Cerebrospinal fluid fistula after endoscopic skull base surgery prevention

Cerebrospinal fluid fistula after endoscopic skull base surgery prevention

Monitoring of complications after endoscopic skull base surgery is necessary in order to standardize protocols of management and improve our surgical techniques. The presence of late-onset complications underlines the need of a special focus in postoperative care and follow-up 1)

With a suitable technical background and appropriate endoscopic skills, the surgeries of the anterior skull base cerebrospinal fluid fistulas can be performed efficiently and with a low complication rate 2).

Cerebrospinal fluid leakage after endoscopic skull base surgery remains a challenge despite multilayer reconstruction including nasoseptal flap (NSF) has become a standard technique. Injectable hydroxyapatite (HXA) has shown promising results in preventing CSF leakage.

Hong et al. aimed to validate the efficacy of HXA-based skull base reconstruction performed by lessexperienced neurosurgeons who had short-term clinical experiences as independent surgeons. Between March 2018 and November 2022, 41 patients who experienced intraoperative highflow CSF leakage following endoscopic endonasal surgery at two independent tertiary institutions were enrolled. Skull base reconstruction was performed using conventional multilayer techniques combined with or without HXA. The primary outcome was postoperative CSF leakage. The surgical steps and nuances were described in detail. The most common pathology was craniopharyngioma. Injectable HXA was used in 22 patients (HXA group) and conventional techniques were performed in 19 patients (control group). The HXA group achieved a significantly lower incidence of postoperative CSF leakage than the control group (0% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.016). No HXA-related complications were observed. The use of injectable HXA in skull base reconstruction was highly effective and safe. This technique and its favorable results might be readily reproduced by lessexperienced neurosurgeons 3).

Techniques to prevent postoperative cerebrospinal fluid fistula remain controversial in transsphenoidal surgery. Although direct repair of cerebrospinal fluid fistula by primary suture or patch grafting is the most desirable management, conventional stitching is extremely difficult, particularly through an endonasal route with a deep and narrow surgical corridor. To obliterate a CSF fistula, packing of autologous grafts and/or bioabsorbable materials into the sella turcica and the sphenoid sinus has generally been employed with or without postoperative CSF lumbar drainage.

Kassam et al indicated that one of the most common causes of failure in reconstruction for CSF leakage is migration of the graft by stretching under pressure of neighboring tissue or CSF, and this event might occur early in the wound-healing phase before generating a biological seal. They reported that use of the balloon to apply pressure on the graft within the sphenoid sinus was highly effective to prevent graft migration 4).

The U-clip anastomotic device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) has been used for endoscopic suturing to fix a graft patch through an endonasal route 5).

The AnastoClip Vessel Closure System (VCS; LeMaitre Vascular, Boston, MA) is an automatic suture device originally invented for microsurgical vascular reconstruction 6). It was used for closure of a CSF fistula in endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. In all four patients, CSF leakage was successfully obliterated primarily with two to five clips. There was no postoperative CSF rhinorrhea or complications related to the use of the VCS. Metal artifact by the clips on postoperative images was tolerable. Primary closure of the fistula using the VCS was an effective strategy to prevent postoperative CSF leakage in transsphenoidal surgery. Future application can be expanded to reconstruction of the skull base dura via endonasal skull base approaches 7).

Jamshidi et al. demonstrated that a high-volume LP, followed by acetazolamide therapy for 10 days, can be considered in the management of post-operative CSF leaks 8).

Among patients undergoing intradural EES judged to be at high risk for CSF leak as defined by the study’s inclusion criteria, perioperative lumbar drainage used in the context of vascularized nasoseptal flap closure significantly reduced the rate of postoperative CSF leaks. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT03163134 (clinicaltrials.gov) 9).


Constantinidis J, Konstantinidis I. Avoiding complications in endoscopic skull base surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Feb;25(1):79-85. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000327. PMID: 28027059.


Hong I, Kim KH, Seo Y, Choo YH, Lee HJ, Kim SH. Efficacy of hydroxyapatitebased skull base reconstruction for intraoperative highflow cerebrospinal fluid leakage performed by lessexperienced surgeons. Sci Rep. 2023 Sep 9;13(1):14886. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-42097-y. PMID: 37689766.

Kassam A, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, Gardner P, Mintz A. Evolution of reconstructive techniques following endoscopic expanded endonasal approaches. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Jul 15;19(1):E8. PMID: 16078822.

Gardner P, Kassam A, Snyderman C, Mintz A, Carrau R, Moossy JJ. Endoscopic endonasal suturing of dural reconstruction grafts: a novel application of the U-Clip technology. Technical note. J Neurosurg. 2008 Feb;108(2):395-400. doi: 10.3171/JNS/2008/108/2/0395. PMID: 18240941.

Kirsch WM, Zhu YH, Hardesty RA, Chapolini R. A new method for microvascular anastomosis: report of experimental and clinical research. Am Surg. 1992 Dec;58(12):722-7. PMID: 1456593.

Kobayashi H, Asaoka K, Terasaka S, Murata JI. Primary closure of a cerebrospinal fluid fistula by nonpenetrating titanium clips in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery: technical note. Skull Base. 2011 Jan;21(1):47-52. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1263281. PMID: 22451799; PMCID: PMC3312411.

Jamshidi AM, Shah A, Eichberg DG, Komotar RJ, Ivan M. Conservative Management of Post-Operative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak following Skull Base Surgery: A Pilot Study. Brain Sci. 2022 Jan 24;12(2):152. doi: 10.3390/brainsci12020152. PMID: 35203915; PMCID: PMC8870023.

Zwagerman NT, Wang EW, Shin SS, Chang YF, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Snyderman CH, Gardner PA. Does lumbar drainage reduce postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery? A prospective, randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct 1:1-7. doi: 10.3171/2018.4.JNS172447. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 30485224.

Adult spinal deformity surgery outcome

Adult spinal deformity surgery outcome

see also Adult spinal deformity surgery complications

The outcomes of adult spinal deformity surgery can vary depending on various factors, including the specific condition being treated, the severity of the deformity, the patient’s overall health, and the surgical techniques used. Here are some general aspects to consider regarding the outcomes of adult spinal deformity surgery:

Improvement in Spinal Alignment: The primary goal of surgery is to restore a more balanced and aligned spinal column. This can help alleviate symptoms such as pain, difficulty in maintaining proper posture, and problems with mobility. Surgery can correct the curvature, rotation, and overall alignment of the spine, leading to improved spinal balance.

Pain Reduction: Adult spinal deformities often cause chronic back pain and discomfort. Surgery can help alleviate pain by decompressing compressed nerves, stabilizing the spine, and reducing stress on the surrounding structures. Studies have shown that many patients experience significant pain relief following surgery, leading to an improved quality of life.

Functional Improvement: Surgery can enhance the patient’s ability to perform daily activities and improve their functional capacity. By correcting spinal alignment, individuals may experience improved mobility, better balance, and an increased ability to participate in physical activities.

Neurological Improvement: In cases where spinal deformity is causing nerve compression or spinal cord compression, surgery can help relieve the pressure on neural structures. This can lead to improvements in neurological function, such as reduced numbness, weakness, or other symptoms associated with nerve compression.

Psychological Well-being: Adult spinal deformities can have a significant impact on a person’s self-image, body image, and overall psychological well-being. Corrective surgery can improve body image, enhance self-esteem, and reduce psychological distress associated with the deformity.

Potential Risks and Complications: Like any surgical procedure, adult spinal deformity surgery carries some risks and potential complications. These may include infection, bleeding, blood clots, implant-related problems, nerve damage, and the potential need for revision surgery. The overall success of the surgery and the extent of the outcomes will depend on various individual factors.

A prospective multicenter analysis demonstrated that operative ASD treatment provided significant improvement in health-related quality of life at a minimum 3-year follow-up (mean 4.1 years), suggesting that the benefits of surgery for ASD remain durable at longer follow-up. These findings should prove useful for counseling, cost-effectiveness assessments, and efforts to improve the safety of care 1)

The Scoli-RISK-1 study enrolled 272 ASD patients undergoing surgery from 15 centers. Inclusion criteria was Cobb angle of >80°, corrective osteotomy for congenital or revision deformity, and/or 3-column osteotomy. The following PROs were measured prospectively at intervals up to 5-years postoperative: ODI, SF36-PCS/MCS, SRS-22, NRS back/leg. Among patients with 5-year follow-up, comparisons were made from both baseline and 2-years postoperative to 5-years postoperative. PROs were analyzed using mixed models for repeated measures.

Results: Seventy-seven patients (28.3%) had 5-year follow-up data. Comparing baseline to 5-year data among these 77 patients, significant improvement was seen in all PROs: ODI (45.2 vs. 29.3, P < 0.001), SF36-PCS (31.5 vs. 38.8, P < 0.001), SF36-MCS (44.9 vs. 49.1, P = 0.009), SRS-22-total (2.78 vs. 3.61, P < 0.001), NRS-back pain (5.70 vs. 2.95, P < 0.001) and NRS leg pain (3.64 vs. 2.62, P = 0.017). In the 2 to 5-year follow-up period, no significant changes were seen in any PROs. The percentage of patients achieving MCID from baseline to 5-years were: ODI (62.0%) and the SRS-22r domains of function (70.4%), pain (63.0%), mental health (37.5%), self-image (60.3%), and total (60.3%). Surprisingly, mean values (P > 0.05) and proportion achieving MCID did not differ significantly in patients with major surgery-related complications compared to those without.

Conclusions: After complex ASD surgery, significant improvement in PROs were seen at 5-years postoperative in ODI, SF36-PCS/MCS, SRS-22r, and NRS-back/leg pain. No significant changes in PROs occurred during the 2 to 5-year postoperative period. Those with major surgery-related complications had similar PROs and proportion of patients achieving MCID as those without these complications 2).

Coronal balance is a major factor impacting the outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery (ASD). The Obeid-coronal malalignment classification (O-CM) has been proposed to improve the coronal alignment in adult spinal deformity surgery. The aim of the study of Baroncini et al. was to investigate whether a postoperative coronal malalignment (CM) < 20 mm and adherence to the O-CM classification could improve surgical outcomes and decrease the rate of mechanical failure in a cohort of ASD patients.

In this multicenter retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on all ASD patients who underwent surgical management and had a preoperative CM > 20 mm and a 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether or not surgery had been performed in adherence to the guidelines of the O-CM classification and according to whether or not the residual CM was < 20 mm. The outcomes of interest were radiographic data, rate of mechanical complications, and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures.

At 2 years, adherence to the O-CM classification led to a lower rate of mechanical complications (40 vs. 60%). A coronal correction of the CM < 20 mm allowed for a significant improvement in SRS-22 and SF-36 scores and was associated with 3.5 times greater odds of achieving the minimal clinically important difference for the SRS-22.

Adherence to the O-CM classification could reduce the risk of mechanical complications 2 years after ASD surgery. Patients with a residual CM < 20 mm showed better functional outcomes and 3.5 times greater odds of achieving the MCID for the SRS-22 score 3).

Elderly patient outcomes were inconsistent in the published studies. Overall, most elderly patients obtained favorable outcomes with low operative mortality following surgery for adult spinal deformity 4)


Elias E, Bess S, Line B, Lafage V, Lafage R, Klineberg E, Kim HJ, Passias PG, Nasser Z, Gum JL, Kebaish K, Eastlack R, Daniels AH, Mundis G, Hostin R, Protopsaltis TS, Soroceanu A, Hamilton DK, Kelly MP, Gupta M, Hart R, Schwab FJ, Burton D, Ames CP, Shaffrey CI, Smith JS; International Spine Study Group. Outcomes of operative treatment for adult spinal deformity: a prospective multicenter assessment with mean 4-year follow-up. J Neurosurg Spine. 2022 Apr 29:1-10. doi: 10.3171/2022.3.SPINE2295. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35535835.

Zuckerman SL, Cerpa M, Lenke LG, Shaffrey CI, Carreon LY, Cheung KMC, Kelly MP, Fehlings MG, Ames CP, Boachie-Adjei O, Dekutoski MB, Kabeaish KM, Lewis SJ, Matsuyama Y, Pellisé F, Qiu Y, Schwab FJ, Smith JS; AO Spine Knowledge Forum Deformity and SRS Scoli-RISK-1 Study Group. Patient-Reported Outcomes After Complex Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: 5-Year Results of the Scoli-Risk-1 Study. Global Spine J. 2022 Oct;12(8):1736-1744. doi: 10.1177/2192568220988276. Epub 2021 Feb 9. PMID: 33557622; PMCID: PMC9609523.

Baroncini A, Frechon P, Bourghli A, Smith JS, Larrieu D, Pellisé F, Pizones J, Kleinstueck F, Alanay A, Kieser D, Cawley DT, Boissiere L, Obeid I; European Spine Study Group (ESSG). Adherence to the Obeid coronal malalignment classification and a residual malalignment below 20 mm can improve surgical outcomes in adult spine deformity surgery. Eur Spine J. 2023 Jul 2. doi: 10.1007/s00586-023-07831-0. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37393421.

Drazin D, Shirzadi A, Rosner J, Eboli P, Safee M, Baron EM, Liu JC, Acosta FL Jr. Complications and outcomes after spinal deformity surgery in the elderly: review of the existing literature and future directions. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Oct;31(4):E3. doi: 10.3171/2011.7.FOCUS11145. PMID: 21961866.

Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease

Steroid side effects

In 1932Harvey Cushing described peptic ulceration secondary to raised intracranial pressure and attributed this to vagal overactivity, causing excess gastric acid secretion. Cushing ulcer remains a cause of morbidity in patients, albeit one that is preventable.

Kumaria et al. evaluate the evidence pertaining to the pathophysiology of neurogenic peptic ulceration. A literature review suggests that the pathophysiology of Cushing ulcer may extend beyond vagal mechanisms for several reasons: (1) clinical and experimental studies have shown only a modest increase in gastric acid secretion in head injury patients; (2) increased vagal tone is found in only a minority of cases of intracranial hypertension, most of which are related to catastrophic, nonsurvivable brain injury; (3) direct stimulation of the vagus nerve does not cause peptic ulceration, and; (4) Cushing ulcer can occur after acute ischemic stroke, but only a minority of strokes are associated with raised intracranial pressure and/or increased vagal tone. The 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine honored the discovery that bacteria play key roles in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. Brain injury results in widespread changes in the gut microbiome in addition to gastrointestinal inflammation, including systemic upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Alterations in the gut microbiome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury include colonization with commensal flora associated with peptic ulceration. The brain-gut-microbiome axis integrates the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the immune system.

They propose a novel hypothesis that neurogenic peptic ulcer may be associated with alterations in the gut microbiome, resulting in gastrointestinal inflammation leading to ulceration 1).

Omeprazole for Adults with peptic ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 20–40 mg PO daily. For Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: 20 mg PO q d to 120 mg PO TID (dose adjusted to keep basal acid output < 60 mEq/hr).

Side effects: N/V, H/A, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or rash in 1–5% of patients. Supplied: 10, 20 & 40 mg delayed-release capsules. Available OTC in 20.6 mg tablets as Prilosec OTC.

Misoprostol (Cytotec®), a prostaglandin, may be effective in mitigating NSAID-induced gastric erosion or peptic ulcer. Contraindicated in pregnancy. ℞ 200 mcg PO QID with food as long as the patient is on NSAIDs. If not tolerated, use 100 mcg. ✖ CAUTION: an abortifacient. Should not be given to pregnant women or women of childbearing potential


Kumaria A, Kirkman MA, Scott RA, Dow GR, Leggate AJ, Macarthur DC, Ingale HA, Smith SJ, Basu S. A Reappraisal of the Pathophysiology of Cushing Ulcer: A Narrative Review. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2023 May 11. doi: 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000918. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37188653.

Regorafenib side effects

Regorafenib side effects


Some of the most common side effects of regorafenib include:



Nausea and vomiting

Loss of appetite

Hand-foot syndrome (redness, swelling, and pain on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet)

High blood pressure

Abdominal pain


Weight loss


Extensive coagulative necrosis 1).

One patient experienced, after reintervention and during Regorafenib treatment (administered 40 days after surgery), dehiscence of the surgical wound 2)

In patients with progressive WHO grade 3 or 4 gliomas, predominantly with two pretreatment lines or more, regorafenib seems to be effective despite considerable grade 3 or 4 side effects 3).

Treiber et al. described 11 consecutive patients with high-grade glioma recurrence treated with regorafenib at the university medical center in Göttingen. The majority of patients had MGMT promoter methylation (9/11 cases). Regorafenib was given as 2nd line systemic treatment in 6/11 patients and 3rd or higher line treatment in 5/11 patients. The median number of applied cycles was 2 with dosage reductions on 5/11. Response to treatment was observed on 4/11 (PR on 1/11, and SD on 3/11). The Median overall survival for the cohort was 16.1 months, median progression-free survival was 9.0 months, and median time to treatment failure was 3.3 months. Side effects of any CTCAE grade were noted in all patients, hereby 6/11 with CTCAE °III-IV reactions. High-grade side effects were of dermatologic, cardiovascular, and hematologic nature. A mean treatment delay of 57.5 days (range 23-119) was noted between tumor board recommendation and treatment initiation due to the application process for off-label use in this indication. In conclusion, treatment with regorafenib in relapsed high-grade glioma is a feasible treatment option but has to be considered carefully due to the significant side effect profile 4).

Within 12-months of regorafenib treatment, and 16-years since SRS, the patient developed ipsilateral House-Brackmann Grade IV facial weakness. Dramatic VS expansion from 14 to 25 mm in maximum diameter, with new brain stem compression, was seen on MRI. Due to poor prognosis of his gastrointestinal malignancy, he declined surgical resection, and elected for palliative salvage SRS 5).

Werner JM, Wollring MM, Tscherpel C, Rosen EK, Werr L, Stetter I, Rueß D, Ruge MI, Brunn A, Al Shughri A, Kabbasch C, Fink GR, Langen KJ, Galldiks N. Multimodal imaging findings in patients with glioblastoma with extensive coagulative necrosis related to regorafenib. Neuro Oncol. 2023 Mar 24:noad051. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noad051. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36960770.
Gregucci F, Surgo A, Carbonara R, Laera L, Ciliberti MP, Gentile MA, Caliandro M, Sasso N, Bonaparte I, Fanelli V, Tortora R, Paulicelli E, Surico G, Lombardi G, Signorelli F, Fiorentino A. Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Brain Radiotherapy with Systemic Therapy in Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas: Is It Feasible? Therapeutic Strategies in Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas. J Pers Med. 2022 Aug 20;12(8):1336. doi: 10.3390/jpm12081336. PMID: 36013284; PMCID: PMC9410141.
Werner JM, Wolf L, Tscherpel C, Bauer EK, Wollring M, Ceccon G, Deckert M, Brunn A, Pappesch R, Goldbrunner R, Fink GR, Galldiks N. Efficacy and tolerability of regorafenib in pretreated patients with progressive CNS grade 3 or 4 gliomas. J Neurooncol. 2022 Jun 18. doi: 10.1007/s11060-022-04066-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35716310.
Treiber H, von der Brelie C, Malinova V, Mielke D, Rohde V, Chapuy CI. Regorafenib for recurrent high-grade glioma: a unicentric retrospective analysis of feasibility, efficacy, and toxicity. Neurosurg Rev. 2022 Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s10143-022-01826-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35725846.
Carlstrom LP, Muñoz-Casabella A, Perry A, Graffeo CS, Link MJ. Dramatic Growth of a Vestibular Schwannoma After 16 Years of Postradiosurgery Stability in Association With Exposure to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. Otol Neurotol. 2021 Dec 1;42(10):e1609-e1613. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003304. PMID: 34766951; PMCID: PMC8597893.

Microvascular Decompression Complications

Microvascular Decompression Complications

Latest Pubmed Related Articles

Microvascular decompression (MVD) has a satisfactory safety, and it is the only surgical treatment for neurovascular compression diseases, such as hemifacial spasmtrigeminal neuralgia, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, from the perspective of etiology.

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a surgical procedure used to relieve pressure on a nerve root in the brainstem. While the procedure has a high success rate, like all surgeries, it does carry some risks and potential complications.

Some possible complications of microvascular decompression include:

Bleeding: Bleeding can occur during or after the surgery, which may require additional medical intervention.

Infection: Infection can occur at the site of the surgery or in the brain, which can lead to serious complications.

Nerve damage: Nerve damage can occur during the surgery, which may lead to a range of symptoms, including weakness, numbness, and paralysis.

Hearing loss: MVD can lead to hearing loss in some cases, particularly if the acoustic nerve is damaged during the procedure.

Balance problems: MVD can cause balance problems or vertigo, which may persist for several weeks or months after the surgery.

Cerebrospinal fluid leak: In rare cases, MVD can cause a cerebrospinal fluid leak, which may require further medical intervention.

It’s important to note that while these complications are possible, they are relatively rare.

Bilateral dilated and fixed pupils have long been regarded as a sign of life threatening, which is common in patients with brain herniation due to intracranial hypertension. However, transient dilated pupils after MVD have not been previously reported.

Wang et al. presented 2 patients with bilateral transient dilated and fixed pupils after MVD and discussed the possible etiologies through the literature review. Physical examination of both patients showed bilateral pupils were normal and without a medical history of pupil dilation. They underwent MVD under general anesthesia and used propofol and sevoflurane. In both cases, the vertebral artery was displaced, and Teflon pads were inserted between the vertebral artery and the brain stem. Postoperation, we found transient bilateral mydriasis without light reflection in both patients. The emergency head computed tomography revealed no obvious signs of hemorrhage and cerebral herniation. About 1 hour later, this phenomenon disappeared. Therefore, the authors think if MVD is successfully carried out, bilateral transient mydriasis may not necessarily indicate brain stem hemorrhage, cerebral herniation, and other emergency conditions, which can be recovered within a short time. The causes could be related to stimulation of the sympathetic pathway in the brain stem during MVD and side effects of anesthetics 1).


Wang L, Fan H, Xu X, Su S, Feng W, Wu C, Chen Y. Bilateral Transient Dilated and Fixed Pupils After Microvascular Decompression: Rare Clinical Experience. J Craniofac Surg. 2023 Mar 21. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000009293. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36941233.

Cerebellar mutism

Cerebellar mutism

Incidence of cerebellar mutism: 11–29% of children following surgery for cerebellar tumor2) including cerebellar medulloblastoma (53%), posterior fossa ependymoma (33%) & cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (11%) 3).

It has also been reported in both children and adults following several other cerebellar insults, including vascular events, infections, and trauma 4).

The uncertain etiology of PFS, myriad of cited risk factors and therapeutic challenges make this phenomenon an elusive entity.

Cerebellar mutism is a rare occurrence following paediatric trauma 5) 6) 7) 8). , this phenomenon has rarely been reported following other insults, such as trauma, and its pathophysiology remains poorly understood.

A seven-year-old child who presented to the casualty department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in May 2013 with a traumatic right cerebellar contusion. The child presented with clinical features of cerebellar mutism but underwent a rapid and spontaneous recovery 9).

The pathogenic mechanism is likely due to the damage occurring to the proximal efferent cerebellar pathway, including the dentate nucleus, the superior cerebellar peduncle, and its decussation in the mesencephalic tegmentum 10).

Superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles and the superior part of the cerebellum were related to CMS, especially the right side 11).

This syndrome involves a variety of signs and symptoms including cerebellar mutism or speech disturbances, dysphagia, decreased motor movement, cranial nerve palsy and, emotional lability. These signs and symptoms develop from an average range of 24 to 107 hours after surgery and may take weeks to months to resolve.

Multi-inflow time arterial spin-labeling shows promise as a noninvasive tool to evaluate cerebral perfusion in the setting of pediatric obstructive hydrocephalus and demonstrates increased CBF following the resolution of cerebellar mutism syndrome 12).

The importance of olivary hypertrophic degeneration as a differential diagnosis in cerebellar mutism syndrome 13).

Early recognition of this syndrome could facilitate preventive and restorative patient care, prevent subsequent complications, decrease length of hospital stays, and promote patient and family understanding of and coping with the syndrome 14).

20 cases of PFS (8%), 12 males and 8 females. Age ranged from 1.5 to 13 years (mean = 6.5). Of the 20, 16 were medulloblastoma, 3 ependymoma and 1 astrocytoma. There was a 21 % incidence (16/76) of PFS in medulloblastoma of the posterior fossa. The incidence for ependymoma was 13% (3/24) and 1% (1/102) for astrocytoma. All 20 cases (100%) had brainstem involvement by the tumor. The most frequent postoperative findings included mutism, ataxia, 6th and 7th nerve palsies and hemiparesis. Mutism had a latency range of 1-7 days (mean = 1.7) and a duration of 6-365 days (mean = 69.2, median = 35). Although mutism resolved in all cases, the remaining neurologic complications which characterized our findings of PFS were rarely reversible. We describe potential risk factors for developing PFS after surgery with hopes of making neurosurgeons more aware of potential problems following the removal of lesions in this area. Early recognition of PFS would further promote patient and family understanding and coping with this síndrome 15)

19 children diagnosed with posterior fossa syndrome 16)


Rekate HL, Grubb RL, Aram DM, Hahn JF, Ratcheson RA. Muteness of cerebellar origin. Arch Neurol. 1985;42:697–8. doi: 10.1001/archneur.1985.04060070091023.

Gudrunardottir T, Sehested A, Juhler M, et al. Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011; 27:355–363

Catsman-Berrevoets C E, Van Dongen HR, Mulder PG, et al. Tumour type and size are high risk factors for the syndrome of “cerebellar” mutism and subsequent dysarthria. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999; 67:755–757

Gudrunardottir T, Sehested A, Juhler M, Schmiegelow K. Cerebellar mutism: Review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:355–63. doi: 10.1007/s00381-010-1328-2.

Erşahin Y, Mutluer S, Saydam S, Barçin E. Cerebellar mutism: Report of two unusual cases and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1997;99:130–4. doi: 10.1016/S0303-8467(97)80010-8.

Fujisawa H, Yonaha H, Okumoto K, Uehara H, le T, Nagata Y, et al. Mutism after evacuation of acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:234–6. doi: 10.1007/s00381-004-0999-y.

Koh S, Turkel SB, Baram TZ. Cerebellar mutism in children: Report of six cases and potential mechanisms. Pediatr Neurol. 1997;16:218–19. doi: 10.1016/S0887-8994(97)00018-0.

Yokota H, Nakazawa S, Kobayashi S, Taniguchi Y, Yukihide T. [Clinical study of two cases of traumatic cerebellar injury] No Shinkei Geka. 1990;18:67–70.

Kariyattil R, Rahim MI, Muthukuttiparambil U. Cerebellar mutism following closed head injury in a child. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2015 Feb;15(1):e133-5. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 25685374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4318595.

Fabozzi F, Margoni S, Andreozzi B, Musci MS, Del Baldo G, Boccuto L, Mastronuzzi A, Carai A. Cerebellar mutism syndrome: From pathophysiology to rehabilitation. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Dec 2;10:1082947. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.1082947. PMID: 36531947; PMCID: PMC9755514.

Yang W, Li Y, Ying Z, Cai Y, Peng X, Sun H, Chen J, Zhu K, Hu G, Peng Y, Ge M. A presurgical voxel-wise predictive model for cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with posterior fossa tumors. Neuroimage Clin. 2022 Dec 13;37:103291. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103291. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36527996; PMCID: PMC9791171.

Toescu SM, Hales PW, Cooper J, Dyson EW, Mankad K, Clayden JD, Aquilina K, Clark CA. Arterial Spin-Labeling Perfusion Metrics in Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumor Surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2022 Oct;43(10):1508-1515. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7637. Epub 2022 Sep 22. PMID: 36137658; PMCID: PMC9575521.

Ballestero M, de Oliveira RS. The importance of olivary hypertrophic degeneration as a differential diagnosis in cerebellar mutism syndrome. Childs Nerv Syst. 2022 Dec 21. doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05815-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36542117.
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Tranexamic acid for intracranial meningioma

Tranexamic acid for intracranial meningioma

Based upon Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Wijaya et al. from the Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, BantenIndonesia, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CES University, El Poblado, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. collected fully published English literature on the administration of tranexamic acid for patients undergoing intracranial meningioma surgery using the keywords [“tranexamic acid” and “meningioma”] and its synonyms from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Database, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and PubMed. The primary outcome of the current study was total blood loss. The secondary outcomes include individuals requiring blood transfusionanesthesia duration, surgical duration, and complication rate. Each included study’s quality was assessed using the JADAD scale.

For qualitative and quantitative data synthesis, they included five RCTs (n = 321) with a mean age was 47.5 ± 11.9 years for the intervention group and 47.2 ± 11.9 years for the control group. The meta-analysis showed that the administration of TXA is associated with decreased total blood loss of standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.40 (95% CI [-2.49, -0.31]), anesthetic time SMD -0.36 (95% CI [-0.63, -0.09]), and blood transfusion requirements RR 0.58 (95% CI [0.34, 0.99]).

The current study showed that TXA was associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss and intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion. However, the studies are small. More RCT studies with a greater sample size are favorable 1).

Patients with supratentorial meningiomas and deemed suitable for surgical resection will be recruited in the trial. Patients will be randomized to receive either a single administration of 20 mg/kg TXA or a placebo of the same volume with a 1:1 allocation ratio after anesthesia induction. The primary endpoint is the cumulative incidence of early postoperative seizures within 7 days after craniotomy. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of non-seizure complications, changes in hemoglobin level from baseline, intraoperative blood loss, erythrocyte transfusion volume, Karnofsky Performance Status, all-cause mortality, length of stay, and total hospitalization cost.

Ethics and dissemination: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov and approved by the Chinese Ethics Committee of Registering Clinical Trials (ChiECRCT20200224). The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences relevant to the subject fields.

Trial registration number: NCT04595786 2).

conducted a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical study. The patient scheduled to undergo excision of intracranial meningioma were randomly assigned to receive intraoperatively either intravenous TXA or placebo. Patients in the TXA group received an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg over 20 min followed by an infusion of 1 mg/kg/h up to surgical wound closure. Efficacy was evaluated based on total blood loss and transfusion requirements. Postoperatively, thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation were noted.

Ninety-one patients were enrolled and randomized: 45 received TXA (TXA group) and 46 received placebo (group placebo). Total blood loss was significantly decreased in the TXA group compared to the placebo (283 ml vs. 576 ml; P < 0.001). Transfusion requirements were comparable in the two groups (P = 0.95). The incidence of thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation were similar in the two groups.

TXA significantly reduces intraoperative blood loss but did not significantly reduce transfusion requirements in adults undergoing resection of intracranial meningioma 3).

Thirty patients aged 18-65 years undergoing elective meningioma resection surgery were given either tranexamic acid or placebo (0.9% saline), tranexamic acid at a loading dose of 20 mg/kg, and infusion of 1 mg/kg/h during surgery. The intraoperative blood loss, coagulation profile, and the surgical field using the Likert scale were assessed.

The patients in the tranexamic group had significantly decreased intraoperative blood loss compared to the placebo group (616.42 ± 393.42 ml vs. 1150.02 ± 416.1 ml) (P = 0.02). The quality of the surgical field was better in the tranexamic group (median score 4 vs. 2 on Likert Scale) (P < 0.001). Patients in the tranexamic group had an improved coagulation profile and decreased blood transfusion requirement (p=0.016). The blood collected in the closed suction drain in 24 h postsurgery was less in the tranexamic acid group compared to the placebo group (84.7 ± 50.4 ml vs. 127.6 ± 62.2 ml) (P = 0.047).

Tranexamic acid bolus followed by infusion reduces perioperative blood loss by 46.43% and blood transfusion requirement with improved surgical field and coagulation profile in patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection surgery 4).

In the Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, Sixty adults undergoing elective craniotomy for meningioma excision were randomized to receive either tranexamic acid or placebo, initiated prior to skin incision. Patients in the tranexamic acid group received an intravenous bolus of 20mg/kg over 20min followed by an infusion of 1mg/kg/h till the conclusion of surgery. Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements, and estimating surgical hemostasis using a 5-grade scale were noted. Postoperatively, the extent of tumor excision on CT scan and complications were observed. Demographics, tumor characteristics, amount of fluid infusion, and duration of surgery and anesthesia were comparable between the two groups. The amount of blood loss was significantly less in the tranexamic acid group compared to the placebo (830mlvs 1124ml; p=0.03). The transfusion requirement was less in the tranexamic acid group (p>0.05). The patients in the tranexamic acid group fared better on a 5-grade surgical hemostasis scale with more patients showing good hemostasis (p=0.007). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications, hospital stay, or neurologic outcome. To conclude, the administration of tranexamic acid significantly reduced blood loss in patients undergoing excision of meningioma. Fewer patients in the tranexamic acid group received blood transfusions. Surgical field hemostasis was better achieved in patients who received tranexamic acid 5).

A man in his 40s with a history of coronary artery disease previously treated with a drug-eluting stent presented for elective craniotomy and resection of an asymptomatic but enlarging meningioma. During his craniotomy, he received desmopressin and tranexamic acid for surgical bleeding. Postoperatively, the patient developed chest pain and was found to have an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Because of the patient’s recent neurosurgery, standard post-MI care was contraindicated and he was managed symptomatically in the intensive care unit. The echocardiogram on a postoperative day 1 demonstrated no regional wall motion abnormalities and an ejection fraction of 60%. His presentation was consistent with the thrombosis of his diagonal stent. He was transferred out of the intensive care unit on postoperative day 1 and discharged home on postoperative day 3 6).

Raghavendra et al. report the intraoperative use of tranexamic acid to secure complete hemostasis as a rescue measure in intracranial meningioma resection in uncontrollable bleeding 7).

Three of 13 patients with intracranial meningiomas showed the pre-and postoperative elevation of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) related fibrinolytic activity in euglobulin fractions (EFA). During the operation, two of these three patients showed a significant elevation of the level of fibrinogen degradation products and oozing in the operating field. However, oozing was not observed in the third patient who had been given tranexamic acid preoperatively. Fibrin autography revealed that a broad lytic band of mol wt 50-60 kDa, probably free t-PA, appeared in the plasma obtained from two of the three patients after the operation when EFA elevated significantly. In all patients studied, the t-PA antigen levels were normal preoperatively but increased both during and after the operation, and correlated mainly with the intensities of a lytic band of mol wt 110 kDa, probably t-PA complexed with its major inhibitor (PAI-1). These results suggest that excessive fibrinolysis can induce local hemorrhagic diathesis during operation and may be related to t-PA function in plasma 8).


Wijaya JH, July J, Quintero-Consuegra M, Chadid DP. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of tranexamic acid in surgical procedure for intracranial meningioma. J Neurooncol. 2023 Jan 12. doi: 10.1007/s11060-023-04237-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36633801.

Li S, Yan X, Li R, Zhang X, Ma T, Zeng M, Dong J, Wang J, Liu X, Peng Y. Safety of intravenous tranexamic acid in patients undergoing supratentorial meningiomas resection: protocol for a randomized, parallel-group, placebo control, non-inferiority trial. BMJ Open. 2022 Feb 2;12(2):e052095. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052095. PMID: 35110315; PMCID: PMC8811564.

Rebai L, Mahfoudhi N, Fitouhi N, Daghmouri MA, Bahri K. Intraoperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Surg Neurol Int. 2021 Jun 14;12:289. doi: 10.25259/SNI_177_2021. PMID: 34221620; PMCID: PMC8247750.

Ravi GK, Panda N, Ahluwalia J, Chauhan R, Singla N, Mahajan S. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss, coagulation profile, and quality of the surgical field in intracranial meningioma resection: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Surg Neurol Int. 2021 Jun 7;12:272. doi: 10.25259/SNI_296_2021. PMID: 34221603; PMCID: PMC8247710.

Hooda B, Chouhan RS, Rath GP, Bithal PK, Suri A, Lamsal R. Effect of tranexamic acid on intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma. J Clin Neurosci. 2017 Mar 7. pii: S0967-5868(16)31491-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.02.053. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28283245.

Westfall KM, Ramcharan RN, Anderson HL 3rd. Myocardial infarction after craniotomy for asymptomatic meningioma. BMJ Case Rep. 2022 Dec 29;15(12):e252256. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-252256. PMID: 36581354; PMCID: PMC9806024.

Raghavendra H, Varsha KS, Reddy MA, Kumar SS, Sunanda G, Nagarjuna T, Latha S. Rescue Measure in Giant Intracranial Meningioma Resection by Tranexamic Acid. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2017 Aug;8(Suppl 1):S127-S129. doi: 10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_198_17. PMID: 28936089; PMCID: PMC5602238.

Tsuda H, Oka K, Noutsuka Y, Sueishi K. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in patients with intracranial meningiomas. Thromb Haemost. 1988 Dec 22;60(3):508-13. PMID: 3149049.



Autoclavable reusable SHUNTSCOPE® is designed to facilitate the endoscopic ventricular drainage placement during shunt surgery.

A retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients undergoing ventricular catheter placement using the ShuntScope from 01/2012 to 01/2022 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg was performed. Demographic, clinical, and radiological data were evaluated. The visualization quality of the intraoperative endoscopy was stratified into the categories of excellent, medium, and poor and compared to the postoperative catheter tip placement. Follow-up evaluation included the surgical revision rate due to proximal catheter occlusion.

A total of 65 ShuntScope-assisted surgeries have been performed on 51 children. The mean age was 5.1 years. The most common underlying pathology was a tumor- or cyst-related hydrocephalus in 51%. Achieved image quality was excellent in 41.5%, medium in 43%, and poor in 15.5%. Ideal catheter placement was achieved in 77%. There were no intraoperative ventricular catheter placement complications and no technique-related morbidity associated with the ShuntScope. The revision rate due to proximal occlusion was 4.61% during a mean follow-up period of 39.7 years. No statistical correlation between image grade and accuracy of catheter position was observed (p-value was 0.290).

The ShuntScope can be considered a valuable addition to standard surgical tools in pediatric hydrocephalus treatment. Even suboptimal visualization contributes to high rates of correct catheter placement and, thereby, to a favorable clinical outcome 1).

The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy of catheter placement and the complication and revision rates between SG and freehand (FH) techniques.

A retrospective study based on a prospectively acquired database of patients who underwent VC placement between September 2018 and July 2021. The accuracy of catheter placement was graded on postoperative imaging using a three-point Hayhurst grading system. Complication and revision rates were documented and compared between both groups with an average follow-up period of 20.84 months.

Results: Fifty-seven patients were included. SG technique was used in 29 patients (mean age was 6.3 years, 1.4 -27.7 years, 48.1% females), and FH technique was used in 28 patients (mean age was 26.7 years, 0.83 – 79.5 years, 67.9% female). The success rate for the optimal placement of the VC with a grade I on the Hayhurst scale was significantly higher in the SG group (93.1%) than in the FH group (60.7%), P = 0.012. The revision rate was higher in the FH group with 35.7% vs. 20.7% of in the SG group, P = 0.211.

Conclusion: VC placement using the SG technique is a safe and effective procedure, which enabled a significantly higher success rate and lower revision and complication rate. Accordingly, we recommend using the SG technique especially in patients with difficult anatomy 2)

The experience of shuntscope-guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt in 9 cases done from June 2015 to April 2016. Shuntscope is a 1 mm outer diameter semi-rigid scope from Karl Storz with 10000 pixels of magnification. It has a fiber optic lens system with a camera and light source attachment away from the scope to make it lightweight and easily maneuverable.

Results: In all cases, VC was placed in the ipsilateral frontal horn away from choroid plexuses, septae, or membranes. Septum pellucidum perforation and placement to the opposite side of the ventricle was identified with shunt scope assistance and corrected.

Conclusion: Although our initial results are encouraging, larger case series would be helpful. Complications and cost due to shunt dysfunction can thus be reduced to a great extent with shuntscope 3)

The semi-rigid ShuntScope (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with an outer diameter of 1.0 mm and an image resolution of 10,000 pixels was used in a series of 27 children and adolescents (18 males, 9 females, age range 2 months-18 years). Indications included catheter placement in aqueductal stenting (n = 4), first-time shunt placement (n = 5), burr hole reservoir insertion (n = 4), catheter placement after endoscopic procedures (n = 7) and revision surgery of the ventricle catheter (n = 7).

ShuntScope-guided precise catheter placement was achieved in 26 of 27 patients. In one case of aqueductal stenting, the procedure had to be abandoned. One single wound healing problem was noted as a complication. Intraventricular image quality was always sufficient to recognize the anatomical structures. In the case of catheter removal, it was helpful to identify adherent vessels or membranes. Penetration of small adhesions or thin membranes was feasible. Postoperative imaging studies demonstrated catheter tip placements analogous to the intraoperative findings.

Misplacements of shunt catheters are completely avoidable with the presented intra-catheter technique including slit ventricles or even aqueductal stenting. Potential complications can be avoided during revision surgery. The implementation of the ShuntScope is recommended in pediatric neurosurgery 4).


Prajsnar-Borak A, Teping F, Oertel J. Image quality and related outcomes of the ShuntScope for catheter implantation in pediatric hydrocephalus-experience of 65 procedures. Childs Nerv Syst. 2022 Dec 2. doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05776-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36459211.

Issa M, Nofal M, Miotik N, Seitz A, Unterberg A, El Damaty A. ShuntScope®-Guided Versus Free Hand Technique for Ventricular Catheter Placement: A Retrospective Comparative Study of Intra-Ventricular Catheter Tip Position and Complication Rate. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2022 Feb 10. doi: 10.1055/a-1768-3892. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35144299.

Agrawal V, Aher RB. Endoluminal Shuntscope-Guided Ventricular Catheter Placement: Early Experience. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1071-1073. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_98_17. PMID: 30459870; PMCID: PMC6208226.

Senger S, Antes S, Salah M, Tschan C, Linsler S, Oertel J. The view through the ventricle catheter – The new ShuntScope for the therapy of pediatric hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci. 2018 Feb;48:196-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.10.046. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 29102235.

Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)

Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)



The purpose of the study was to assess whether the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was associated with in-hospital death and short-term functional outcome in elderly patients (age ≥ 70) with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

This was a retrospective cohort of aged ICH patients (≥70 years old) admitted within 24 hours of ICH onset. The CCI was derived using hospital discharge ICD-9 CM codes and patient history obtained from standardized case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent effect of the CCI score on clinical outcomes.

In this cohort of 248 aged ICH patients, comorbid conditions were common, with CCI scores ranging from 2 to 12. Logistic regression showed that the CCI score was independently predictive of 1-month functional outcome (OR = 1.642, P < 0.001) and in-hospital death (OR = 1.480, P = 0.003). Neither ICH volume nor the presence of IVH was an independent predictive factor for the 1-month functional outcome or in-hospital mortality (P < 0.05).

Comorbid medical conditions as assessed by the CCI independently influence short-term outcomes in aged ICH patients. The characteristics of the hematoma itself, such as intracerebral hemorrhage volume and the presence of IVH, seem to have a reduced effect on it 1).

Complications in spine trauma patients with Ankylosing spinal disorders may be driven by comorbidity burden rather than operative or injury-related factors. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of this unique population 2)

Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) provides a simple way of predicting recurrence in patients with chronic subdural hematoma and should be incorporated into decision-making processes, when counseling patients 3).

Data show that elderly with a good performance status and few co-morbidity may be treated as younger patients; moreover, age confirms a negative impact on survival while (CCI) ≤ 2 did not correlate with overall survival (OS4).

Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), functional status computed by the Karnofsky performance scale (KPS)), tumor characteristics (size, location, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation status), and treatment parameters (volumetrically quantified extent of resection and adjuvant therapy), evidence that aside established prognostic parameters (age and KPS) for glioblastoma patient outcome, the CCI additionally significantly impacts outcome and may be employed for preoperative patient stratification 5).

Maximal resection and radiochemotherapy treatment completion are associated with longer OS, and age alone should not preclude elderly patients from receiving surgery and adjuvant treatment. However, only a few patients were able to finish the proposed treatments. Poor performance and high comorbidity index status might compromise the benefit of treatment aggressiveness and must be considered in therapeutic decision 6).


Zhang T, Chen R, Wen D, Wang X, Ma L. The prognostic value of the Charlson comorbidity index in aged patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. BMC Neurol. 2022 Nov 28;22(1):443. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02980-z. PMID: 36443745.

Lakomkin N, Mikula AL, Pinter ZW, Wellings E, Alvi MA, Scheitler KM, Pennington Z, Lee NJ, Freedman BA, Sebastian AS, Fogelson JL, Bydon M, Clarke MJ, Elder BD. Perioperative risk stratification of spine trauma patients with ankylosing spinal disorders: a comparison of 3 quantitative indices. J Neurosurg Spine. 2022 May 27:1-7. doi: 10.3171/2022.4.SPINE211449. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35623371.

Martinez-Perez R, Tsimpas A, Rayo N, Cepeda S, Lagares A. Role of the patient comorbidity in the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2020 Mar 7. doi: 10.1007/s10143-020-01274-7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32146611.

Balducci M, Fiorentino A, De Bonis P, Chiesa S, Manfrida S, D’Agostino GR, Mantini G, Frascino V, Mattiucci GC, De Bari B, Mangiola A, Miccichè F, Gambacorta MA, Colicchio G, Morganti AG, Anile C, Valentini V. Impact of age and co-morbidities in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a pooled data analysis of three prospective mono-institutional phase II studies. Med Oncol. 2012 Dec;29(5):3478-83. doi: 10.1007/s12032-012-0263-3. Epub 2012 Jun 7. PubMed PMID: 22674154.

Ening G, Osterheld F, Capper D, Schmieder K, Brenke C. Charlson comorbidity index: an additional prognostic parameter for preoperative glioblastoma patient stratification. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25577223.

Pereira AF, Carvalho BF, Vaz RM, Linhares PJ. Glioblastoma in the elderly: Therapeutic dilemmas. Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Nov 16;6(Suppl 23):S573-S582. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26664927.

Chronic subdural hematoma recurrence prevention

Chronic subdural hematoma recurrence prevention

In total, 402 studies were included in this analysis and 32 potential risk factors were evaluated. Among these, 21 were significantly associated with the postoperative recurrence of CSDH. Three risk factors (male, bilateral hematoma, and no drainage) had convincing evidence 1).

The single most important factor appears to be the residual subdural space after drainage of the chronic subdural hematoma and an effort should be made by the surgeon to facilitate the expansion of the underlying brain. The presence of a functioning drain for 48–72 h draining the subdural fluid and promoting brain expansion will reduce the subdural space, thus reducing the recurrence of the CSDH. Some of the relevant surgical nuances include placement of at least two burr holes with the burr holes located to drain multiple cavities, copious irrigation of the subdural space, placement of the drain in the dependent burr hole site, near-total filling of the subdural space with irrigation to prevent a pneumocephalus and placing a subdural drain. Closure of the site with a large piece of Gelfoam prevents the subgaleal blood to migrate into the subdural space.

Postoperative subdural drain of maximal 48 h is effective in reducing recurrent hematomas. However, the shortest possible drainage time without increasing the recurrence rate is unknown

see Subdural drain for chronic subdural hematoma

The effect of a physical property of irrigation solution (at body vs room temperature) on the chronic subdural hematoma recurrence rate needs further study.

Objective: To explore whether irrigation fluid temperature has an influence on cSDH recurrence.

Design, setting, and participants: This was a multicenter randomized clinical trial performed between March 16, 2016, and May 30, 2020. The follow-up period was 6 months. The study was conducted at 3 neurosurgical departments in Sweden. All patients older than 18 years undergoing cSDH evacuation during the study period were screened for eligibility in the study.

Interventions: The study participants were randomly assigned by 1:1 block randomization to the cSDH evacuation procedure with irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT group) or at body temperature (BT group).

Main outcomes and measures: The primary end point was recurrence requiring reoperation within 6 months. Secondary end points were mortality, health-related quality of life, and complication frequency.

Results: At 6 months after surgery, 541 patients (mean [SD] age, 75.8 [9.8] years; 395 men [73%]) had a complete follow-up according to protocol. There were 39 of 277 recurrences (14%) requiring reoperation in the RT group, compared with 16 of 264 recurrences (6%) in the BT group (odds ratio, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.38-4.66; P < .001). There were no significant differences in mortality, health-related quality of life, or complication frequency.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, irrigation at body temperature was superior to irrigation at room temperature in terms of fewer recurrences. This is a simple, safe, and readily available technique to optimize outcome in patients with cSDH. When irrigation is used in cSDH surgery, irrigation fluid at body temperature should be considered standard of care.

Trial registration: ClincalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02757235 2).

A study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of half-saline solution for irrigation in burr hole trephination for chronic subdural hematoma.

This randomized clinical trial was conducted in university hospital referral centers from 2020 to 2021. Sixty-three patients with chronic subdural hematoma eligible for burr hole trephination were primarily enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of concurrent stroke. Sixty-one patients were randomly allocated into case (HS=30) and control (normal-saline [NS]=31) groups. HS was used to irrigate the hematoma in the case group and NS was used in the control group. The patients were followed-up. Clinical variables including demographic and medical findings, postoperative computed tomography findings, postoperative complications, hospitalization period, recurrence rate, and functional status measured by the Barthel type B index were recorded.

Forty-six of 61 patients were male (75.4%), and the patients’ mean age was 65.4±16.9 years, with equal distribution between the 2 groups. Postoperative effusion and postoperative hospital stay duration were significantly lower in the HS group than in the NS group (p=0.002 and 0.033, respectively). The postoperative recurrence within 3 months in both groups was approximately equal (6.6%). In terms of functional outcomes and postoperative complications, HS showed similar results to those of NS.

Conclusion: HS as an irrigation fluid in BHC effectively reduced postoperative effusion and hospital stay duration without considerable complications.

Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Identifier: IRCT20200608047688N1 3).


Zhu F, Wang H, Li W, Han S, Yuan J, Zhang C, Li Z, Fan G, Liu X, Nie M, Bie L. Factors correlated with the postoperative recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma: An umbrella study of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Dec 20;43:101234. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101234. PMID: 34988412; PMCID: PMC8703229.

Bartley A, Bartek J Jr, Jakola AS, Sundblom J, Fält M, Förander P, Marklund N, Tisell M. Effect of Irrigation Fluid Temperature on Recurrence in the Evacuation of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2022 Nov 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.4133. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36409480.

Mahmoodkhani M, Sharafi M, Sourani A, Tehrani DS. Half-Saline Versus Normal-Saline as Irrigation Solutions in Burr Hole Craniostomy to Treat Chronic Subdural Hematomata: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Korean J Neurotrauma. 2022 Sep 29;18(2):221-229. doi: 10.13004/kjnt.2022.18.e47. PMID: 36381457; PMCID: PMC9634318.