primary central nervous system lymphoma MRI

Primary central nervous system lymphoma MRI

Reported signal characteristics include:

T1

Typically hypointense to grey matter

T1 C+ (Gd)

typical high-grade tumours show intense homogeneous enhancement while low-grade tumours have absent to moderate enhancement

Peripheral ring enhancement may be seen in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS)

T2

Variable

Majority are iso to hypointense to grey matter

Isointense: 33%

Hypointense: 20% 9 – when present this is a helpful distinguishing feature

Hyperintense: 15-47%, more common in tumours with necrosis

DWI/ADC

Restricted diffusion with ADC values lower than normal brain, typically between 400 and 600 x 10-6 mm2/s (lower than high-grade gliomas and metastases)

A number of studies have suggested that the lower the ADC values of the tumour the poorer the response to tumour and higher likelihood of recurrence

AADC is particularly useful in assessing response to chemotherapy, with increases in ADC values to above those of normal brain predictive of complete response

MR spectroscopy

Large choline peak

Reversed choline/creatinine ratio

Markedly decreased NAA

Lactate peak may also be seen

MR perfusion

Only modest if any increase in rCBV (much less marked than in high-grade gliomas, where angiogenesis is a prominent feature).

Volume

Precise volumetric assessment of brain tumors is relevant for treatment planning and monitoring. However, manual segmentations are time-consuming and impeded by intra- and inter rater variabilities.

To investigate the performance of a deep learning model (DLM) to automatically detect and segment primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) on clinical MRI.

Study type: Retrospective.

Population: Sixty-nine scans (at initial and/or follow-up imaging) from 43 patients with PCNSL referred for clinical MRI tumor assessment.

Field strength/sequence: T1 weighted image -/T2 weighted image, T1 -weighted contrast-enhanced (T1 CE), and FLAIR at 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0T from different vendors and study centers.

Fully automated voxelwise segmentation of tumor components was performed using a 3D convolutional neural network (DeepMedic) trained on gliomas (n = 220). DLM segmentations were compared to manual segmentations performed in a 3D voxelwise manner by two readers (radiologist and neurosurgeon; consensus reading) from T1 CE and FLAIR, which served as the reference standard.

Statistical tests: Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for comparison of spatial overlap with the reference standard, Pearson’s correlation coefficient ® to assess the relationship between volumetric measurements of segmentations, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for comparison of DSCs obtained in initial and follow-up imaging.

The DLM detected 66 of 69 PCNSL, representing a sensitivity of 95.7%. Compared to the reference standard, DLM achieved good spatial overlap for total tumor volume (TTV, union of tumor volume in T1 CE and FLAIR; average size 77.16 ± 62.4 cm3 , median DSC: 0.76) and tumor core (contrast enhancing tumor in T1 CE; average size: 11.67 ± 13.88 cm3 , median DSC: 0.73). High volumetric correlation between automated and manual segmentations was observed (TTV: r = 0.88, P < 0.0001; core: r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Performance of automated segmentations was comparable between pretreatment and follow-up scans without significant differences (TTV: P = 0.242, core: P = 0.177).

Data conclusion: In clinical MRI scans, a DLM initially trained on gliomas provides segmentation of PCNSL comparable to manual segmentation, despite its complex and multifaceted appearance. Segmentation performance was high in both initial and follow-up scans, suggesting its potential for application in longitudinal tumor imaging.

Level of evidence: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2 1).

1)

Pennig L, Hoyer UCI, Goertz L, et al. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: Clinical Evaluation of Automated Segmentation on Multiparametric MRI Using Deep Learning [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 13]. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2020;e27288. doi:10.1002/jmri.27288
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