Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) or intraoperative neuromonitoring is the use of electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of certain neural structures (e.g., nerves, spinal cord, and parts of the brain) during surgery. The purpose of IONM is to reduce the risk to the patient of iatrogenic damage to the nervous system, and/or to provide functional guidance to the surgeon and anesthesiologist.

see Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring indications.

see Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring Anesthesia.

Evoked potentials:

Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP)

Motor evoked potential (MEP)

Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP)

Visual evoked potentials (VEP)


Electroencephalography (EEG)


Electromyography (EMG) .

Spontaneous-EMG.

Triggered electromyography.

see Intraoperative stimulation mapping.

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring case series.

Seidel K, Krieg SM. Special Topic Issue: Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2021 Jul;82(4):297-298. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1731685. Epub 2021 Jul 14. PMID: 34261154.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563203/

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