Malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarction
The malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarction is a distinct syndrome that occurs in up to 10% of stroke patients, 1) 2) which carries a mortality of up to 80% (mostly due to severe postischemic cerebral edema → increased ICP → herniation 3)
Patients usually present with findings of severe hemispheric stroke (hemiplegia, forced eye and head deviation) often with CT findings of major infarct within the first 12 hours. Most develop drowsiness shortly after admission. There is progressive deterioration during the first 2 days, and subsequent transtentorial herniation usually within 2–4 days of stroke. Fatalities are often associated with: severe drowsiness, dense hemiplegia, age > 45–50 yrs, 4) early parenchymal hypodensity involving > 50% of the MCA distribution on CT scan,23 midline shift > 8–10 mm, early sulci effacement, and hyperdense artery sign (p. 1354) 5) in MCA. Neurosurgeons may become involved in caring for these patients because aggressive therapies in these patients may reduce morbidity and mortality. Options include:
- conventional measures to control ICP (with or without ICP monitor): mortality is still high in this group and elevated ICP is not a common cause of initial neurologic deterioration in large hemispheric stroke
- ✖ to date, the following treatments have not improved outcome: agents to lyse clot, hyperventilation, mannitol, or barbiturate coma.
In patients with severe middle cerebral artery (MCA), intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD), the mechanism of stroke is multifactorial, but hemodynamic insufficiency plays a significant role. This finding is important in selecting a subgroup of patients who may benefit from revascularization 6).
A case of a child with serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection whose onset was a massive right cerebral artery ischemia that led to a malignant cerebral infarction. The patient underwent a life-saving decompressive hemicraniectomy, with good functional recovery, except for residual hemiplegia. During rehabilitation, the patient also developed a lower extremity peripheral nerve neuropathy, likely related to a long-Covid syndrome 7).
A 39-year-old woman in the 24th week of pregnancy who suffered a right malignant MCA infarction that eventually required DC. The patient delivered a healthy baby and underwent a second surgery for cranioplasty 7 months later. 8).