What is the primary status of DBS as a treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)?
a) It is a standard and FDA-approved treatment for AUD.
b) It is experimental and emerging, with ongoing research and clinical trials.
c) It is widely available and accessible.
d) It is a widely used alternative to medications.
Which brain region has been commonly targeted in DBS for AUD due to its role in addiction?
a) Prefrontal cortex
c) Nucleus accumbens
What is the believed mechanism of action of DBS for AUD?
a) Modulating neural circuits involved in motor control
b) Modulating neural circuits involved in memory processing
c) Modulating neural circuits involved in reward processing and craving
d) Modulating neural circuits involved in visual perception
What type of patients are typically considered for DBS for AUD?
a) Individuals with mild alcohol addiction
b) Individuals who have not responded to other therapies but have not severe addiction
c) Patients with severe and treatment-resistant alcohol addiction
d) Patients with a history of addiction to other substances
What does the DBS procedure involve?
a) Implanting electrodes in the heart
b) Implanting electrodes in the eyes
c) Implanting electrodes in the target brain region connected to a pulse generator
d) Implanting electrodes in the liver
What are some potential risks associated with DBS for AUD?
a) Hair loss and skin discoloration
b) Mood changes, cognitive changes, and physical symptoms
c) Improved memory and concentration
d) Enhanced athletic performance
How does the effectiveness of DBS for AUD vary among individuals?
a) It has a consistent and high success rate in all cases.
b) It is equally effective for all stages of AUD.
c) It varies among individuals, with some showing promising results and others less successful.
d) It only works for young individuals.
What ethical questions are raised by the use of DBS for AUD?
a) Questions about the patient's age and gender
b) Questions about the potential for altering behavior through brain manipulation, patient autonomy, and consent
c) Questions about the cost of the procedure
d) Questions about the potential for addiction to DBS
What is the primary status of DBS for AUD in terms of cost and accessibility?
a) It is widely available and affordable.
b) It is a standard procedure covered by most insurance plans.
c) It is complex and costly, typically reserved for research settings and specialized centers.
d) It is free of charge for all patients.
What does FDG-PET measure in the context of DBS for AUD?
a) Brain structure
b) Glucose metabolism in the nucleus accumbens
c) Alcohol content in the bloodstream
d) Electrical activity in the brain