UpToDate: Primary spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Primary spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Epidemiology

Primary spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (pPNETs) are extremely rare entities that predominantly occur in children and young adults.

Treatment

Microsurgical GTR of the tumor is the preferred method of treatment. Radiotherapy plays an important role in improving the prognosis of patients with pPNETs. GTR combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be the best treatment modality 1).

Outcome

Spinal PNETs, like their cranial counterparts, are aggressive tumors and patients with these tumors typically have short survival times despite maximal surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Because no standard management guidelines exist for treating these tumors, a multitude of therapeutic strategies have been employed with varying success 2).

Case series

The clinical data of 24 patients, who had been surgically treated from April 2003 to February 2018 in Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji HospitalWuhan, in whom immunohistochemical staining results had confirmed the diagnosis of primary spinal pPNETs, were retrospectively analyzed. To analyze the factors related to prognosis, the Kaplan-Meier method was used for univariate analysis, the log-rank method was used to test the significance of difference, and multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression.

The overall 1-year, 2-year, and 5-year survival rates were 73.2%, 48.1%, and 12.0%, respectively. The median survival time (MST) of all patients was 21 months. Univariate analysis showed that the extent of tumor resection, adjuvant radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were the factors influencing patient prognosis after surgery (all P < 0.05); sex, age, tumor location, and preoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) scores were not the influential factors for prognosis of patients after surgery (all P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that gross total resection (GTR) of tumors and adjuvant radiotherapy were independent factors influencing the prognosis of patients with pPNETs (all P < 0.05).

Primary spinal pPNETs are extremely rare, and they have a poor prognosis. Microsurgical GTR of the tumor is the preferred method of treatment. Radiotherapy plays an important role in improving the prognosis of patients with pPNETs. GTR combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be the best treatment modality 3).


13 patients (nine females and four males) with primary intraspinal pPNETs who were surgically treated from April 2008 to February 2014. Histopathologic findings revealed the expression of CD99 in all cases. Limb weakness was the most common initial symptom (11/13, 85 %). The tumors were located mainly at the cervical level (6/13, 46 %) and in the epidural space (10/13, 77 %). The radiological diagnosis was neurinoma or meningioma in most cases (10/13, 77 %). Gross total resection was achieved in 77 % (10/13) of patients. During a mean follow-up of 25.5 months, local relapse occurred in 8 (61.5 %) patients and distant metastases occurred in 8 (61.5 %) patients. The overall 1-year survival rate was 77 % (10/13), and the overall 2-year survival rate was 54 % (7/13). The 2-year survival rate was 57.1 % in patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 50 % in those without chemotherapy. Gross total resection and adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy demonstrated a longer survival period (1-year survival rate: 100 %; 2-year survival rate: 86 %). The data showed that primary spinal pPNETs are extremely rare and aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis. Radical resection is advocated. Gross total resection combined with adjuvant radiation may help to significantly improve patient survival period. Chemotherapy may also help to slightly prolong patient life 4).


Three patients of 8, 9 and 18 years of age, who presented with variable grades of neurological deficit were diagnosed as having a dorsal intramedullary lesion, a holocord lesion and cervical extradural tumor with extraspinal extension, respectively, and were operated at our institute. The histopathology of all 3 children revealed PNET. The clinical course, image characteristics and outcome of the 3 children are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. The following conclusions were drawn from the present study and review of the literature. PNET may manifest itself as a primary lesion of the spine unlike the more common drop metastases from an intracranial lesion. PSPNET may be intramedullary, intradural and extradural with variable extraspinal extension. PSPNET may present as holocord intramedullary lesion, an entity which has not been described earlier. These lesions have a short history, significant neurological deficits and rapid course of illness. PSPNET, though an established entity, did not find a place in the WHO 2000 classification of CNS tumors. Hence its status has to be define 5).

Case reports

A 26-year-old male presented with progressive low back and lower limb pain for 1 month. Based on MRI and histopathological findings, he was diagnosed with primary intramedullary PNET. The patient was treated two times with microsurgical resections. Follow-up visit at 14 months after the first surgery showed that the patient is neurologically intact and free of disease. PNETs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intramedullary spinal cord tumor manifesting as progressive neurological deterioration 6)


A 5-year-old Moroccan boy, who presented with torticollis for 1 month. Computed tomography scan and Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an extradural, dumbbell-shaped mass with extra-spinal extension at the left C1-C6 level. Multiple biopsy specimens were obtained. Histological examination revealed a highly cellular neoplasm composed of diffuse sheets of tumor cells having monomorphic, round to oval, finely vesicular nuclei. Immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis of intraspinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor 7).


A two years old female child presented with weakness both lower limbs. Preoperative MRI of the spine and paravertebral region Iso – hyper intense posterior placed extradural lesion, non contrast enhancing from D11-L2 levels with cord compression D9 to L3 laminectomy done. Granulation tissue found from D11 to L2. with cord compression. The granulation tissue removed in toto. The pathological findings were consistent with PNET. Post operative neurological improvement was minimal. Cranial screening ruled out any intracranial tumour. Hence a diagnosis of primary spinal PNET was made 8).


A 18-year-old female with conus intramedullary tumor diagnosed to be primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor following histopathological examination after surgery. The diagnosis of such a tumor is very crucial as the management strategies for these are relatively unclear and are associated with a poorer outcome compared to the other common intramedullary spinal tumors 9).

2 cases Ellis JA, Rothrock RJ, Moise G, McCormick PC 2nd, Tanji K, Canoll P, Kaiser MG, McCormick PC. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the spine: a comprehensive review with illustrative clinical cases. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Jan;30(1):E1. doi: 10.3171/2010.10.FOCUS10217. Review. PubMed PMID: 21194274 10).

References

1) , 3)

Chen J, Zheng YF, Tang SC, Zhao YQ, Chen J, Wang Y. Long-term outcomes of surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy for treatment of primary spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Sep 19;175:25-33. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.09.025. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30312956.
2) , 10)

Ellis JA, Rothrock RJ, Moise G, McCormick PC 2nd, Tanji K, Canoll P, Kaiser MG, McCormick PC. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the spine: a comprehensive review with illustrative clinical cases. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Jan;30(1):E1. doi: 10.3171/2010.10.FOCUS10217. Review. PubMed PMID: 21194274.
4)

Tong X, Deng X, Yang T, Yang C, Wu L, Wu J, Yao Y, Fu Z, Wang S, Xu Y. Clinical presentation and long-term outcome of primary spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurooncol. 2015 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26186903.
5)

Kumar R, Reddy SJ, Wani AA, Pal L. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor: case series and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007;43(1):1-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 17190980.
6)

Wang G, Guo F. Primary intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A case report and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Dec;96(49):e9001. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009001. PubMed PMID: 29245277; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5728892.
7)

Khmou M, Malihy A, Lamalmi N, Rouas L, Alhamany Z. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the spine: a case report and review of the literature. BMC Res Notes. 2016 Sep 9;9(1):438. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2246-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 27613377; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5016941.
8)

Venkataraman S, Pandian C, Kumar SA. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour – a case report. Ann Neurosci. 2013 Apr;20(2):80-2. doi: 10.5214/ans.0972.7531.200211. PubMed PMID: 25206019; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4117112.
9)

Harbhajanka A, Jain M, Kapoor SK. Primary spinal intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2012 Jan;7(1):67-9. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.97631. PubMed PMID: 22837786; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3401662.

UpToDate: Mohr-Tranebjaerg Syndrome

Mohr-Tranebjaerg Syndrome

Deafnessdystoniaoptic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome, also known as Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome, is characterized by hearing loss that begins early in life, problems with movement, impaired vision, and behaviorproblems. This condition occurs almost exclusively in males.

Case reports

Coenen et al. from the Department of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Freiburg and Parkinson-Klinik Wolfach, Germany, reported a 28-year-old man presented with a history of sensorineural deafness since early childhood treated with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). He showed signs of debilitating dystonia that had been present since puberty. Dystonic symptoms, especially a protrusion of the tongue and bilateral hand tremor, had not responded to botulinum toxin therapy. They diagnosed Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS).

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the bilateral globus pallidus internus was performed predominantly with stereotaxic computed tomography angiography guidance under general anesthesiaElectrophysiology was used to identify the target regions and to guide DBS electrode placement.

In the immediate postoperative course and stimulation, the patient showed marked improvement of facial, extremity, and cervical dystonia. More than 2 years after implantation, his dystonic symptoms had dramatically improved by 82%.

The use of DBS for the dystonia in MTS was previously described but not in the presence of bilateral CIs.

DBS in MTS may be a viable option to treat debilitating dystonic symptoms. They describe successful DBS surgery, despite the presence of bilateral CIs, and stimulation therapy over 2 years 1).


Eggink et al. from the Department of Neurology, Department of Genetics, Department of Rehabilitation, Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands, reported two patients with dystonia-deafness syndrome due to a beta-actin gene mutation.

They report on disease course, genetic testing, and management of 2 patients, mother and daughter, presenting with dystonia-deafness syndrome.

After exclusion of known dystonia-deafness syndrome causes, whole-exome sequencing revealed a beta-actin gene mutation (p.Arg183Trp) in both patients. Although beta-actin gene mutations are generally associated with developmental Baraitser-Winter syndrome, dystonia-deafness syndrome has been reported once in identical twin brothers. Bilateral GPi-DBS led to a significant decrease of dystonia and regain of independency in our patients.

The p.Arg183Trp mutation in the beta-actin gene is associated with the clinical presentation of dystonia-deafness syndrome, even with only minimal or no developmental abnormalities of Baraitser-Winter syndrome. GPi-DBS should be considered to ameliorate the invalidating dystonia in these patients. 2).


Cif et al. reported in 2013 the article Progressive dystonia in Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome with cochlear implant and deep brain stimulation 3).

References

1)

Coenen VA, Rijntjes M, Sajonz B, Piroth T, Prokop T, Jost W, Trippel M, Urbach H, Reinacher PC. Bilateral Globus Pallidus Internus Deep Brain Stimulation in a Case of Progressive Dystonia in Mohr-Tranebjaerg Syndrome with Bilateral Cochlear Implants. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2018 Oct 5. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1669472. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30290379.

2)

Eggink H, van Egmond ME, Verschuuren-Bemelmans CC, Schönherr MC, de Koning TJ, Oterdoom DL, van Dijk JM, Tijssen MA. Dystonia-deafness syndrome caused by a β-actin gene mutation and response to deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord. 2017 Jan;32(1):162-165. doi: 10.1002/mds.26842. Epub 2016 Nov 8. PubMed PMID: 27862284.

3)

Cif L, Gonzalez V, Garcia-Ptacek S, James S, Boetto J, Seychelles A, Roujeau T, Moura De Ribeiro AM, Sillon M, Mondain M, Coubes P. Progressive dystonia in Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome with cochlear implant and deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord. 2013 Jun;28(6):737-8. doi: 10.1002/mds.25519. PubMed PMID: 23801560.

UpToDate: Anterior cervical osteophyte

Anterior cervical osteophyte

Epidemiology

More than half of people over the age of 60 have osteophytes, or bone spurs, somewhere in their bodies. Osteophytes in the spine are a normal sign of aging and are not a cause for concern unless they result in pain or neurological symptoms.

Ezra et al. from the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, School of Nursing Sciences, Yaffo Academic College, The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History and National Research Center, Tel Aviv University and Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical CenterIsrael, aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of cervical osteophytosis in a large study population. To do so, they developed a grading system for osteophytosis, enabling the assessment of their presence and severity in the cervical spine; and applied it to the analysis of dried cervical vertebral bodies (C3-C7) from 273 individuals. Statistical analyses were carried out per motion segment, while testing for the effect of age, sex and ethnicity. The highest prevalence of osteophytes was found in motion segment C5/C6 (48.2%), followed by C4/C5 (44.1%), and lastly C6/C7 and C3/C4 (40.5%). Severe osteophytes are most commonly seen in motion segment C5/C6. In all motion segments, the inferior discal surface of the upper vertebra manifests more osteophytes than the superior discal surface of the lower one. Osteophytes prevalence is sex-dependent only in the upper cervical vertebrae (C3-C4), and age- and ethnicity-dependent for all vertebrae 1).

Etiology

Anterior cervical osteophytes can be isolated or diffuse; they are most often idiopathic and part of a form called Forestier disease (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis). It may also be a traumatic or iatrogenic form (particularly following spinal surgery).

Clinical features

Anterior cervical osteophytes are common and usually asymptomatic in elderly people. Due to mechanical compressions, inflammations, and tissues swelling of osteophytes, patients may be presented with multiple complications, such as dysphagiadysphoniadyspnea, and pulmonary aspiration. Paradoxical vocal cord motion is an uncommon disease characterized by vocal cord adductions during inspiration and/or expiration. This condition can create shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory stridor or breathy dysphonia 2).

Anterior cervical osteophytosis as a cause of dyspnoea and stridor 3).

Cervical anterior osteophyte might be associated with foreign body sensations of the pharynx 4).

Regression of anterior-disc osteophyte complex occurs following cervical laminectomy and fusion, and likely provides another mechanism of spinal cord decompression 5).

Case series

Five patients who underwent surgical resection of the cervical anterior osteophyte due to dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs) were performed before and after surgery on each patient, and kinematic analysis of the video clips from the VFSS of a 5-mL liquid barium swallow was carried out. Functional oral intake improved after surgery in 3/4 patients who had required a modified diet before surgery. Kinematic analysis showed increases in the maximal hyoid vertical movement length (13.16±5.87 to 19.09±4.77 mm, p=0.080), hyoid movement velocities (170.24±84.71 to 285.53±104.55 mm/s, p=0.043), and upper esophageal sphincter opening width (3.97±0.42 to 6.39±1.32 mm, p=0.043) after surgery. In conclusion, improved upper esophageal sphincter opening via enhancement of hyoid movement after cervical anterior osteophyte resection may be the kinetic mechanism of improved swallowing function 6).

Case reports

Chen et al. llustrate a case of severe dysphagia caused by a large post-traumatic osteophyte with oropharyngeal swallow study showing a significant mass effect on the pharynx and resolution following osteophytectomy 7).


Two patients with Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and anterior cervical osteophytes. They underwent anterior cervical osteophytectomies due to severe dysphagia. At more than a year follow-up, both patients noted improvement in swallowing as well as their associated pain. The surgical removal of cervical osteophytes can be highly successful in treating dysphagia if refractory to prolonged conservative therapy 8).


Seo et al. report a rare case demonstrating combined symptoms of dyspnea, dysphonia as well as dysphagia at the same time in a patient with asymptomatic anterior cervical osteophytes. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that anterior osteophytes can be a possible etiological factor for paradoxical vocal cord motion that induces serious respiratory symptoms 9).


A typical description of Forestier disease is related based on the cases of two 80- and 79-year-old men referred with gradually worsening swallowing problems leading to dysphagia. Both underwent surgical resection of cervical osteophytes via a lateral cervical approach after failure of the medical treatments.

Based on the clinical presentations and the analysis of the literature, the authors describe the clinical features of the cervical anterior form of DISH presenting with ENT symptoms. The diagnosis and conservative therapeutic, and surgical management of anterior cervical hyperostosis based on ongoing gradual solutions are described 10).


An 85-yr-old man complaining of swallowing difficulties was referred for a videofluoroscopic swallowing test for the evaluation of dysphagia. He had experienced swallowing difficulties for 7 yrs, but he had no complaint of dyspnea or dysphonia. Specifically, he complained of intermittent aspiration symptoms when drinking water or eating semisolid food, and he felt considerable discomfort when swallowing solid food. On physical examination, his gross motor and sensory functions were normal, and no pathologic reflex was detected. In addition, a cranial nerve examination that included gag reflex, mastication, and tongue movement evaluations produced normal findings. However, a videofluoroscopic swallowing test revealed epiglottic closure failure attributable to anterior bony spurring at the C3–6 levels, which presumably explained his complaint of aspiration. In addition, a diffuse osteophyte was found anteriorly encroaching the posterior aspect of the oropharynx and esophagus. However, his swallowing reflex was prompt, and other swallowing movements were normal 11).


A 62-year-old male presented with a history of difficulty in swallowing with a duration of 6 months, which was more for solid food and was associated with a foreign body sensation during swallowing. Previously, he was able to chew food without difficulty, and he did not have regurgitation of food. His general physical examination was essentially normal and neurological examination did not reveal any focal neurological deficit; he showed normal pharyngeal sensation tongue movement, and palatal reflexes. Examination of the oral cavity did not show any abnormalities; however, endoscopic examination revealed a mucosal bulge at the posterior pharyngeal wall. X-ray cervical spine and computed tomography (CT) scan of cervical spine revealed spondylotic changes with a large C2-C3 breaking osteophyte compressing the pharynx. C2-C3 anterior osteophyte was excised by right anterior cervical approach. The postoperative period was uneventful. Patient had a significant improvement in symptoms and was able to swallow solid food 12).


An 81-year-old man had had mild dysphagia for several years. During the six months before admission, the dysphagia worsened, and he had occasional hemoptysis. For several days before admission he had increasing shortness of breath and throat tightness, both of which worsened in the supine position. Laryngoscopic examination revealed marked narrowing of the airway due to a visible retropharyngeal bulge. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, where stridor was noted on physical examination. Radiographs of the cervical spine and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the neck were obtained immediately. The lateral radiograph of the cervical spine revealed a huge mantle of osteophytic bone anterior to the spine from C2 to C7, with fusion of the osteophytes from C4 to C7 (Panel A, arrow). Osteophytes at C2 and C3 compressed the hypopharyngeal airway at the level of the epiglottis (Panel A, arrowhead). A sagittal MRI scan showed anterior displacement of the prevertebral soft tissues by these osteophytes (Panel B, arrow), and an axial scan showed compression of the airway to a slit-like opening (Panel C, arrow). After a difficult intubation, a neurosurgeon and an otolaryngologist performed an anterior resection of the ventral spinal osteophytes with partial diskectomies at C2–C3 and C3–C4. The patient did well postoperatively and was completely asymptomatic at follow-up one month after discharge13).


Papadopoulos et al. report three patients with progressive dysphagia due to large anterior cervical osteophytes. All three patients were treated with anterior cervical approach with removal of the osteophytes without fusion. A review of the literature in addition to the specific case histories, video fluoroscopic and radiographic findings are presented 14).

References

1)

Ezra D, Hershkovitz I, Salame K, Alperovitch-Najenson D, Slon V. Osteophytes in the cervical vertebral bodies (C3-C7) – Demographical perspectives. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2018 Oct 5. doi: 10.1002/ar.23901. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30290057.
2) , 9)

Seo JW, Park JW, Jang JC, Kim JW, Lee YG, Kim YT, Lee SM. Anterior cervical osteophytes causing Dysphagia and paradoxical vocal cord motion leading to dyspnea and dysphonia. Ann Rehabil Med. 2013 Oct;37(5):717-20. doi: 10.5535/arm.2013.37.5.717. Epub 2013 Oct 29. PubMed PMID: 24236261; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3825950.
3)

Casimiro HJ, Carreira J, Navarro B, Parreira MR. Anterior cervical osteophytosis as a cause of dyspnoea and stridor. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Aug 11;2017. pii: bcr-2017-220842. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220842. PubMed PMID: 28801330.
4)

Ko MT, Chen HL, Peng JP, Lin TY, Lin WC. Do cervical degenerative diseases associate with foreign body sensation of the pharynx? Dysphagia. 2012 Mar;27(1):88-93. doi: 10.1007/s00455-011-9342-4. Epub 2011 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 21484602.
5)

Ashana AO, Cohen JR, Evans B, Holly LT. Regression of Anterior Disc-osteophyte Complex Following Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2014 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25469492.
6)

Jeong H, Seo HG, Han TR, Chung CK, Oh B. Kinematic Changes in Swallowing After Surgical Removal of Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Causing Dysphagia: A Case Series. Ann Rehabil Med. 2014 Dec;38(6):865-870. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 25566490.
7)

Chen YR, Sung K, Tharin S. Symptomatic Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Causing Dysphagia: Case Report, Imaging, and Review of the Literature. Cureus. 2016 Feb 2;8(2):e473. doi: 10.7759/cureus.473. PubMed PMID: 27004150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4779080.
8)

Egerter AC, Kim ES, Lee DJ, Liu JJ, Cadena G, Panchal RR, Kim KD. Dysphagia Secondary to Anterior Osteophytes of the Cervical Spine. Global Spine J. 2015 Oct;5(5):e78-83. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1546954. Epub 2015 Feb 26. PubMed PMID: 26430607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4577331.
10)

Lecerf P, Malard O. How to diagnose and treat symptomatic anterior cervical osteophytes? Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2010 Jun;127(3):111-6. doi: 10.1016/j.anorl.2010.05.002. Epub 2010 Jul 14. Review. PubMed PMID: 20826123.
11)

Lee SA, Kim KE, Paik NJ. Dysphagia caused by multilevel cervical osteophytes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Jul;87(7):607. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e31817c496b. PubMed PMID: 18574355.
12)

Lee SA, Kim KE, Paik NJ. Dysphagia caused by multilevel cervical osteophytes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Jul;87(7):607. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e31817c496b. PubMed PMID: 18574355.
13)

Aronowitz P, Cobarrubias F. Images in clinical medicine. Anterior cervical osteophytes causing airway compromise. N Engl J Med. 2003 Dec 25;349(26):2540. PubMed PMID: 14695414.
14)

Papadopoulos SM, Chen JC, Feldenzer JA, Bucci MN, McGillicuddy JE. Anterior cervical osteophytes as a cause of progressive dysphagia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1989;101(1-2):63-5. PubMed PMID: 2603770.

Spinal Schwannoma Classification

Spinal Schwannoma Classification

Preoperative planning remains crucial for successful Spinal Schwannoma treatment and relies to a great extent on proper tumor classification. The literature includes multiple classification systems for spinal schwannomas, each of which is associated with both positive and negative ramifications for preoperative planning 1) 2) 3)4).

Consequently, there is a lack of consensus concerning the optimal system of classification for schwannomas 5).

The literature includes numerous schwannoma classification systems. Jinnai and Koyama 6) classified schwannomas into five groups based on the relationship between the tumor and the dura mater and/or intervertebral foramen. This classification system is useful, as it takes into consideration tumor localization relative to the dura, but it does not take into account volume, which is important for preoperative surgical planning.

Sridhar classification

Sridhar 7) was the first, in 2001, to suggest a classification system of benign spinal schwannoma including giant and invasive spinal schwannomas (type I to V).

Park et al. 8) reported the use of a new classification system, and Type VI and Type VII were added. But the classification system as defined by Park et al. were inadequate because both the figures and the tumors were not clearly described in their manuscript.

A case could not be classified based on Sridhar’s spinal schwannoma classification system. Thus, as shown in a case, of Kotil type VIII must be added to the modified Sridhar classification (Kotil classification) system of benign spinal schwannomas 9).

Sun and Pamir however, think classification of seven distinct types of schwannomas using Sridhar et al.’s system is not practical because the characteristics of seven tumors types are difficult to remember. Another drawback of their system is that tumor volume is only considered for dumbbell-shaped tumors, and craniocaudal dimension is not a consideration, which limit the diagnostic value and consistency of the classification system 10).

Asazuma Classification

Asazuma et al. 11) devised a schwannoma classification system for cervical dumbbell- shaped tumors that consisted of nine categories. An important drawback of their classification system is that it cannot be used for thoracic or lumbar schwannomas, which are as common as cervical schwannomas.

Asazuma et al. classification system for dumbbell spinal schwannoma:

Type 1 intradural extradural restricted to the spinal canal. The constriction occurs at the dura.

Type II are all extradural, and are subclassified as:

IIa do not expand beyond the neural foramen.

IIb inside spinal canal + paravertebral.

IIc foraminal + paravertebral.

Type IIIa are intradural and extradural foraminal, IIIb are intradural and extradural paravertebral.

Type IV are extradural and intravertebral.

Type V are extradural and extralaminar with laminar invasion.

Type VI show multidirectional bone erosion.

Craniocaudal spread: IF & TF designate the number of intervertebral foramina and transverse foramina involved, respectively (e.g. IF stage 2 = 2 foramens).

Schwannomas involving C1 & C2: May involve vertebral arteries and require additional caution.

Sun and Pamir Classification

It is based on consideration of tumor volume and localization relative to the dura and spinal canal. For approximate calculation of tumor volume, spinal schwannomas were considered ellipsoid bodies, and tumor volume was calculated using the following formula:

Tumor volume = 4 / 3 π × (craniocaudal length / 2) × (transverse diameter / 2)2 .

Tumors were then assigned to 1–3 volume groups (group A, B, and C) and designated as 1 of 4 types (type I, II, III, and IV) accord- ing to localization (i.e., group B type II tumor). Tumor volume <2 cm3 was considered group A, 2–4 cm3 group B, and >4 cm3 group C. Tumor typing was as follows: localized exclusively intra- durally: type I; intradural localization with extradural extension to the nerve root foramina, but restricted to the spinal canal: type II; intradural dumbbell-shaped tumor in the spinal canal extending to the extraforaminal region: type III; and localized completely outside the root foramina: type IV


Sridhar et al.’s 12) classification system is arguably the most similar of the previously reported systems to the novel classification system described by Sun and Pamir however, they think classification of seven distinct types of schwannomas using Sridhar et al.’s system is not practical because the characteristics of seven tumors types are difficult to remember. Another drawback of their system is that tumor volume is only considered for dumbbell-shaped tumors, and craniocaudal dimension is not a consideration, which limit the diagnostic value and consistency of the classification system 13).


Based on the findings, Sun and Pamir think that all schwannomas should be classified according to localization and volume, so as to achieve the desired benefit of classification—ease and reliability of preoperative decision making and preparation. In addition, this classification system makes tumor localization easier to understand, as compared to other systems, and is suitable for all schwannoma types.

It is a simple and effective tool that shows extremely helpful for avoiding unnecessary surgical approaches and complications. Due to the system’s simplicity of having only three tumor groups and its reliability—indicated by the associated low postoperative side effect rate, use of this novel classification system should be considered by any surgical department that seeks a standardized schwannoma surgery protocol. 14).


Dumbbell spinal schwannoma

Giant spinal schwannoma

Cervical spinal schwannoma

Thoracic spinal schwannoma

Lumbar spinal schwannoma

References

1)

Chowdhury FH, Haque MR, Sarker MH. High cervical spinal schwannoma; microneurosurgical management: an experience of 15 cases. Acta Neurol Taiwan (2013) 22:59–66.
2)

Fernandes RL, Lynch JC, Welling L, Gonçalevs M, Tragante R, Temponi V, et al. Complete removal of the spinal nerve sheath tumors. Surgical techniques and results from a series of 30 patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr (2014) 72:312–7. doi:10.1590/0004-282×20140008
3)

Iwasaki Y, Hida K, Koyanagi I, Yoshimoto T, Abe H. Anterior approach for dumbbell type cervical neurinoma. Neurol Med Chir (1999) 39:835–9. doi:10.2176/nmc.39.835
4)

Kim P, Ebersold MJ, Onofrio BM, Quast LM. Surgery of spinal nerve schwannoma. Risk of neurological deficit after resection of involved root. J Neurosurg (1989) 71:810–4. doi:10.3171/jns.1989.71.6.0810
5)

Sun I, Pamir MN. Non-Syndromic Spinal Schwannomas: A Novel Classification. Front Neurol. 2017 Jul 17;8:318. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2017.00318. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28769861; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5511849.
6)

Jinnai T, Koyama T. Clinical characteristics of spinal nerve sheath tumors: analysis of 149 cases. Neurosurgery (2005) 56:510–5. doi:10.1227/01. NEU.0000153752.59565.BB
7) , 12)

Sridhar K, Ramamurthi R, Vasudevan MC, Ramamurthi B. Giant invasive spinal schwannomas: definition and surgical management. J Neurosurg (2001) 94:210–5.
8)

Park SC, Chung SK, Choe G, Kim HJ. Spinal intraosseous schwannoma : a case report and review. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Oct;46(4):403-8. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.403. Epub 2009 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 19893734; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2773402.
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Kotil K. An extremely giant lumbar schwannoma: new classification (kotil) and mini-open microsurgical resection. Asian Spine J. 2014 Aug;8(4):506-11. doi: 10.4184/asj.2014.8.4.506. Epub 2014 Aug 19. PubMed PMID: 25187870; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4149996.
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Sun I, Pamir MN. Non-Syndromic Spinal Schwannomas: A Novel Classification. Front Neurol. 2017 Jul 17;8:318. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2017.00318. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28769861; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5511849.
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Asazuma T, Toyama Y, Maruiwa H, Fujimura Y, Hirabayashi K. Surgical strategy for cervical dumbbell tumors based on a three-dimensional classification. Spine (2004) 29:E10–4. doi:10.1097/01.BRS.0000103662. 13689.76

UpToDate: Combined Unilateral Posteroventral Pallidotomy and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Thalamotomy

Combined Unilateral Posteroventral Pallidotomy and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Thalamotomy

Patients with tremor predominant Parkinson’s disease (PD) achieve more improvement in tremor control after combined unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy and ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy 1)2).

Case series

Twenty-four patients with tremor-dominant PD were included in a study of Fayed et al. from the Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, CairoEgypt.

Twelve patients received unilateral PVP contralateral to the most affected side. The other 12 patients received simultaneous unilateral PVP and VIM thalamotomy contralateral to the most affected side. Assessment of results in both groups was achieved using both UPDRS “off” motor scores and UPDRS rest tremor subscores.

The mean UPDRS off motor score improved in the pallidotomy group from 61.3 preoperatively to 36.8 at 12 months. In the combined group, it improved from 59.6 to 35.2 at 12 months, with no statistically significant difference between both groups. On the other hand, while the mean tremor subscore in the pallidotomy group improved from a mean of 2.3-0.8, the tremors were abolished in all of the patients in the combined group except for 1 patient who showed slight infrequent tremors at 12 months 3).


Iacono et al. from the Division of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, combined Vim/VOp junction thalamotomy and PVP in 29 patients with severe tremorrigidity, and bradykinesia. Patients underwent unilateral Vim thalamotomy followed at the same sitting by PVP. The distinct physiological consequences of each procedure were documented by intraoperative electromyography (EMG) and video recording, revealing the effects on both tremor and agonist/antagonist co-contraction. Lack of reciprocal inhibition of antagonistic muscle groups often remained following thalamotomy but was eliminated by subsequent PVP. The complementary therapeutic effects of PVP and Vim thalamotomy may be due to the interruption of different neuronal circuits by the two procedures. The effect of Vim thalamotomy has been attributed to the interruption of the rubrothalamocortical loop. PVP interrupts the outflow of the globus pallidus internus (GPi), which may cause disinhibition of locomotor centers in the mesencephalon and spinal cord. There is no direct interruption of the rubrothalamocortical loop by PVP, explaining why this procedure sometimes exacerbates tremor in certain patients 4).

References

1) , 3)

Fayed ZY, Radwan H, Aziz M, Eid M, Mansour AH, Nosseir M, Anwer H, Elserry T, Abdel Ghany WA. Combined Unilateral Posteroventral Pallidotomy and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Thalamotomy in Tremor-Dominant Parkinson&apos;s Disease versus Posteroventral Pallidotomy Alone: A Prospective Comparative Study. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2018 Sep 18;96(4):1-6. doi: 10.1159/000492229. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30227440.

2) , 4)

Iacono RP, Henderson JM, Lonser RR. Combined stereotactic thalamotomy and posteroventral pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease. J Image Guid Surg. 1995;1(3):133-40. PubMed PMID: 9079438.

UpToDate: Fluorescence guided surgery of glioma

Fluorescence guided surgery of glioma

It must be remembered that intraoperative visualization of fluorescence depends on the sensitivity of both the microscope filters and the cameraused 1).


The use of the optical contrast agent sodium fluorescein (NaFl) to guide resection of gliomas has been under investigation for decades. Although this imaging strategy assumes the agent remains confined to the vasculature except in regions of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, clinical studies have reported significant NaFl signal in normal brain tissue, limiting tumor-to-normal contrast. A possible explanation arises from earlier studies, which reported that NaFl exists in both pure and protein-bound forms in the blood, the former being small enough to cross the BBB.

A study of Folaron et al. from the Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Surgery Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover; and Section of Neurosurgery, and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical CenterLebanonNew Hampshire, aimed to elucidate the kinetic binding behavior of NaFl in circulating blood and its effect on NaFl accumulation in brain tissue and tumor contrast. Additionally, they examined the blood and tissue kinetics, as well as tumor uptake, of a pegylated form of fluorescein selected as a potential optical analog of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents.

Cohorts of mice were administered one of the following doses/forms of NaFl: 1) high human equivalent dose (HED) of NaFl, 2) low HED of NaFl, or 3) pegylated form of fluorescein. In each cohort, groups of animals were euthanized 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after administration for ex vivo analysis of fluorescein fluorescence. Using gel electrophoresis and fluorescence imaging of blood and brain specimens, the authors quantified the temporal kinetics of bound NaFl, unbound NaFl, and pegylated fluorescein in the blood and normal brain tissue. Finally, they compared tumor-to-normal contrast for NaFl and pegylated-fluorescein in U251 glioma xenografts.

Administration of NaFl resulted in the presence of unbound and protein-bound NaFl in the circulation, with unbound NaFl constituting up to 70% of the signal. While protein-bound NaFl was undetectable in brain tissue, unbound NaFl was observed throughout the brain. The observed behavior was time and dose dependent. The pegylated form of fluorescein showed minimal uptake in brain tissue and improved tumor-to-normal contrast by 38%.

Unbound NaFl in the blood crosses the BBB, limiting the achievable tumor-to-normal contrast and undermining the inherent advantage of tumor imaging in the brain. Dosing and incubation time should be considered carefully for NaFl-based fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) of glioma. A pegylated form of fluorescein showed more favorable normal tissue kinetics that translated to higher tumor-to-normal contrast. These results warrant further development of pegylated-fluorescein for FGS of glioma 2).


Senders et al., systematically review all clinically tested fluorescent agents for application in FGS for glioma and all preclinically tested agents with the potential for FGS for glioma.

They searched the PubMed and Embase databases for all potentially relevant studies through March 2016.

They assessed fluorescent agents by the following outcomes: rate of gross total resection (GTR), overall and progression free survival, sensitivity and specificity in discriminating tumor and healthy brain tissue, tumor-to-normal ratio of fluorescent signal, and incidence of adverse events.

The search strategy resulted in 2155 articles that were screened by titles and abstracts. After full-text screening, 105 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria evaluating the following fluorescent agents: 5 aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) (44 studies, including three randomized control trials), fluorescein(11), indocyanine green (five), hypericin (two), 5-aminofluorescein-human serum albumin (one), endogenous fluorophores (nine) and fluorescent agents in a pre-clinical testing phase (30). Three meta-analyses were also identified.

5-ALA is the only fluorescent agent that has been tested in a randomized controlled trial and results in an improvement of GTR and progression-free survival in high-grade gliomas. Observational cohort studies and case series suggest similar outcomes for FGS using fluorescein. Molecular targeting agents (e.g., fluorophore/nanoparticle labeled with anti-EGFR antibodies) are still in the pre-clinical phase, but offer promising results and may be valuable future alternatives. 3).


Mounting evidence suggests that a more extensive surgical resection is associated with an improved life expectancy for both low grade glioma and high grade glioma patients. However, radiographically complete resections are not often achieved in many cases because of the lack of sensitivityand specificity of current neurosurgical guidance techniques at the margins of diffuse infiltrative gliomas. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers the potential to improve the extent of resection and to investigate the possible benefits of resecting beyond the radiographic margins.

Liu et al., in 2014 provided a review of wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence-imaging strategies that are being developed for neurosurgical guidance, with a focus on emerging imaging technologies and clinically viable contrast agents. The strengths and weaknesses of these approaches will be discussed, as well as issues that are being addressed to translate these technologies into the standard of care 4).


322 patients aged 23-73 years with suspected malignant glioma amenable to complete resection of contrast-enhancing tumour were randomly assigned to 20 mg/kg bodyweight 5-aminolevulinic acid for fluorescence-guided resection (n=161) or to conventional microsurgery with white light (n=161). The primary endpoints were the number of patients without contrast-enhancing tumour on early MRI (ie, that obtained within 72 h after surgery) and 6-month progression-free survival as assessed by MRI. Secondary endpoints were volume of residual tumour on postoperative MRI, overall survival, neurological deficit, and toxic effects. We report the results of an interim analysis with 270 patients in the full-analysis population (139 assigned 5-aminolevulinic acid, 131 assigned white light), which excluded patients with ineligible histological and radiological findings as assessed by central reviewers who were masked as to treatment allocation; the interim analysis resulted in termination of the study as defined by the protocol. Primary and secondary endpoints were analysed by intention to treat in the full-analysis population. The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00241670.

FINDINGS: Median follow-up was 35.4 months (95% CI 1.0-56.7). Contrast-enhancing tumour was resected completely in 90 (65%) of 139 patients assigned 5-aminolevulinic acid compared with 47 (36%) of 131 assigned white light (difference between groups 29% [95% CI 17-40], p<0.0001). Patients allocated 5-aminolevulinic acid had higher 6-month progression free survival than did those allocated white light (41.0% [32.8-49.2] vs 21.1% [14.0-28.2]; difference between groups 19.9% [9.1-30.7], p=0.0003, Z test). Groups did not differ in the frequency of severe adverse events or adverse events in any organ system class reported within 7 days after surgery.

INTERPRETATION: Tumour fluorescence derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid enables more complete resections of contrast-enhancing tumour, leading to improved progression-free survival in patients with malignant glioma 5).

References

1)

Moiyadi A, Syed P, Srivastava S. Fluorescence-guided surgery of malignant gliomas based on 5-aminolevulinic acid: paradigm shifts but not a panacea. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014 Feb;14(2):146. doi: 10.1038/nrc3566-c1. PubMed PMID: 24457418.
2)

Folaron M, Strawbridge R, Samkoe KS, Filan C, Roberts DW, Davis SC. Elucidating the kinetics of sodium fluorescein for fluorescence-guided surgery of glioma. J Neurosurg. 2018 Sep 7:1-11. doi: 10.3171/2018.4.JNS172644. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30192200.
3)

Senders JT, Muskens IS, Schnoor R, Karhade AV, Cote DJ, Smith TR, Broekman ML. Agents for fluorescence-guided glioma surgery: a systematic review of preclinical and clinical results. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017 Jan;159(1):151-167. doi: 10.1007/s00701-016-3028-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 27878374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5177668.
4)

Liu JT, Meza D, Sanai N. Trends in fluorescence image-guided surgery for gliomas. Neurosurgery. 2014 Jul;75(1):61-71. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000344. Review. PubMed PMID: 24618801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4062574.
5)

Stummer W, Pichlmeier U, Meinel T, Wiestler OD, Zanella F, Reulen HJ; ALA-Glioma Study Group. Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006 May;7(5):392-401. PubMed PMID: 16648043.

UpToDate: Decompressive craniectomy for intracerebral hemorrhage

Decompressive craniectomy for intracerebral hemorrhage

Systematic review

Yao et al. conducted a systematic review to verify the effects of decompressive craniectomy (DC) on improving outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

Through searching several electronic databases, they screened eligible publications. Respective risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated, data were synthesized with a fixed-effect model, and sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were performed. Publication bias was measured with Begg and Egger tests.

Overall effect showed that DC significantly reduced the poor outcome compared with the control group (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99; P = 0.03). But in the subgroup analyses, only studies published after 2010, studies using hematoma evacuation as control, and studies measuring outcome with Glasgow outcome score showed better outcomes in the DC group than in the control group. The other subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses achieved inconsistent results. Compared with the control group, DC effectively decreased mortality (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.85; P = 0.0008). The sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses achieved consistent results.

The application of DC effectively reduced mortality in patients with sICH. DC might improve functional outcomes in certain populations and needs further verification. DC is not associated with increased incidences of postoperative rebleeding and hydrocephalus 1).

Experimental work

Marinkovic et al. from Helsinki, Finland, used the model of autologous blood injection into the basal ganglia in rats. After induction of ICH and then magnetic resonance imaging, animals were randomly allocated to groups representing no craniectomy (n = 10) or to craniectomy at 1, 6, or 24 hours. A fifth group without ICH underwent craniectomy only. Neurological and behavioral outcomes were assessed on days 1, 3, and 7 after ICH induction. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells were counted.

After 7 days, compared with the ICH + no craniectomy group, all craniectomy groups had strikingly lower mortality (P < 0.01), much better neurological outcome (P < 0.001), and more favorable behavioral outcome. A trend occurred in the ICH + no craniectomy group toward more robust apoptosis.

Decompressive craniectomy performed up to 24 hours improved outcome after experimental ICH, with earlier intervention of greater benefit 2).

Case series

Rasras et al. from the Department of Neurosurgery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, AhvazIran, sought to assess the preliminary utility of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) without clot evacuation in patients with deep-seated supratentorial ICH.

Patients with deep seated spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage who were admitted to the Golestan Hospital, of Ahvaz, from November 2014 to February 2016, were prospectively enrolled in a study. A prospective clinical trial where 30 patients diagnosed having large hypertensive ICH was randomly allocated to either group A or B using permuted-block randomization. These patients (n = 30), who all had large deep seated supratentorial ICH with surgery indications, were randomly divided to two groups. ultimately, in one group (n = 13), large DHC was performed without clot evacuation, while in the other (n = 17), craniotomy with clot evacuation was done. Data pertaining to the patients characteristics and treatment outcomes were prospectively collected.

There was no statistically significant difference between two treatment groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of mortality and GOS at 6 months (P > 0.05); nevertheless, the good outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale = 4-5) for patients with hematoma evacuation was slightly higher (35.3%) as compared to the DHC patients without clot evacuation (30.7%).

Decompresive craniectomy without clot evacuation in deep seated ICH can be accomplished with identical mortality and outcome in comparison to patient that undergone clot evacuation 3).


A total of 54 eligible patients with spontaneous supratentorial hemorrhage (median age, 55 years; interquartile range, 47-64 years) who underwent decompressive craniectomy were retrospectively matched to 72 patients managed with best medical treatment (median age, 58 years; interquartile range, 32-74 years). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Survival and functional outcomes were analyzed at discharge, 3, 6, and 12 months.

Survival in the craniectomy group was significantly higher compared with the medical treatment group at 30 days, 6, and 12 months (76%, 70%, and 70% vs. 60%, 57%, and 52% respectively; all P ≤ 0.05). There was no difference in functional outcomes at discharge, 3, 6, or 12 months after hemorrhage (all P > 0.05). Decompressive craniectomy was associated with longer hospital stay (median of 30 days vs. 7 days in the control group; P < 0.001). Hospital adverse events were more frequent in the craniectomy group than in the control group (76% vs. 33%; P < 0.001), the commonest adverse events being pneumonia and urinary tract infections.

They showed that decompressive craniectomy significantly improved survival compared with medical treatment with lasting benefits. This improvement came at a cost of increased length of hospital stay and related adverse events. There was no improvement in functional outcome 4).


Decompressive craniectomy is associated with a significant increase in perihematomal edema compared to patients who have been treated conservatively. Perihematomal edema itself lasts about 60 days if it is not treated, but decompressive craniectomy ameliorates the mass effect exerted by the intracerebral hemorrhage plus the perihematomal edema, as reflected by the reduced midline shift 5).


Of 21 patients who underwent DC for hemispheric hypertensive ICH in the Department of Neurosurgery, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan, eleven of the patients were male and 10 were female, with an age range of 22-75 years (mean, 56.6 years). Their preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale scores ranged from 3 to 13 (mean, 6.9). The hematoma volumes ranged from 33.4 to 98.1 mL (mean, 74.2 mL), and the hematoma locations were the basal ganglia in 10 patients and the subcortex in 11 patients. Intraventricular extensions were observed in 11 patients. With regard to the complications after DC, postoperative hydrocephalus developed in ten patients, and meningitis was observed in three patients. Six patients had favorable outcomes and 15 had poor outcomes. The mortality rate was 10 %. A statistical analysis showed that the GCS score at admission was significantly higher in the favorable outcome group than that in the poor outcome group (P = 0.029). Our results suggest that DC with hematoma evacuation might be a useful surgical procedure for selected patients with large hemispheric hypertensive ICH 6).


Fung et al. compared consecutive patients (November 2010-January 2012) with supratentorial ICH treated with DC without hematoma evacuation and matched controls treated by best medical treatment. DC measured at least 150 mm and included opening of the dura. We analyzed clinical (age, sex, pathogenesis, Glasgow Coma Scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), radiological (signs of herniation, side and size of hematoma, midline shift, hematoma expansion, distance to surface), and surgical (time to and indication for surgery) characteristics. Outcome at 6 months was dichotomized into good (modified Rankin Scale 0-4) and poor (modified Rankin Scale 5-6).

Twelve patients (median age 48 years; interquartile range 35-58) with ICH were treated by DC. Median hematoma volume was 61.3 mL (interquartile range 37-83.5 mL) and median preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale was 8 (interquartile range 4.3-10). Four patients showed signs of herniation. Nine patients had good and 3 had poor outcomes. Three patients (25%) of the treatment group died versus 8 of 15 (53%) of the control group. There were 3 manageable complications related to DC.

DC is feasible in patients with ICH. Based on this small cohort, DC may reduce mortality. Larger prospective cohorts are warranted to assess safety and efficacy 7).


Records of 12 consecutive patients with hypertensive ICH treated with decompressive hemicraniectomy were reviewed. The data collected included Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission and before surgery, ICH volume, ICH score, and a clinical grading scale for ICH that accurately risk-stratifies patients regarding 30-day mortality. Outcome was assessed as immediate mortality and modified Rankin Score (mRS) at the last follow-up.

Of the 12 patients with decompressive hemicraniectomy, 11 (92%) survived to discharge; of those 11, 6 (54.5%) had good functional outcome, defined as a mRS of 0 to 3 (mean follow-up: 17.13 months; range: 2-39 months). The mean age was 49.8 years (range: 19-76 years). Three of the 7 patients with pupillary abnormalities made a good recovery; of the 11 patients with intraventricular extensions (IVEs), 7 made a good recovery. The clinical finding (which was present in all 3 patients with mRS equal to 5 and which was not present in patients with mRS less than 5) was abnormal occulocephalic reflex. Of the 10 patients with an ICH score of 3, 9 (90%) survived to discharge, 4 (44%) had good functional outcome (mRS: 1-3). Hematoma volume was 60 cm3 or greater in eight patients, four (50%) of whom had good functional outcome (mRS: 0-3).

Decompressive hemicraniectomy with hematoma evacuation is life-saving and improves unfavorable outcomes in a select group of young patients with large right hemispherical ICH 8).

References

1)

Yao Z, Ma L, You C, He M. Decompressive Craniectomy for Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018 Feb;110:121-128. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.167. Epub 2017 Nov 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 29129764.
2)

Marinkovic I, Strbian D, Pedrono E, Vekovischeva OY, Shekhar S, Durukan A, Korpi ER, Abo-Ramadan U, Tatlisumak T. Decompressive craniectomy for intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2009 Oct;65(4):780-6, 1 p following 786; discussion 786. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000351775.30702.A9. PubMed PMID: 19834384.
3)

Rasras S, Safari H, Zeinali M, Jahangiri M. Decompressive hemicraniectomy without clot evacuation in supratentorial deep-seated intracerebral hemorrhage. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Aug 23;174:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.08.017. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30172088.
4)

Lo YT, See AAQ, King NKK. Decompressive Craniectomy in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Case-Control Study. World Neurosurg. 2017 Jul;103:815-820.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.04.025. Epub 2017 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 28427977.
5)

Fung C, Murek M, Klinger-Gratz PP, Fiechter M, Z’Graggen WJ, Gautschi OP, El-Koussy M, Gralla J, Schaller K, Zbinden M, Arnold M, Fischer U, Mattle HP, Raabe A, Beck J. Effect of Decompressive Craniectomy on Perihematomal Edema in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 12;11(2):e0149169. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149169. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 26872068; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4752325.
6)

Takeuchi S, Takasato Y, Masaoka H, Hayakawa T, Yatsushige H, Shigeta K, Nagatani K, Otani N, Nawashiro H, Shima K. Decompressive craniectomy with hematoma evacuation for large hemispheric hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2013;118:277-9. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-1434-6_53. PubMed PMID: 23564148.
7)

Fung C, Murek M, Z’Graggen WJ, Krähenbühl AK, Gautschi OP, Schucht P, Gralla J, Schaller K, Arnold M, Fischer U, Mattle HP, Raabe A, Beck J. Decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 2012 Dec;43(12):3207-11. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.666537. Epub 2012 Oct 30. PubMed PMID: 23111437.
8)

Murthy JM, Chowdary GV, Murthy TV, Bhasha PS, Naryanan TJ. Decompressive craniectomy with clot evacuation in large hemispheric hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2005;2(3):258-62. PubMed PMID: 16159072.

UpToDate: Spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma

Spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma

Posterior fossa subdural hematomas may be spontaneous, with no previous trauma. These cases are usually secondary to bleeding from an underlying pathology such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), aneurysm 1),tumor or coagulation disorder2) 3).

see also Spontaneous retroclival subdural hematoma.

Posterior fossa craniectomy may be preferable in terms of diagnosis and safe treatment 4).

Outcome

Prognosis seems to be related to the clinical condition of the patient at the moment of surgery, according to the GCS. Patients with mild symptomatology usually have a good outcome, whereas, in most cases, there is no improvement if a moderate or severe neurologic deficit has already been established 5) 6).

Case reports

Finger G, Martins OG, Basso LS, Ludwig do Nascimento T, Schiavo FL, Cezimbra Dos Santos S, Stefani MA. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in posterior fossa: case report with great outcome. World Neurosurg. 2018 Aug 1. pii: S1878-8750(18)31700-5. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.07.220. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30077031.


A 69-year-old woman was admitted with nausea, headache, and mild consciousness disturbance. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral pCSH. To prevent further neurological deterioration, we performed surgery under general anesthesia by midline suboccipital craniectomy. Unexpected bleeding from a developed circuitous occipital sinus was stopped with hemoclips. After hematoma removal, she recovered and was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. By the 19(th) postoperative day, she had developed no neurologic deficits.

This experience demonstrates the risk of blind surgical therapy in patients with pCSH. In such patients, posterior fossa craniectomy may be preferable in terms of diagnosis and safe treatment 7).


A 83-year-old woman was admitted with recent sudden headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a thin collection of blood in the subdural space adjacent to the clivus, along the wall of the posterior fossa, and at the cervical spine level. A right posterior communicating artery aneurysm was diagnosed using computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography. The aneurysm had two lobes, one of which was attached to the right dorsum sellae. The aneurysm was occluded by stent-assisted coil embolization. The patient was discharged 3 weeks after admission with absence of neurological deficit.

A ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery may cause an acute SDH 8).


A rare case of concomitant cranial and spinal subdural haematoma (SDH) in a 12-year-old boy with severe thrombocytopenia due to aplastic anaemia, and review the available literature. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at presentation revealed a cranial SDH confined to the posterior fossa, and spinal SDH extending from the C1 to S3 segments. The child was managed conservatively due to his poor general condition and lack of any neurological deficit. Repeat MR imaging done at six weeks showed complete resolution of the spinal SDH and partial resolution of the cranial SDH. Although rare, a spontaneous spinal SDH can occur simultaneously with a cranial SDH. Urgent surgical decompression is considered the treatment of choice for spinal SDH; however, a conservative approach may succeed in patients with poor general condition, and/or mild/no neurological deficit 9).


Berhouma M, Houissa S, Jemel H, Khaldi M. Spontaneous chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa. J Neuroradiol. 2007 Jul;34(3):213-5. PubMed PMID: 17572494 10).


Usul et al., present a spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma in a term neonate and discuss conservative management 11).


A case of spontaneous acute subdural haematoma in the posterior fossa following anticoagulation 12).


The association of the posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma with spontaneous parenchymal hemorrhage without anticoagulation therapy was never related in the literature. Costa et al., describe a case of a 64 year-old woman who suffered a spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage, treated conservatively, and presented 1 month later with a chronic subdural posterior fossa hematoma 13).


Miranda et al., present a case of a posterior fossa acute subdural hematoma occurring in an anticoagulated patient who was preoperatively misdiagnosed as an intracerebellar hemorrhage 14).


A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment 15).


A 70 year old female presented with progressive dizziness, vertigo and gait ataxia. She was on anticoagulation therapy for heart disease. Neuro-imaging revealed bilateral infratentorial subdural masses. The subdural masses were suspects for chronic subdural haematomas by neuroradiological criteria. Because of the progressive symptomatology, the haematomas were emptied through burrhole trepanations. Chocolate-colored fluid, not containing clotted components, gushed out under great pressure. The source of bleeding could not be identified. The patient recovered well from surgery, but died 4 months later shortly after admission to another hospital from heart failure.

The chronic subdural haematomas in this patient may have been due to rupture of bridging veins caused by a very mild trauma not noticed by the patient and possibly aggravated by the anticoagulation therapy. Infratentorial chronic subdural haematoma should at least be a part of the differential diagnosis in elderly patients with cerebellar and vestibular symptomatology even without a history of trauma 16).


A case of spontaneous acute subdural hematoma complicated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was reported. He was hospitalized complaining of sudden onset of headache and nasal bleeding without neurological deficit. CT scan revealed subdural hematoma in the posterior fossa especially below the tentorium cerebelli. Further hematological examination proved very low platelet count (1,000/mm3) and antiplatelet antibody in confirmation of a diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. As his neurological status was good, he was treated medically. His symptoms and platelet count improved gradually with corticosteroid therapy. Reviewing the literature, acute subdural hematoma with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was quite rare and only three cases reported 17).


Aicher KP, Heiss E, Gawlowski J. [Spontaneous subdural hematoma in the posterior cranial fossa]. Rofo. 1988 Dec;149(6):669-70. German. PubMed PMID: 2849170 18).


Kanter et al., report a patient in whom a spontaneous subdural hematoma developed in the posterior fossa during anticoagulation therapy for mitral valve disease. This rare complication of anticoagulation has been reported in only three other patients 19).


A case of spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma secondary to anticoagulation therapy with definitive diagnosis made by vertebral angiography is reported. Vertebral angiographic findings are illustrated and demonstrate primarily mass effect from posterior compartment of posterior fossa and avascular area. Carotid angiography did not show hydrocephalus. A review of the literature was made and this appears to be the first reported case in which a posterior fossa subdural hematoma has been diagnosed by vertebral angiography 20).


A report of spontaneous posterior fossa subdural haematoma associated with anticoagulation therapy. The possibility of posterior fossa lesions related to spontaneous haemorrhage is suggested by the combination of severe headache and increasing disturbance of consciousness associated with signs of brain-stem decompensation. A thorough neurological evaluation including appropriate contrast studies will help rule out a supratentorial lesion. This is a neurological emergency which can be successfully treated by early detection and prompt surgical decompression. This is the second reported case of spontaneous subdural haematoma of the posterior fossa occurring during anticoagulant therapy 21).

References

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Kim MS, Jung JR, Yoon SW, Lee CH. Subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa due to posterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. Surg Neurol Int. 2012;3:39. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.94287. Epub 2012 Mar 24. PubMed PMID: 22530173; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3327002.
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Stendel R, Schulte T, Pietilä TA, Suess O, Brock M. Spontaneous bilateral chronic subdural haematoma of the posterior fossa. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002 May;144(5):497-500. Review. PubMed PMID: 12111507.
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Berhouma M, Houissa S, Jemel H, Khaldi M. Spontaneous chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa. J Neuroradiol. 2007 Jul;34(3):213-5. PubMed PMID: 17572494.
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Takemoto Y, Matsumoto J, Ohta K, Hasegawa S, Miura M, Kuratsu J. Bilateral posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma treated with craniectomy: Case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int. 2016 May 6;7(Suppl 10):S255-8. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.181979. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27213111; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4866054.
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Miranda P, Alday R, Lagares A, Pérez A, Lobato RD. Posterior fossa subdural hematoma mimicking intracerebellar hemorrhage. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2003 Dec;14(6):526-8. PubMed PMID: 14710308.
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Pollo C, Meuli R, Porchet F. Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI. Neuroradiology. 2003 Aug;45(8):550-2. Epub 2003 May 22. PubMed PMID: 12761603.
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Jain V, Singh J, Sharma R. Spontaneous concomitant cranial and spinal subdural haematomas with spontaneous resolution. Singapore Med J. 2008 Feb;49(2):e53-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 18301828.
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Usul H, Karaarslan G, Cakir E, Kuzeyl K, Mungan L, Baykal S. Conservative management of spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma in a neonate. J Clin Neurosci. 2005 Feb;12(2):196-8. PubMed PMID: 15749432.
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Pal D, Gnanalingham K, Peterson D. A case of spontaneous acute subdural haematoma in the posterior fossa following anticoagulation. Br J Neurosurg. 2004 Feb;18(1):68-9. PubMed PMID: 15040720.
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Costa LB Jr, de Andrade A, Valadão GF. Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with cerebellar hemorrhage: report of rare disease with MRI findings. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2004 Mar;62(1):170-2. Epub 2004 Apr 28. PubMed PMID: 15122456.
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Saito K, Sakurai Y, Uenohara H, Seki K, Imaizumi S, Katakura R, Niizuma H. [A case of acute subdural hematoma in the posterior fossa with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura]. No To Shinkei. 1992 Apr;44(4):377-81. Review. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 1633035.
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Aicher KP, Heiss E, Gawlowski J. [Spontaneous subdural hematoma in the posterior cranial fossa]. Rofo. 1988 Dec;149(6):669-70. German. PubMed PMID: 2849170.
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Kanter R, Kanter M, Kirsch W, Rosenberg G. Spontaneous posterior fossa subdural hematoma as a complication of anticoagulation. Neurosurgery. 1984 Aug;15(2):241-2. PubMed PMID: 6483141.
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McClelland RR, Ramirez-Lassepas M. Posterior fossa subdural hematoma demonstrated by vertebral angiography. Neuroradiology. 1976;10(1):181-5. PubMed PMID: 1256644.
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Capistrant T, Goldberg R, Shibasaki H, Castle D. Posterior fossa subdural haematoma associated with anticoagulant therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1971 Feb;34(1):82-5. PubMed PMID: 5313648; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC493691.

UpToDate: Cervical transverse process fracture

Cervical transverse process fracture

Cervical transverse process fractures have a strong association with other cervical spine fractures and blunt cerebrovascular injury 1).

With the advent of whole body computed tomography of trauma patients, the radiologic diagnosis of transverse process fractures (TPF) has increased. Spine service (neurosurgical or orthopedic) consultation is frequently requested for patients with these fractures, stressing constraints on these practices.

When TPF are identified, diligence in searching for a spine injury or abdominal injuries should be exercised, as these associated injuries occur frequently 2).

Isolated cervical transverse process fracture (TPF) of the subaxial cervical spine can be considered as clinically insignificant and do not require treatment 3)

Clinicians should maintain high indices of suspicion for associated injuries in patients with isolated transverse process fractures especially after high-velocity mechanisms 4).

1.- Fracture of the right transverse process of C2 involving the transverse foramen.

2.- Similar fracture passing through right transverse foramen of C3.

Vertebral artery angiography should be considered when patients with transverse process fractures extending into the transverse foramen develop signs and symptoms of vertebrobasilar disease 5).

A case report demonstrates the severity of injury after minor trauma in the context of ankylosing spondylitis, the capacity for full recovery in oesophageal perforations in spinal trauma, and that clinical suspicion of such injuries allows early diagnosistreatment and reduced complications6).

Case series

The Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center patient database was queried (years 2005-2016) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 805: fracture of the vertebral column without mention of spinal cord injury.

A total of 129 patients with isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFs) were identified. Mean age was 38.1 years (range 15-92 years). Women were more likely to present with abdominal pain and associated kidney injury (P = 0.018 and P = 0.012, respectively). Motor vehicle accident (MVA) was the most common mechanism of injury (n = 81, 62.8%) and was associated with thoracic (P = 0.032) and lower extremity pain/injury (P = 0.005). Back pain was the most common presenting symptom (n = 71, 64.6%) and was associated with intraabdominal and lower extremity injuries (P = 0.032 and P = 0.016, respectively). Chest and neck pain were associated with vascular injuries (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Spine consult (neurosurgery or orthopedic surgery) was frequent (n = 94, 72.9%) and was more common after MVA versus fall (P = 0.018).

Several factors were identified as significant markers of associated injuries, including female sex, MVA, and presenting symptoms. Neck and chest pain were significantly associated with vascular injuries. Clinicians should maintain high indices of suspicion for associated injuries in patients with ITPFs, especially after high-velocity mechanisms 7).


21 patients (2.4%) had 25 isolated TPFs of the subaxial cervical spine. The seventh vertebra was involved predominantly (76%). The initial treatment regimen was unrestricted movement in all patients. No associated adverse events were observed. A follow-up of 13 to 39 months was available in 14 patients. Follow-up showed a stable and intact subaxial cervical spine in all patients’ radiographs, a patient satisfaction of 9.3 (SD 1.48), a Cybex measured range of motion in the sagittal plane of 109 degrees (SD 12.5, 95-129), the frontal plane of 70 (SD 17.8, 37-100) and the transverse plane of 144 (SD 12.5, 116-164), and a mean neck disability index score of 3.93 (SD 8.24).

The incidence of isolated TPFs of the subaxial cervical spine was 2.4%. Unrestricted movement resulted in satisfying functional, anatomic, and neurologic outcomes without associated adverse events. This study confirms that isolated TPFs of the subaxial cervical spine can be considered as clinically insignificant and do not require treatment 8).


Patients for a retrospective, institutional review board-approved study were identified by reviewing the daily neurosurgical census from July 2004 to February 2007. Data were collected by chart review on all patients with TPF-grouped into isolated fractures (iTPF) and fractures with other associated spinal injuries (aTPF). Other parameters evaluated included fracture location, other spinal injuries, nonspinal injuries, mechanical stability, neurologic findings, pain, and treatment (surgical stabilization or decompression or bracing or both).

Eighty-four patients with one or more TPF were identified-47 with iTPF and 37 with aTPF. All iTPF and aTPF patients were found to be neurologically intact. No patients with iTPF required surgery or bracing for spinal stability, but 4 aTPF needed surgery and 18 aTPF required bracing with a total of 22 requiring neurosurgical intervention (p < 0.0001). However, none of these patients received treatment for the TPF. Twenty-five patients had associated abdominal injuries (16 of 46 iTPF, 9 of 37 aTPF, p = 0.3335).

iTPF are not associated with neurologic deficit or structural instability requiring spine service intervention. Therefore, conservative management without neurosurgical or orthopedic consultation is appropriate. When TPF are identified, diligence in searching for other spinal injuries or abdominal injuries should be exercised, as these associated injuries occur frequently 9).


In a retrospective study of 216 patients with cervical fractures evaluated by plain films and computed tomography, Woodring et al., found that transverse process fractures were common. Transverse process fractures were present in 24% of patients with cervical fractures and accounted for 13.2% of all cervical fractures. Cervical radiculopathy and brachial plexus palsy were present in 10% of patients with transverse process fractures. In 78% of transverse process fractures, CT scanning showed that the fracture extended into the transverse foramenVertebral artery angiography, performed in eight patients with fractures involving the transverse foramen, showed dissection or occlusion of the vertebral artery in seven (88%) instances. Two of these seven patients had clinical evidence of vertebral-basilar artery stroke. Vertebral angiography should be considered when patients with transverse process fractures extending into the transverse foramen develop signs and symptoms of vertebrobasilar disease 10).


A 66 year old man fell backwards from the first rung of a ladder sustaining a cervical transverse process fracture of C6 vertebral body and a new diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. He was taken for surgical fixation, however his oesophagus was discovered entrapped within the fracture at the time of surgery. Despite the severity of the injury, with surgical reduction, fixation and oesophageal exclusion this patient made a full recovery.

This case demonstrates the severity of injury after minor trauma in the context of ankylosing spondylitis, the capacity for full recovery in oesophageal perforations in spinal trauma, and that clinical suspicion of such injuries allows early diagnosistreatment and reduced complications11).


A 40-year-old building and construction male worker who slipped and fell on an iron rod that resulted in penetrating wound on the right side of the anterior neck a week prior to presenting at our facility. He pulled out the iron rod immediately. Computer tomography angiography (CTA) done revealed C2-C4 transverse process fractures on the right side and a fracture at the right lamina of C3 and right common carotid artery dissection with stenosis. He was successfully treated with stenting via endovascular approach.

Richard et al., adopted the view that patient should never pull out objects that result in Penetrating neck injuries (PNI) because of complex neurovascular architecture of the neck. The mortality rate of the patient will have doubled if the iron rode penetrated the common carotid artery. The gold standard treatment option for carotid artery dissection and stenosis is endovascular approaches 12).

References

1)

Green NE, Swiontkowski MF. Skeletal Trauma in Children: Expert Consult – Print and Online, 4e. Saunders. ISBN:1416049002.
2) , 9)

Bradley LH, Paullus WC, Howe J, Litofsky NS. Isolated transverse process fractures: spine service management not needed. J Trauma. 2008 Oct;65(4):832-6; discussion 836. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318184d30e. PubMed PMID: 18849799.
3) , 8)

Schotanus M, van Middendorp JJ, Hosman AJ. Isolated transverse process fractures of the subaxial cervical spine: a clinically insignificant injury or not?: a prospective, longitudinal analysis in a consecutive high-energy blunt trauma population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Sep 1;35(19):E965-70. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181c9464e. PubMed PMID: 20479701.
4) , 7)

Bui TT, Nagasawa DT, Lagman C, Jacky Chen CH, Chung LK, Voth BL, Beckett JS, Tucker AM, Niu T, Gaonkar B, Yang I, Macyszyn L. Isolated Transverse Process Fractures and Markers of Associated Injuries: The Experience at University of California, Los Angeles. World Neurosurg. 2017 Aug;104:82-88. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.04.137. Epub 2017 Apr 28. PubMed PMID: 28461275.
5) , 10)

Woodring JH, Lee C, Duncan V. Transverse process fractures of the cervical vertebrae: are they insignificant? J Trauma. 1993 Jun;34(6):797-802. PubMed PMID: 8315673.
6) , 11)

Vonhoff CR, Scandrett K, Al-Khawaja D. Minor trauma in ankylosing spondylitis causing combined cervical spine fracture and oesophageal injury. World Neurosurg. 2018 Jul 30. pii: S1878-8750(18)31658-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.07.180. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30071342.
12)

Richard SA, Zhang CW, Wu C, Ting W, Xiaodong X. Traumatic Penetrating Neck Injury with Right Common Carotid Artery Dissection and Stenosis Effectively Managed with Stenting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Rep Vasc Med. 2018 Jun 10;2018:4602743. doi: 10.1155/2018/4602743. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29984035; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6015681.
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