Foramen magnum meningioma

Foramen magnum meningioma

Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) are slow growing, posterior fossa meningiomas most often intradural and extramedullar. They are those arising anteriorly from the inferior third of the clivus to the superior edge of the C2 body, laterally from the jugular tubercle to the C2 laminae, and posteriorly from the anterior border of the occipital squama to the spinous process of C2 1) 2) 3).

They represent 2% of all meningioma4).

The mean age of the patients with these lesions at the time of diagnosis is approximately 55 years old, but these tumors have been reported in patients of almost every age 5) 6) 7) 8) 9).

They have traditionally been said to involve the lower third of the clivus and the C1 C2 area. However, the last categorizations are arbitrary.

There are some tumors that involve the entire clivus, and others that involve the mid and lower third of the clivus. (The upper clivus is the area above the trigeminal root, the mid-clivus extends to the level of the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the lower clivus is the region below the glossopharyngeal nerve).

The indolent clinical course of FMMs and their insidious onset of symptoms are important factors that contribute to delayed diagnosis and relative large size at the time of presentation. Symptoms are often produced by compression of surrounding structures (such as the medulla oblongata, upper cervical spinal cord, lower cranial nerves, and vertebral artery) within a critically confined space

Matsoukas S, Oemke H, Lopez LS, Gilligan J, Tabani H, Bederson JB. Suboccipital Craniectomy for an Anterior Foramen Magnum Meningioma-Optimization of Resection Using Intraoperative Augmented Reality: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2022 Nov 1;23(5):e321. doi: 10.1227/ons.0000000000000373. Epub 2022 Aug 8. PMID: 36103323.


Emerson SN, Toczylowski M, Al-Mefty O. Dejerine Syndrome Variant Due to Medullary Perforating Artery Ischemia During Foramen Magnum Meningioma Resection: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2022 Jul 1;23(1):e52-e53. doi: 10.1227/ons.0000000000000211. Epub 2022 Apr 20. PMID: 35726936. Danish B, Costello MC, Patel NV, Higgins DMO, Komotar RJ, Ivan ME. Commentary: Dejerine Syndrome Variant Due to Medullary Perforating Artery Ischemia During Foramen Magnum Meningioma Resection: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2022 Sep 1;23(3):e205-e206. doi: 10.1227/ons.0000000000000336. Epub 2022 Jul 11. PMID: 35972118.


Danish B, Costello MC, Patel NV, Higgins DMO, Komotar RJ, Ivan ME. Commentary: Dejerine Syndrome Variant Due to Medullary Perforating Artery Ischemia During Foramen Magnum Meningioma Resection: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2022 Sep 1;23(3):e205-e206. doi: 10.1227/ons.0000000000000336. Epub 2022 Jul 11. PMID: 35972118.


Medina EJ, Revuelta Barbero JM, Porto E, Garzon-Muvdi T, Henriquez O, Solares CA, Pradilla G. Exoscopic and Microscopic Combined Far Lateral Retrocondylar Approach for Resection of a Ventral Foramen Magnum Lesion: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2022 Aug 1;23(2):e126. doi: 10.1227/ons.0000000000000250. Epub 2022 May 9. PMID: 35838470.


Jeelani Y, Ibn Essayed W, Al-Mefty O. Extended Transcondylar Approach With C-1 Lateral Mass Resection for the Removal of a Calcified Ventral “Spinocranial” Meningioma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2022 Aug 1;23(2):e117-e118. doi: 10.1227/ons.0000000000000278. Epub 2022 May 9. PMID: 35838463.


Essayed W, Aboud E, Al-Mefty O. Foramen Magnum Meningioma-The Attainment of the Intra-Arachnoidal Dissection: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2021 Nov 15;21(6):E518-E519. doi: 10.1093/ons/opab317. PMID: 34498699.


Campero A, Baldoncini M, Villalonga JF, Paíz M, Giotta Lucifero A, Luzzi S. Transcondylar Fossa Approach for Resection of Anterolateral Foramen Magnum Meningioma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. World Neurosurg. 2021 Oct;154:91-92. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.07.058. Epub 2021 Jul 21. PMID: 34303002.


1)

öçmez C, Göya C, Hamidi C, Kamaşak K, Yilmaz T, Turan Y, et al. Three-dimensional analysis of foramen magnum and its adjacent structures. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25(1):93–97.
2)

George B, Lot G, Boissonnet H. Meningioma of the foramen magnum: a series of 40 cases. Surg Neurol. 1997;47(4):371–9.
3) , 4)

Bruneau M, George B. Foramen magnum meningiomas: detailed surgical approaches and technical aspects at Lariboisière Hospital and review of the literature. Neurosurg Rev. 2008 Jan;31(1):19-32; discussion 32-3. doi: 10.1007/s10143-007-0097-1. Epub 2007 Sep 20. PMID: 17882459; PMCID: PMC2077911.
5)

Colli BO, Carlotti-Junior CG, Assirati-Junior JA, Borba LA, Coelho-Junior Vde P, Neder L. Foramen magnum meningiomas: surgical treatment in a single public institution in a developing country. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2014;72(7):528–37.
6)

Pirotte BJ, Brotchi J, DeWitte O. Management of anterolateral foramen magnum meningiomas: surgical vs conservative decision making. Neurosurgery. 2010;67(3):58–70.
7)

Flores BC, Boudreaux BP, Klinger DR, Mickey BE, Barnett SL. The far-lateral approach for foramen magnum meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2013;35(6):E12. doi:10.3171/2013.10.FOCUS13332.
8)

Borba LA, de Oliveira JG, Giudicissi-Filho M, Colli BO. Surgical management of foramen magnum meningiomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2009;32(1):49–60.
9)

Goel A, Desai K, Muzumdar D. Surgery on anterior foramen magnum meningiomas using a conventional posterior suboccipital approach: a report on an experience with 17 cases. Neurosurgery. 2001;49(1):102–7.
10)

Suisa H, Soustiel JF, Grober Y. IgG4-related pachymeningitis masquerading as foramen magnum meningioma: illustrative case. J Neurosurg Case Lessons. 2021 Dec 6;2(23):CASE21398. doi: 10.3171/CASE21398. PMID: 36061082; PMCID: PMC9435580.
11)

Uramaru K, Sakata K, Shimohigoshi W, Kawasaki T, Manaka H. Primary Meningeal Melanocytoma Located in the Craniovertebral Junction: A Case Report and Literature Review. NMC Case Rep J. 2021 Jun 25;8(1):349-354. doi: 10.2176/nmccrj.cr.2020-0191. PMID: 35079487; PMCID: PMC8769411.

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