Lactotroph adenoma treatment
Dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine and cabergoline have been found to be an effective treatment for hyperprolactinemia, not only inducing adenoma shrinkage but also lowering serum prolactin levels. Among known dopamine agonists, cabergoline is the drug of choice due to its enhanced tolerability compared with bromocriptine 1).
Surgical intervention may resurface as an alternative first-line treatment. When used in combination with cabergoline, surgery offers a higher disease remission rate than either drug or operation alone 2)
Lactotroph Adenoma Surgery is safe and efficient. It is particularly suitable for enclosed prolactinomas. The patient should be well informed of the pros and cons of the treatment options, which include dopamine agonist (DA) and transsphenoidal microsurgery, and the patient’s preference should be taken into account during decision-making 3).
Issues and questions to be addressed in this approach to long-term management of prolactinomas include the frequency of radiographic monitoring, effect of pregnancy and menopause, safety of estrogen in women taking oral contraceptives, and the potential for discontinuation of dopamine agonist therapy 4).
Lactotroph adenoma Medical Therapy
Lactotroph Adenoma Surgery
Although transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is an option for prolactinoma treatment, it is less effective than medical management, carries considerably more risk, and is more expensive. The benefit/risk ratio for DA therapy compared to TSS actually becomes increasingly more favorable as tumor size increases. Therefore DA should remain the clear treatment of choice for essentially all patients with prolactinomas, reserving TSS as a second-line option for the very small number of patients that do not tolerate or are completely resistant to DA therapy 5).
The underlying decision to perform serial imaging in prolactinoma patients should be individualized on a case-by-case basis. Future studies should focus on alternative imaging methods and/or contrast agents 6).