Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Etiology
Patients in whom a syndrome of Intracranial hypertension secondary to certain medications develops or who are found to have cerebral lateral sinus thrombosis are nonetheless still classified as having idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH).
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is the preferred term for this condition, replacing pseudotumor cerebri, which often includes cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and other etiologies of Intracranial hypertension, and benign intracranial hypertension, which does not take into account that some IIH patients do not have a “benign” course and go on to irreversibly vision loss 1).
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an aetiologically unknown disorder that associates with endocrinological disturbances, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis.
Although there are multiple hypotheses for the etiology of Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) mainly focused on obesity and metabolic dysfunction, there is no known cause of the development of IIH. IIH occurs most frequently among obese women of childbearing age 2).
Transverse sinus (TS) stenosis has been associated with IIH and some authors have suggested a possible pathogenic role of reduced venous outflow in the development of IIH 3).
Young women are more frequently involved with in half of cases a diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Predisposing factors, like anaemia, must be associated. IH allows SLE diagnose in more than the third of the cases. Then, SLE has to be searched as an etiology of IH, in particular in non-obese patients and when nephritis is associated 6).
Raggi et al reported for the first time the presence of Binge eating disorder (BED) among patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and showed that BED is associated to IIH, ICP and history of abuse or neglect 7).
Ahmed et al report a case of a young female who presented with signs and symptoms of IIH and was subsequently diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and end-stage renal disease. This is the first report of IgA nephropathy presenting as end-stage renal disease in a patient who presented with IIH 8).