Pituitary apoplexy treatment

Pituitary apoplexy treatment

Optimal pituitary apoplexy management remains controversial.

The pituitary function is consistently compromised, necessitating rapid administration of corticosteroids and endocrine evaluation.


Patients with pituitary apoplexy may have a spontaneous remission of hormonal hypersecretion. If it is not an emergency, we should delay a decision to undertake surgery following apoplexy and re-evaluate hormone secretion. Hyponatremia is an acute sign of hypocortisolism in pituitary apoplexy. However, SIADH although uncommon, could appear later as a consequence of direct hypothalamic insult and requires active and individualized treatment. For this reason, closely monitoring sodium at the beginning of the episode and throughout the first week is advisable to guard against SIADH. Despite being less frequent, if pituitary apoplexy is limited to the tumor, the patient can recover pituitary function previously damaged by the undiagnosed macroadenoma 1).


In the absence of visual deficits, prolactinomas may be treated with bromocriptine.

Rapid decompression is required for: sudden constriction of visual fields, severe and/or rapid deterioration of acuity, or neurologic deterioration due to hydrocephalus. Surgery in ≤7 days of pituitary apoplexy resulted in better improvement in ophthalmoplegia (100%), visual acuity (88%) and field cuts (95%) than surgery after 7 days, based on a retrospective study of 37 patients. 2).

Decompression is usually via a transsphenoidal route (transcranial approach may be advantageous in some cases).

A systematic literature search was performed of MedLineEmbase, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science for articles published between January 1992 and September 2014. Studies of the outcomes in consecutive patients that compared surgical intervention with non-surgical treatment for pituitary apoplexy were included.

Six studies met the inclusion criteria. As compared to the non-surgically treated patients, surgically treated patients had a significantly higher rate of recovery of ocular palsy and visual field (both P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the recovery of visual acuity and pituitary function (P>0.05) between the two groups.

The findings of this study suggest that surgical intervention should be advocated for pituitary apoplexy patients with visual field defects and ocular palsy 3).

Goals of surgery

1. To decompress the following structures if under pressure: optic apparatus, pituitary glandcavernous sinusthird ventricle (relieving hydrocephalus)

2. Obtain tissue for pathology

3. Complete removal of the tumor is usually not necessary

4. For hydrocephalus: ventricular drainage is generally required.

References

1)

Sanz-Sapera E, Sarria-Estrada S, Arikan F, Biagetti B. Acromegaly remission, SIADH and pituitary function recovery after macroadenoma apoplexy. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2019 Jul 15;2019(1). doi: 10.1530/EDM-19-0057. PubMed PMID: 31310082.
2)

Bills DC, Meyer FB, Laws ER,Jr, Davis DH, Ebersold MJ, Scheithauer BW, Ilstrup DM, Abboud CF. A retrospective analysis of pituitary apoplexy. Neurosurgery. 1993; 33:602–8; discussion 608-9
3)

Tu M, Lu Q, Zhu P, Zheng W. Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for pituitary apoplexy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol Sci. 2016 Nov 15;370:258-262. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.09.047. Review. PubMed PMID: 27772771.

Cervical traumatic spinal cord injury outcome

Cervical traumatic spinal cord injury outcome

Injury to the spine and spinal cord is one of the common cause of disability and death. Several factors affect the outcome; but which are these factors (alone and in combination), are determining the outcomes are still unknown.

Based on parameters from the International Standards, physicians are able to inform patients about the predicted long-term outcomes, including the ability to walk, with high accuracy. In those patients who cannot participate in a reliable physical neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological examinations may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information. As clinical research on this topic continues, the prognostic value of the reviewed diagnostic assessments will become more accurate in the near future. These advances will provide useful information for physicians to counsel tSCI patients and their families during the catastrophic initial phase after the injury 1).

In cervical traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), the therapeutic effect of timing of surgery on neurological recovery remains uncertain. Additionally, the relationship between the extent of decompression, imaging biomarker evidence of injury severity, and the outcome are incompletely understood.

Aarabi et al., investigated the effect of timing of decompression on long-term neurological outcome in patients with complete spinal cord decompression confirmed on postoperative MRI. AIS grade conversion was determined in 72 AIS grades A, B, and C patients 6 months after confirmed decompression. Thirty-two patients underwent decompressive surgery ultra-early (<12 hours), 25 early (12-24 hours), and 15 late (>24-138.5 hours) after injury. Age, gender, injury mechanism, intramedullary lesion length (IMLL) on MRI, admission ASIA motor score, and surgical technique were not statistically different between groups. Motor complete patients (p=0.009) and those with fracture-dislocations (p=0.01) tended to be operated earlier. Improvement of one grade or more was present in 55.6% in AIS grade A, 60.9% in AIS grade B, and 86.4% in AIS grade C patients. Admission AIS motor score (p=0.0004) and pre-operative IMLL (p=0.00001) were the strongest predictors of neurological outcome. AIS grade improvement occurred in 65.6%, 60%, and 80% of patients who underwent decompression ultra-early, early, and late, respectively (p=0.424). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IMLL was the only significant variable predictive of AIS grade conversion to a better grade (odds ratio, 0.908; CI, 0.862-0.957; p<0.001).

They conclude that in patients with postoperative MRI confirmation of complete decompression following cervical TSCI, pre-operative IMLL, not the timing of surgery, determine the long-term neurological outcome 2).


Preclinical and class III clinical data suggest improved outcomes by maintaining the mean arterial pressure > 85 mm Hg and avoiding hypoxemia at least for 7 days following cervical SCI, and this level of monitoring and support should occur in the ICU 3).


100 cases of patients under 18 years at accident with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury admitted to spinal cord injury SCI centers participating in the European Multi-center study about SCI (EMSCI) between January 2005 and April 2016 were reviewed. According to their age at the accident, age 13 to 17, patients were selected for the adolescent group. After applying in- and exclusion criteria 32 adolescents were included. Each adolescent patient was matched with two adult SCI patients for analysis.

ASIA Impairment scale (AIS) grade, neurological, sensory, motor level, total motor score, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) total score.

Mean AIS conversion, neurological, motor and sensory levels, as well as total motor score, showed no significant statistical difference in adolescents compared to the adult control group after a follow up of 6 months. Significantly higher final SCIM scores (p < 0.05) in the adolescent group compared to adults as well as a strong trend for a higher gain in SCIM score (p < 0.061) between first and last follow up was found.

Neurological outcome after traumatic cervical SCI is not superior in adolescents compared to adults in this cohort. Significantly higher SCIM scores indicate more functional gain for adolescent patients after traumatic cervical SCI. Juvenile age appears to be an independent predictor for a better functional outcome. 4).


A prospective observational study at single-center with all patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), attending our hospital within a week of injury during a period of October 2011 to July 2013 was included for analysis. Demographic factors such as age, gender, etiology of injury, preoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade, upper (C2-C4) versus lower (C5-C7) cervical level of injury, image factors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and timing of intervention were studied. Change in neurological status by one or more ASIA grade from the date of admission to 6 months follow-up was taken as an improvement. Functional grading was assessed using the functional independence measure (FIM) scale at 6 months follow-up.

A total of 39 patients with an acute cervical spine injury, managed surgically were included in this study. Follow-up was available for 38 patients at 6 months. No improvement was noted in patients with ASIA Grade A. Maximum improvement was noted in ASIA Grade D group (83.3%). The improvement was more significant in lower cervical region injuries. Patients with cord contusion showed no improvement as opposed to those with just edema wherein; the improvement was seen in 62.5% of patients. The percentage of improvement in cord edema ≤3 segments (75%) was significantly higher than edema with >3 segments (42.9%). Maximum improvement in FIM score was noted in ASIA Grade C and patients who had edema (especially ≤3 segments) in MRI cervical spine.

Complete cervical SCI, upper-level cervical cord injury, patients showing MRI contusion, edema >3 segments group have a worst improvement in neurological status at 6 months follow-up 5).


A total of 66 patients diagnosed with traumatic cervical SCI were selected for neurological assessment (using the International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury [ISNCSCI]) and functional evaluation (based on the Korean version Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI] and Functional Independence Measure [FIM]) at admission and upon discharge. All of the subjects received a preliminary electrophysiological assessment, according to which they were divided into two groups as follows: those with cervical radiculopathy (the SCI/Rad group) and those without (the SCI group).

A total of 32 patients with cervical SCI (48.5%) had cervical radiculopathy. The initial ISNCSCI scores for sensory and motor, K-MBI, and total FIM did not significantly differ between the SCI group and the SCI/Rad group. However, at discharge, the ISNCSCI scores for motor, K-MBI, and FIM of the SCI/Rad group showed less improvement (5.44±8.08, 15.19±19.39 and 10.84±11.49, respectively) than those of the SCI group (10.76±9.86, 24.79±19.65 and 17.76±15.84, respectively) (p<0.05). In the SCI/Rad group, the number of involved levels of cervical radiculopathy was negatively correlated with the initial and follow-up motors score by ISNCSCI.

Cervical radiculopathy is not rare in patients with traumatic cervical SCI, and it can impede neurological and functional improvement. Therefore, detection of combined cervical radiculopathy by electrophysiological assessment is essential for the accurate prognosis of cervical SCI patients in the rehabilitation unit 6).

References

1)

van Middendorp JJ, Goss B, Urquhart S, Atresh S, Williams RP, Schuetz M. Diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic spinal cord injury. Global Spine J. 2011 Dec;1(1):1-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296049. PubMed PMID: 24353930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3864437.
2)

Aarabi B, Akhtar-Danesh N, Chryssikos T, Shanmuganathan K, Schwartzbauer G, Simard MJ, Olexa J, Sansur C, Crandall K, Mushlin H, Kole M, Le E, Wessell A, Pratt N, Cannarsa G, Diaz Lomangino C, Scarboro M, Aresco C, Oliver J, Caffes N, Carbine S, Kanami M. Efficacy of Ultra-Early (<12 hours), Early (12-24 hours), and Late (>24-138.5 hours) Surgery with MRI-Confirmed Decompression in AIS grades A, B, and C Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.1089/neu.2019.6606. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31310155.
3)

Schwartzbauer G, Stein D. Critical Care of Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries: Preventing Secondary Injury. Semin Neurol. 2016 Dec;36(6):577-585. Epub 2016 Dec 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 27907962.
4)

Geuther M, Grassner L, Mach O, Klein B, Högel F, Voth M, Bühren V, Maier D, Abel R, Weidner N, Rupp R, Fürstenberg CH; EMSCI study group, Schneidmueller D. Functional outcome after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury is superior in adolescents compared to adults. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2018 Dec 11. pii: S1090-3798(18)30247-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.12.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30579697.
5)

Srinivas BH, Rajesh A, Purohit AK. Factors affecting the outcome of acute cervical spine injury: A prospective study. Asian J Neurosurg. 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):416-423. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.180942. PubMed PMID: 28761518; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5532925.
6)

Kim SY, Kim TU, Lee SJ, Hyun JK. The prognosis for patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury combined with cervical radiculopathy. Ann Rehabil Med. 2014 Aug;38(4):443-9. doi: 10.5535/arm.2014.38.4.443. Epub 2014 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 25229022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4163583.

Myelomeningocele repair timing

Myelomeningocele repair timing

The optimal time to closure of a newborn with an open neural tube defect (NTD-myelomeningocele) has been the subject of a number of investigations. One aspect of timing that has received attention is its relationship to repair site and central nervous system (CNS) infection that can lead to irreversible deficits and prolonged hospital stays.

Clinical guidelines recommend repair of open spina bifida (SB) prenatally or within the first days of an infant’s life.


A prospective, randomized study (the MOMS trial) has shown that fetal surgery for MMC before 26 weeks’ gestation may preserve neurologic function, reverse the hindbrain herniation of the Chiari II malformation, and obviate the need for postnatal placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. However, this study also demonstrates that fetal surgery is associated with significant risks related to the uterine scar and premature birth. In the future, research will expand our understanding of the pathophysiology of MMC, evaluate the long-term impact of in-utero intervention, and to refine timing and technique of fetal MMC surgery using tissue engineering technology 1).

Controversies

In a cohort from Texas, over one-quarter of patients undergoing postnatal myelomeningocele repair experienced a complication within 30 days. The complication rate was significantly higher in patients who had surgical repair within the first 24 hours of birth than in patients who had surgery after the 1st day of life 2).


Kancherla et al., examined 2006 to 2011 births from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, linking to hospital discharge and vital records. Selected maternal, infant, and delivery hospital characteristics were evaluated to understand disparities in timely repair. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Overall, 399 of the 450 (89%) infants had a timely repair and approximately 80% of them were delivered in level III/IV hospitals. Infants with hydrocephalus were significantly less likely to have a delayed myelomeningocele repair compared with those without (aRR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.39); infants whose medical care was paid by Medi-Cal or other nonprivate insurance were 2.2 times more likely to have a delayed repair compared with those covered by a private insurance (aRR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.17, 4.27). Low birth weight was a significant predictor for delayed repair (aRR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.83).

There was a significant disparity in myelomenigocele repair based on medical care payer. Families and hospitals should work together for timely repair in hospitals having specialized multidisciplinary teams. Findings from the study can be used to follow best clinical practices for myelomeningocele repair 3).


Treatment outcomes following documented times to transfer and closure were evaluated at Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) for the years 2004 to 2014. Data of newborns with a myelomeningocele with varying time to repair were also obtained from non-overlapping abstracts of the 2000-2010 Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) and Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Poisson multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of time to repair on infection and time to discharge.

At CHLA, 95 neonates who underwent myelomeningocele repair were identified, with a median time from birth to treatment of 1 day. Six (6 %) patients were noted to have postrepair complications. CHLA data was not sufficiently powered to detect a difference in infection following delay in closure. In the NIS, we identified 3775 neonates with repaired myelomeningocele of whom infection was reported in 681 (18 %) patients. There was no significant difference in rates of infection between same-day and 1-day wait times (p = 0.22). Wait times of two (RR = 1.65 [1.23, 2.22], p < 0.01) or more days (RR = 1.88 [1.39, 2.54], p < 0.01), respectively, experienced a 65 % and 88 increase in rates of infection compared to same-day procedures. Prolonged wait time was 32 % less likely at facilities with increased myelomeningocele repair volume (RR = 0.68 [0.56 0.83], p < 0.01). The presence of infection was associated with a 54 % (RR = 1.54 [1.36, 1.74], p < 0.01) increase in the length of stay when compared to neonates without infection.

Myelomeningocele closure, when delayed more than 1 day after birth, is associated with an increased rate of infection and length of stay in the national cohort. High-volume centers are associated with fewer delays to repair. Though constrained by limitations of a national coded database, these results suggest that early myelomeningocele repair decreases the rate of infection 4).


In a retrospective, statewide, population-based study examined infants with open spina bifida (SB) born in Florida 1998-2007. Most infants with SB had surgical repair in the first 2 days of life. Lower level birth hospital nursery care was associated with later repairs 5).

References

1)

Adzick NS. Fetal surgery for spina bifida: past, present, future. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 Feb;22(1):10-7. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2012.10.003. Review. PubMed PMID: 23395140; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6225063.
2)

Cherian J, Staggers KA, Pan IW, Lopresti M, Jea A, Lam S. Thirty-day outcomes after postnatal myelomeningocele repair: a National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Oct;18(4):416-422. Epub 2016 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 27258591.
3)

Kancherla V, Ma C, Grant G, Lee HC, Shaw GM, Hintz SR, Carmichael SL. Factors Associated with Timeliness of Surgical Repair among Infants with Myelomeningocele: California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, 2006 to 2011. Am J Perinatol. 2019 Jul 15. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1693127. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31307103.
4)

Attenello FJ, Tuchman A, Christian EA, Wen T, Chang KE, Nallapa S, Cen SY, Mack WJ, Krieger MD, McComb JG. Infection rate correlated with time to repair of open neural tube defects (myelomeningoceles): an institutional and national study. Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Sep;32(9):1675-81. doi: 10.1007/s00381-016-3165-4. Epub 2016 Jul 21. PubMed PMID: 27444296.
5)

Radcliff E, Cassell CH, Laditka SB, Thibadeau JK, Correia J, Grosse SD, Kirby RS. Factors associated with the timeliness of postnatal surgical repair of spina bifida. Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Aug;32(8):1479-87. doi: 10.1007/s00381-016-3105-3. Epub 2016 May 14. PubMed PMID: 27179533; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5007061.
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