The Neuromodulation Casebook

The Neuromodulation Casebook

by Jeffrey Arle (Editor)

List Price:$99.95

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The Neuromodulation Casebook is a case-based volume for practical, hands-on decision-making using realistic case examples from the field of neuromodulation. It encompasses a variety of techniques and therapies, ranging from deep brain stimulation for a multitude of disorders to spinal cord stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, cortical stimulation, and cranial nerve stimulation, as well as non-invasive therapies and other implanted types of devices that interface with the nervous system. Allowing readers to better learn via case-based examples, this practical volume depicts real examples of decisions neuroscientists and neurosurgeons need to make every day from leaders in the field.

This book serves as a companion text to the editor’s previous titles Essential Neuromodulation and Innovative Neuromodulation for neuroscience, neural engineering, and biomedical engineering courses.


About the Author

Jeff Arle, MD, PhD, FAANS

Dr. Arle is currently the Associate Chief of Neurosurgery at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, the Chief of Neurosurgery at Mt. Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, and an Associate Professor of Neurosurgery at Harvard Medical School. He received his BA in Biopsychology from Columbia University in 1986 and his MD and PhD from the University of Connecticut in 1992. His dissertation work for his doctorate in Biomedical Sciences was in computational modeling in the Cochlear Nucleus. He then went on to do a residency in neurosurgery at the University of Pennsylvania, incorporating a double fellowship in movement disorder surgery and epilepsy surgery under Drs. Patrick Kelly, Ron Alterman, and Werner Doyle, finishing in 1999.

He edited the companion text Essential Neuromodulation with Dr. Shils, the first edition published by Elsevier in 2011. He has now practiced in the field of functional neurosurgery for 17 years and is experienced in all areas of neuromodulation from deep brain stimulators to vagus nerve, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and motor cortex stimulators, contributing frequent peer-reviewed publications and numerous chapters to the literature on many aspects of the neuromodulation field. He currently serves as an associate editor at the journals Neuromodulation and Neurosurgery, is the co-chair of the Research and Scientific Policy Committee for the International Neuromodulation Society, and is on the Board of Directors for the International Society for Intraoperative Neurophysiology. His long-standing research interests are in the area of computational modeling in the understanding and improved design of devices used in neuromodulation treatments.

Intrathecal morphine for Restless Legs Syndrome

Intrathecal morphine for Restless Legs Syndrome

For those who suffer from a medically refractory Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), intrathecal morphine treatment has been shown to be effective. The aim of a retrospective study of Steensland et al. was to investigate efficacy, complications and side effects in patients treated over several years with an implantable pump. A comparison was done to a group of patients treated with a similar pump system due to spasticity.

The charts of ten patients with severe or very severe RLS have been reviewed. These patients have received an intrathecal drug delivery system during 2000 -2016. To compare the rate of complications, a control group of 20 patients treated with intrathecal baclofen due to spasticity was included in the study. Their time of treatment corresponded to the RLS patients’.

The severity of symptoms related to RLS decreased significantly after treatment. Doses required ranged from 68 to 140 µg/day. Two cases of side effects were detected; one case with nausea and dizziness and one case with headache and fatigue. The rate of mechanical-, infectious- and other complications were similar between the two groups.

In light of the decrease in symptom severity and the low rate of side effects, intrathecal morphine can be considered an adequate treatment for those suffering from medically refractory RLS. The occurrence of complications did not differ between subjects with RLS and spasticity 1).

Case reports

Three patients with medically refractory RLS received an implanted pump for delivery of intrathecal morphine. Severity of RLS and self-assessed health were rated using the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) rating scale and the Short Form health survey (SF-36). Assessments were made preoperatively and after 6 months of follow-up.

Preoperatively two patients had very severe RLS, scoring 35 and 36 on the IRLSSG rating scale, and one patient had severe RLS (score, 26). All three patients were free of symptoms of RLS post-operatively and also at the 6-month follow-up. The daily doses of intrathecal morphine ranged from 73 to 199 µg. Results from the SF-36 health survey showed that all three patients had a better physical health compared to before surgery.

Intrathecal morphine may be efficient in the treatment for medically refractory RLS. All three patients became completely free of symptoms, and there was also improvement in self-perceived overall health 2)


In 2012 case reports of 4 patients documented excellent results with short-term use of intrathecal opioids also in RLS 3).


In 2008 Ross et al. reported the successful use of low-dose intrathecal morphine in a severe case of restless legs syndrome refractory to medication.

The surgery was complicated by extreme restlessness in the recovery room resulting in withdrawal or breakage of the catheter on multiple occasions. Relief of symptoms was lost with each catheter malfunction. They describes the possible origin of this complication and a solution to the problem resulting in the successful control of symptoms for 7 months since the last surgery. 4).

They are, however, wrong in their statement that this is the third published case of this particular treatment. In an article in the Swedish medical journal Lakartidningen 5), Lindvall et al. previously accounted for 7 patients with refractory restless legs syndrome who were successfully treated with intrathecal morphine. An abstract in English is available through the official web site of this journal, and the article is indexed by PubMed. The 7 patients were treated at 3 hospitals in the northern region of Sweden, which is covered by the neurosurgical department of Umeå University Hospital 6).


In 2002 two patients with incapacitating symptoms from restless legs syndrome, not adequately responding to conventional treatment with dopaminergic drugs, were implanted with a pump device (Isomed) for intrathecal delivery of morphine and bupivacaine. The treatment resulted in total resolution of all symptoms with few side effects 7).

References

1)

Steensland I, Koskinen LD, Lindvall P. Treatment of Restless legs with a pump; efficacy and complications. Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Dec 28. doi: 10.1111/ane.13213. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31883387.
2)

Lindvall P, Hariz GM, Blomstedt P. Overall self-perceived health in Restless legs treated with intrathecal morphine. Acta Neurol Scand. 2013 Apr;127(4):268-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2012.01707.x. Epub 2012 Aug 9. PubMed PMID: 22881705.
3)

Hornyak M, Kaube H. Long-Term treatment of a patient with severe restless legs syndrome using intrathecal morphine. Neurology. 2012 Dec 11;79(24):2361-2. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318278b5e7. Epub 2012 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 23197746.
4)

Ross DA, Narus MS, Nutt JG. Control of medically refractory restless legs syndrome with intrathecal morphine: case report. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan;62(1):E263; discussion E263. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000311089.04014.91. PubMed PMID: 18300885.
5)

Lindvall PK, Ruuth K, Jakobsson B, Nilsson SK. [Intrathecal morphine infusion a possible treatment in restless legs]. Lakartidningen. 2007 Aug 8-21;104(32-33):2250-2. Swedish. PubMed PMID: 17822205.
6)

Lindvall P, Ruuth K, Jakobsson B, Nilsson S. Intrathecal morphine as a treatment for refractory restless legs syndrome. Neurosurgery. 2008 Dec;63(6):E1209; author reply E1209. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000325674.02282.CC. PubMed PMID: 19057291.
7)

Jakobsson B, Ruuth K. Successful treatment of restless legs syndrome with an implanted pump for intrathecal drug delivery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002 Jan;46(1):114-7. PubMed PMID: 11903084.

Cost-Effective Evaluation and Management of Cranial Neuropathy

Cost-Effective Evaluation and Management of Cranial Neuropathy

List Price: $99.99

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Cranial neuropathy can be a symptom of a devastating, life-threatening condition or a benign disease with spontaneous full recovery in a majority of patients. While testing options are available, they can be costly and sometimes may be unnecessary. Cost-Effective Evaluation and Management of Cranial Neuropathy by Seilesh C. Babu, Neal M. Jackson, and an impressive team of multidisciplinary contributors reflect decades of experience. Combining evidence-based medicine from the literature with years of firsthand expertise, this reader-friendly book offers cost-effective methodology and in-depth insights for evaluating and managing cranial neuropathy.

The textbook provides a clear-cut approach and practical algorithm for cranial nerve evaluation and management of neuropathy. Contributions from neurotologists, neurosurgeons, rhinologists, ophthalmologists, head and neck cancer surgeons, laryngologists, and speech language pathologists ensure a well-rounded and comprehensive approach. The text begins with an introduction to cost-effective management in medicine, laying a foundation for the book’s primary focus. It concludes with cranial neuropathy radiology considerations and a helpful cost-effective summary with key points.

Key Features:

Unique algorithms provide clinicians with simple-to-follow, cost-effective methods for managing complex disorders that result in facial nerve weakness, hearing loss, and swallowing problems

Pathology-specific chapters cover a wide range of conditions including olfactory disorders, vision disorders, audiovestibular disorders, facial and trigeminal nerve disorders, and spinal accessory nerve disorders

Diagnosis and management of cranial nerve disorder symptoms such as vision loss, dysphagia, and dysphonia

This excellent resource is a must have for all clinicians who potentially encounter patients with cranial nerve weakness, including primary care and emergency medicine physicians, otolaryngologists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons.

This book includes complimentary access to a digital copy on https://medone.thieme.com.

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