Cerebellar mutism

Cerebellar mutism

Incidence of cerebellar mutism: 11–29% of children following surgery for cerebellar tumor2) including cerebellar medulloblastoma (53%), posterior fossa ependymoma (33%) & cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (11%) 3).

It has also been reported in both children and adults following several other cerebellar insults, including vascular events, infections, and trauma 4).

The uncertain etiology of PFS, myriad of cited risk factors and therapeutic challenges make this phenomenon an elusive entity.

Cerebellar mutism is a rare occurrence following paediatric trauma 5) 6) 7) 8). , this phenomenon has rarely been reported following other insults, such as trauma, and its pathophysiology remains poorly understood.

A seven-year-old child who presented to the casualty department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in May 2013 with a traumatic right cerebellar contusion. The child presented with clinical features of cerebellar mutism but underwent a rapid and spontaneous recovery 9).

The pathogenic mechanism is likely due to the damage occurring to the proximal efferent cerebellar pathway, including the dentate nucleus, the superior cerebellar peduncle, and its decussation in the mesencephalic tegmentum 10).

Superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles and the superior part of the cerebellum were related to CMS, especially the right side 11).

This syndrome involves a variety of signs and symptoms including cerebellar mutism or speech disturbances, dysphagia, decreased motor movement, cranial nerve palsy and, emotional lability. These signs and symptoms develop from an average range of 24 to 107 hours after surgery and may take weeks to months to resolve.

Multi-inflow time arterial spin-labeling shows promise as a noninvasive tool to evaluate cerebral perfusion in the setting of pediatric obstructive hydrocephalus and demonstrates increased CBF following the resolution of cerebellar mutism syndrome 12).

The importance of olivary hypertrophic degeneration as a differential diagnosis in cerebellar mutism syndrome 13).

Early recognition of this syndrome could facilitate preventive and restorative patient care, prevent subsequent complications, decrease length of hospital stays, and promote patient and family understanding of and coping with the syndrome 14).

20 cases of PFS (8%), 12 males and 8 females. Age ranged from 1.5 to 13 years (mean = 6.5). Of the 20, 16 were medulloblastoma, 3 ependymoma and 1 astrocytoma. There was a 21 % incidence (16/76) of PFS in medulloblastoma of the posterior fossa. The incidence for ependymoma was 13% (3/24) and 1% (1/102) for astrocytoma. All 20 cases (100%) had brainstem involvement by the tumor. The most frequent postoperative findings included mutism, ataxia, 6th and 7th nerve palsies and hemiparesis. Mutism had a latency range of 1-7 days (mean = 1.7) and a duration of 6-365 days (mean = 69.2, median = 35). Although mutism resolved in all cases, the remaining neurologic complications which characterized our findings of PFS were rarely reversible. We describe potential risk factors for developing PFS after surgery with hopes of making neurosurgeons more aware of potential problems following the removal of lesions in this area. Early recognition of PFS would further promote patient and family understanding and coping with this síndrome 15)


19 children diagnosed with posterior fossa syndrome 16)


1)

Rekate HL, Grubb RL, Aram DM, Hahn JF, Ratcheson RA. Muteness of cerebellar origin. Arch Neurol. 1985;42:697–8. doi: 10.1001/archneur.1985.04060070091023.
2)

Gudrunardottir T, Sehested A, Juhler M, et al. Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011; 27:355–363
3)

Catsman-Berrevoets C E, Van Dongen HR, Mulder PG, et al. Tumour type and size are high risk factors for the syndrome of “cerebellar” mutism and subsequent dysarthria. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999; 67:755–757
4)

Gudrunardottir T, Sehested A, Juhler M, Schmiegelow K. Cerebellar mutism: Review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:355–63. doi: 10.1007/s00381-010-1328-2.
5)

Erşahin Y, Mutluer S, Saydam S, Barçin E. Cerebellar mutism: Report of two unusual cases and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1997;99:130–4. doi: 10.1016/S0303-8467(97)80010-8.
6)

Fujisawa H, Yonaha H, Okumoto K, Uehara H, le T, Nagata Y, et al. Mutism after evacuation of acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:234–6. doi: 10.1007/s00381-004-0999-y.
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Koh S, Turkel SB, Baram TZ. Cerebellar mutism in children: Report of six cases and potential mechanisms. Pediatr Neurol. 1997;16:218–19. doi: 10.1016/S0887-8994(97)00018-0.
8)

Yokota H, Nakazawa S, Kobayashi S, Taniguchi Y, Yukihide T. [Clinical study of two cases of traumatic cerebellar injury] No Shinkei Geka. 1990;18:67–70.
9)

Kariyattil R, Rahim MI, Muthukuttiparambil U. Cerebellar mutism following closed head injury in a child. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2015 Feb;15(1):e133-5. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 25685374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4318595.
10)

Fabozzi F, Margoni S, Andreozzi B, Musci MS, Del Baldo G, Boccuto L, Mastronuzzi A, Carai A. Cerebellar mutism syndrome: From pathophysiology to rehabilitation. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Dec 2;10:1082947. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.1082947. PMID: 36531947; PMCID: PMC9755514.
11)

Yang W, Li Y, Ying Z, Cai Y, Peng X, Sun H, Chen J, Zhu K, Hu G, Peng Y, Ge M. A presurgical voxel-wise predictive model for cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with posterior fossa tumors. Neuroimage Clin. 2022 Dec 13;37:103291. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103291. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36527996; PMCID: PMC9791171.
12)

Toescu SM, Hales PW, Cooper J, Dyson EW, Mankad K, Clayden JD, Aquilina K, Clark CA. Arterial Spin-Labeling Perfusion Metrics in Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumor Surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2022 Oct;43(10):1508-1515. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7637. Epub 2022 Sep 22. PMID: 36137658; PMCID: PMC9575521.
13)

Ballestero M, de Oliveira RS. The importance of olivary hypertrophic degeneration as a differential diagnosis in cerebellar mutism syndrome. Childs Nerv Syst. 2022 Dec 21. doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05815-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36542117.
14) , 16)

Kirk EA, Howard VC, Scott CA. Description of posterior fossa syndrome in children after posterior fossa brain tumor surgery. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 1995 Oct;12(4):181-7. PubMed PMID: 7495523.
15)

Doxey D, Bruce D, Sklar F, Swift D, Shapiro K. Posterior fossa syndrome: identifiable risk factors and irreversible complications. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1999 Sep;31(3):131-6. PubMed PMID: 10708354.

Tranexamic acid for intracranial meningioma

Tranexamic acid for intracranial meningioma

Based upon Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Wijaya et al. from the Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, BantenIndonesia, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CES University, El Poblado, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. collected fully published English literature on the administration of tranexamic acid for patients undergoing intracranial meningioma surgery using the keywords [“tranexamic acid” and “meningioma”] and its synonyms from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Database, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and PubMed. The primary outcome of the current study was total blood loss. The secondary outcomes include individuals requiring blood transfusionanesthesia duration, surgical duration, and complication rate. Each included study’s quality was assessed using the JADAD scale.

For qualitative and quantitative data synthesis, they included five RCTs (n = 321) with a mean age was 47.5 ± 11.9 years for the intervention group and 47.2 ± 11.9 years for the control group. The meta-analysis showed that the administration of TXA is associated with decreased total blood loss of standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.40 (95% CI [-2.49, -0.31]), anesthetic time SMD -0.36 (95% CI [-0.63, -0.09]), and blood transfusion requirements RR 0.58 (95% CI [0.34, 0.99]).

The current study showed that TXA was associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss and intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion. However, the studies are small. More RCT studies with a greater sample size are favorable 1).

Patients with supratentorial meningiomas and deemed suitable for surgical resection will be recruited in the trial. Patients will be randomized to receive either a single administration of 20 mg/kg TXA or a placebo of the same volume with a 1:1 allocation ratio after anesthesia induction. The primary endpoint is the cumulative incidence of early postoperative seizures within 7 days after craniotomy. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of non-seizure complications, changes in hemoglobin level from baseline, intraoperative blood loss, erythrocyte transfusion volume, Karnofsky Performance Status, all-cause mortality, length of stay, and total hospitalization cost.

Ethics and dissemination: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov and approved by the Chinese Ethics Committee of Registering Clinical Trials (ChiECRCT20200224). The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences relevant to the subject fields.

Trial registration number: NCT04595786 2).


conducted a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical study. The patient scheduled to undergo excision of intracranial meningioma were randomly assigned to receive intraoperatively either intravenous TXA or placebo. Patients in the TXA group received an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg over 20 min followed by an infusion of 1 mg/kg/h up to surgical wound closure. Efficacy was evaluated based on total blood loss and transfusion requirements. Postoperatively, thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation were noted.

Ninety-one patients were enrolled and randomized: 45 received TXA (TXA group) and 46 received placebo (group placebo). Total blood loss was significantly decreased in the TXA group compared to the placebo (283 ml vs. 576 ml; P < 0.001). Transfusion requirements were comparable in the two groups (P = 0.95). The incidence of thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation were similar in the two groups.

TXA significantly reduces intraoperative blood loss but did not significantly reduce transfusion requirements in adults undergoing resection of intracranial meningioma 3).

Thirty patients aged 18-65 years undergoing elective meningioma resection surgery were given either tranexamic acid or placebo (0.9% saline), tranexamic acid at a loading dose of 20 mg/kg, and infusion of 1 mg/kg/h during surgery. The intraoperative blood loss, coagulation profile, and the surgical field using the Likert scale were assessed.

The patients in the tranexamic group had significantly decreased intraoperative blood loss compared to the placebo group (616.42 ± 393.42 ml vs. 1150.02 ± 416.1 ml) (P = 0.02). The quality of the surgical field was better in the tranexamic group (median score 4 vs. 2 on Likert Scale) (P < 0.001). Patients in the tranexamic group had an improved coagulation profile and decreased blood transfusion requirement (p=0.016). The blood collected in the closed suction drain in 24 h postsurgery was less in the tranexamic acid group compared to the placebo group (84.7 ± 50.4 ml vs. 127.6 ± 62.2 ml) (P = 0.047).

Tranexamic acid bolus followed by infusion reduces perioperative blood loss by 46.43% and blood transfusion requirement with improved surgical field and coagulation profile in patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection surgery 4).


In the Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, Sixty adults undergoing elective craniotomy for meningioma excision were randomized to receive either tranexamic acid or placebo, initiated prior to skin incision. Patients in the tranexamic acid group received an intravenous bolus of 20mg/kg over 20min followed by an infusion of 1mg/kg/h till the conclusion of surgery. Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements, and estimating surgical hemostasis using a 5-grade scale were noted. Postoperatively, the extent of tumor excision on CT scan and complications were observed. Demographics, tumor characteristics, amount of fluid infusion, and duration of surgery and anesthesia were comparable between the two groups. The amount of blood loss was significantly less in the tranexamic acid group compared to the placebo (830mlvs 1124ml; p=0.03). The transfusion requirement was less in the tranexamic acid group (p>0.05). The patients in the tranexamic acid group fared better on a 5-grade surgical hemostasis scale with more patients showing good hemostasis (p=0.007). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications, hospital stay, or neurologic outcome. To conclude, the administration of tranexamic acid significantly reduced blood loss in patients undergoing excision of meningioma. Fewer patients in the tranexamic acid group received blood transfusions. Surgical field hemostasis was better achieved in patients who received tranexamic acid 5).

A man in his 40s with a history of coronary artery disease previously treated with a drug-eluting stent presented for elective craniotomy and resection of an asymptomatic but enlarging meningioma. During his craniotomy, he received desmopressin and tranexamic acid for surgical bleeding. Postoperatively, the patient developed chest pain and was found to have an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Because of the patient’s recent neurosurgery, standard post-MI care was contraindicated and he was managed symptomatically in the intensive care unit. The echocardiogram on a postoperative day 1 demonstrated no regional wall motion abnormalities and an ejection fraction of 60%. His presentation was consistent with the thrombosis of his diagonal stent. He was transferred out of the intensive care unit on postoperative day 1 and discharged home on postoperative day 3 6).


Raghavendra et al. report the intraoperative use of tranexamic acid to secure complete hemostasis as a rescue measure in intracranial meningioma resection in uncontrollable bleeding 7).


Three of 13 patients with intracranial meningiomas showed the pre-and postoperative elevation of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) related fibrinolytic activity in euglobulin fractions (EFA). During the operation, two of these three patients showed a significant elevation of the level of fibrinogen degradation products and oozing in the operating field. However, oozing was not observed in the third patient who had been given tranexamic acid preoperatively. Fibrin autography revealed that a broad lytic band of mol wt 50-60 kDa, probably free t-PA, appeared in the plasma obtained from two of the three patients after the operation when EFA elevated significantly. In all patients studied, the t-PA antigen levels were normal preoperatively but increased both during and after the operation, and correlated mainly with the intensities of a lytic band of mol wt 110 kDa, probably t-PA complexed with its major inhibitor (PAI-1). These results suggest that excessive fibrinolysis can induce local hemorrhagic diathesis during operation and may be related to t-PA function in plasma 8).


1)

Wijaya JH, July J, Quintero-Consuegra M, Chadid DP. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of tranexamic acid in surgical procedure for intracranial meningioma. J Neurooncol. 2023 Jan 12. doi: 10.1007/s11060-023-04237-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36633801.
2)

Li S, Yan X, Li R, Zhang X, Ma T, Zeng M, Dong J, Wang J, Liu X, Peng Y. Safety of intravenous tranexamic acid in patients undergoing supratentorial meningiomas resection: protocol for a randomized, parallel-group, placebo control, non-inferiority trial. BMJ Open. 2022 Feb 2;12(2):e052095. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052095. PMID: 35110315; PMCID: PMC8811564.
3)

Rebai L, Mahfoudhi N, Fitouhi N, Daghmouri MA, Bahri K. Intraoperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Surg Neurol Int. 2021 Jun 14;12:289. doi: 10.25259/SNI_177_2021. PMID: 34221620; PMCID: PMC8247750.
4)

Ravi GK, Panda N, Ahluwalia J, Chauhan R, Singla N, Mahajan S. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss, coagulation profile, and quality of the surgical field in intracranial meningioma resection: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Surg Neurol Int. 2021 Jun 7;12:272. doi: 10.25259/SNI_296_2021. PMID: 34221603; PMCID: PMC8247710.
5)

Hooda B, Chouhan RS, Rath GP, Bithal PK, Suri A, Lamsal R. Effect of tranexamic acid on intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma. J Clin Neurosci. 2017 Mar 7. pii: S0967-5868(16)31491-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.02.053. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28283245.
6)

Westfall KM, Ramcharan RN, Anderson HL 3rd. Myocardial infarction after craniotomy for asymptomatic meningioma. BMJ Case Rep. 2022 Dec 29;15(12):e252256. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-252256. PMID: 36581354; PMCID: PMC9806024.
7)

Raghavendra H, Varsha KS, Reddy MA, Kumar SS, Sunanda G, Nagarjuna T, Latha S. Rescue Measure in Giant Intracranial Meningioma Resection by Tranexamic Acid. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2017 Aug;8(Suppl 1):S127-S129. doi: 10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_198_17. PMID: 28936089; PMCID: PMC5602238.
8)

Tsuda H, Oka K, Noutsuka Y, Sueishi K. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in patients with intracranial meningiomas. Thromb Haemost. 1988 Dec 22;60(3):508-13. PMID: 3149049.

ShuntScope

ShuntScope

Autoclavable reusable SHUNTSCOPE® is designed to facilitate the endoscopic ventricular drainage placement during shunt surgery.

A retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients undergoing ventricular catheter placement using the ShuntScope from 01/2012 to 01/2022 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg was performed. Demographic, clinical, and radiological data were evaluated. The visualization quality of the intraoperative endoscopy was stratified into the categories of excellent, medium, and poor and compared to the postoperative catheter tip placement. Follow-up evaluation included the surgical revision rate due to proximal catheter occlusion.

A total of 65 ShuntScope-assisted surgeries have been performed on 51 children. The mean age was 5.1 years. The most common underlying pathology was a tumor- or cyst-related hydrocephalus in 51%. Achieved image quality was excellent in 41.5%, medium in 43%, and poor in 15.5%. Ideal catheter placement was achieved in 77%. There were no intraoperative ventricular catheter placement complications and no technique-related morbidity associated with the ShuntScope. The revision rate due to proximal occlusion was 4.61% during a mean follow-up period of 39.7 years. No statistical correlation between image grade and accuracy of catheter position was observed (p-value was 0.290).

The ShuntScope can be considered a valuable addition to standard surgical tools in pediatric hydrocephalus treatment. Even suboptimal visualization contributes to high rates of correct catheter placement and, thereby, to a favorable clinical outcome 1).


The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy of catheter placement and the complication and revision rates between SG and freehand (FH) techniques.

A retrospective study based on a prospectively acquired database of patients who underwent VC placement between September 2018 and July 2021. The accuracy of catheter placement was graded on postoperative imaging using a three-point Hayhurst grading system. Complication and revision rates were documented and compared between both groups with an average follow-up period of 20.84 months.

Results: Fifty-seven patients were included. SG technique was used in 29 patients (mean age was 6.3 years, 1.4 -27.7 years, 48.1% females), and FH technique was used in 28 patients (mean age was 26.7 years, 0.83 – 79.5 years, 67.9% female). The success rate for the optimal placement of the VC with a grade I on the Hayhurst scale was significantly higher in the SG group (93.1%) than in the FH group (60.7%), P = 0.012. The revision rate was higher in the FH group with 35.7% vs. 20.7% of in the SG group, P = 0.211.

Conclusion: VC placement using the SG technique is a safe and effective procedure, which enabled a significantly higher success rate and lower revision and complication rate. Accordingly, we recommend using the SG technique especially in patients with difficult anatomy 2)


The experience of shuntscope-guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt in 9 cases done from June 2015 to April 2016. Shuntscope is a 1 mm outer diameter semi-rigid scope from Karl Storz with 10000 pixels of magnification. It has a fiber optic lens system with a camera and light source attachment away from the scope to make it lightweight and easily maneuverable.

Results: In all cases, VC was placed in the ipsilateral frontal horn away from choroid plexuses, septae, or membranes. Septum pellucidum perforation and placement to the opposite side of the ventricle was identified with shunt scope assistance and corrected.

Conclusion: Although our initial results are encouraging, larger case series would be helpful. Complications and cost due to shunt dysfunction can thus be reduced to a great extent with shuntscope 3)


The semi-rigid ShuntScope (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with an outer diameter of 1.0 mm and an image resolution of 10,000 pixels was used in a series of 27 children and adolescents (18 males, 9 females, age range 2 months-18 years). Indications included catheter placement in aqueductal stenting (n = 4), first-time shunt placement (n = 5), burr hole reservoir insertion (n = 4), catheter placement after endoscopic procedures (n = 7) and revision surgery of the ventricle catheter (n = 7).

ShuntScope-guided precise catheter placement was achieved in 26 of 27 patients. In one case of aqueductal stenting, the procedure had to be abandoned. One single wound healing problem was noted as a complication. Intraventricular image quality was always sufficient to recognize the anatomical structures. In the case of catheter removal, it was helpful to identify adherent vessels or membranes. Penetration of small adhesions or thin membranes was feasible. Postoperative imaging studies demonstrated catheter tip placements analogous to the intraoperative findings.

Misplacements of shunt catheters are completely avoidable with the presented intra-catheter technique including slit ventricles or even aqueductal stenting. Potential complications can be avoided during revision surgery. The implementation of the ShuntScope is recommended in pediatric neurosurgery 4).


1)

Prajsnar-Borak A, Teping F, Oertel J. Image quality and related outcomes of the ShuntScope for catheter implantation in pediatric hydrocephalus-experience of 65 procedures. Childs Nerv Syst. 2022 Dec 2. doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05776-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36459211.
2)

Issa M, Nofal M, Miotik N, Seitz A, Unterberg A, El Damaty A. ShuntScope®-Guided Versus Free Hand Technique for Ventricular Catheter Placement: A Retrospective Comparative Study of Intra-Ventricular Catheter Tip Position and Complication Rate. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2022 Feb 10. doi: 10.1055/a-1768-3892. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35144299.
3)

Agrawal V, Aher RB. Endoluminal Shuntscope-Guided Ventricular Catheter Placement: Early Experience. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1071-1073. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_98_17. PMID: 30459870; PMCID: PMC6208226.
4)

Senger S, Antes S, Salah M, Tschan C, Linsler S, Oertel J. The view through the ventricle catheter – The new ShuntScope for the therapy of pediatric hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci. 2018 Feb;48:196-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.10.046. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 29102235.
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