External ventricular drainage complications

External ventricular drainage complications

Acutely increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is frequently managed by external ventricular drainage (EVD). This procedure is life-saving but marred by a high incidence of complications. It has recently been indicated that bolt-connected external ventricular drainage (BC-EVD) compared to the standard technique of tunnelled EVD (T-EVD) may result in less complications 1).

Intracranial hemorrhage

Infection

Misplacement

Obstruction

Ventricular catheter obstruction.


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a surgeon’s experience affects the associated complication rate. Methods This retrospective study included all adult patients undergoing EVD insertion at a single centre between July 2013 and June 2015. Medical records were retrieved to obtain details on patient demographics, surgical indication, risk factors for infection and use of anticoagulants or antiplatelets. Surgeon experience, operative time, intraoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, need for revision surgery and EVD associated infection were examined. Information on catheter tip position and radiological evidence of intracranial haemorrhage was obtained from postoperative imaging. Results A total of 89 patients were included in the study. The overall infection, haemorrhage and revision rates were 4.8%, 7.8% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference among surgeons of different experience. The mean operating time for patients who developed an infection was 22 minutes while for those without an infection, it was 33 minutes (p=0.474). Anticoagulation/antiplatelet use did not appear to increase the rate of haemorrhage. The infection rate did not correlate with known risk factors (eg diabetes and steroids), operation start time (daytime vs out of hours) or duration of surgery although intraoperative (single dose) antibiotic prophylaxis seemed to reduce the infection rate. There was also a correlation between longer duration of catheterisation and increased risk of infection. Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating there is no significant difference in complication rates between surgeons of different experience. EVD insertion is a core neurosurgical skill and junior trainees should be trained to perform it 2).


Patients were prospectively enrolled in the CLEAR III trial after placement of an EVD for obstructive intraventricular hemorrhage and randomized to receive recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or placebo. We counted any detected new hemorrhage (catheter tract hemorrhage or any other distant hemorrhage) on computed tomography scan within 30 days from the randomization. Meta-analysis of published series of EVD placement was compiled with STATA software.

Growing or unstable hemorrhage was reported as a cause of exclusion from the trial in 74 of 5707 cases (1.3%) screened for CLEAR III. The first 250 patients enrolled have completed adjudication of adverse events. Forty-two subjects (16.8%) experienced ≥1 new bleeds or expansions, and 6 of 250 subjects (2.4%) suffered symptomatic hemorrhages. Eleven cases (4.4%) had culture-proven bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis.

Risks of bleeding and infection in the ongoing CLEAR III trial are comparable to those previously reported in EVD case series. In the present study, rates of new bleeds and bacterial meningitis/ventriculitis are very low despite multiple daily injections, blood in the ventricles, the use of thrombolysis in half the cases, and generalization to >60 trial sites 3).

References

1)

Jensen TS, Carlsen JG, Sørensen JC, Poulsen FR. Fewer complications with bolt-connected than tunneled external ventricular drainage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2016 Aug;158(8):1491-4. doi: 10.1007/s00701-016-2863-8. Epub 2016 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 27324657.
2)

Yuen J, Selbi W, Muquit S, Berei T. Complication rates of external ventricular drain insertion by surgeons of different experience. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2018 Mar;100(3):221-225. doi: 10.1308/rcsann.2017.0221. Epub 2018 Jan 24. PubMed PMID: 29364007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5930101.
3)

Dey M, Stadnik A, Riad F, Zhang L, McBee N, Kase C, Carhuapoma JR, Ram M, Lane K, Ostapkovich N, Aldrich F, Aldrich C, Jallo J, Butcher K, Snider R, Hanley D, Ziai W, Awad IA; CLEAR III Trial Investigators. Bleeding and Infection With External Ventricular Drainage: A Systematic Review in Comparison With Adjudicated Adverse Events in the Ongoing Clot Lysis Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage Phase III (CLEAR-III IHV) Trial. Neurosurgery. 2015 Mar;76(3):291-301. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000624. PubMed PMID: 25635887; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4333009.

Internal jugular vein stenosis

Internal jugular vein stenosis (IJVS) is gaining increasing attention from clinical researchers due to a series of confounding symptoms that impair the quality of life in affected individuals but cannot be explained by other well-established causes. In a study of Zhou et al.,from the Xuanwu Hospital, aimed to elucidate the clinical features, neuroimaging characteristics and pathogenesis of IJVS, and explore their possible correlations, in attempt to provide useful clues for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Forty-three eligible patients with unilateral or bilateral IJVS confirmed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography of the brain and neck were enrolled in a study. Magnetic resonance imaging along with magnetic resonance angiography or computed tomography angiography was applied to identify the radiological pattern of parenchymal or arterial lesions. Cerebral perfusion and metabolismwere evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Of the 43 patients (46.0 ± 16.0 years old; 30 female), 14 (32.6%) had bilateral and 29 had unilateral IJVS. The common clinical symptoms at admission were tinnitus (60.5%), tinnitus cerebri (67.6%), headache(48.8%), dizziness (32.6%), visual disorders (39.5%), hearing impairment (39.5%), neck discomfort (39.5%), sleep disturbance (60.5%), anxiety or depression (37.5%) and subjective memory impairment (30.2%). The presence of bilateral demyelination changes with cloudy-like appearance in the periventricular area and/or centrum semiovale was found in 95.3% (41/43) patients. SPECT findings showed that 92.3% (24/26) patients displayed cerebral perfusion and metabolism mismatch, depicted by bilaterally and symmetrically reduced cerebral perfusion and increased cerebral glucose consumption. IJVS may contribute to alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolism, as well as white matter lesion formation, all of which may account for its clinical manifestations. 1).


Fifteen consecutive patients were screened from 46 patients suspected as IIH and were finally confirmed as isolated IJV stenosis. The stenotic IJV was corrected with stenting when the trans-stenotic mean pressure gradient (∆MPG) was equal to or higher than 5.44 cmH2 O. Dynamic magnetic resonance venography, computed tomographic venography and digital subtraction angiography of the IJV, ∆MPG, ICP, Headache Impact Test 6 and the Frisén papilledema grade score before and after stenting were compared.

All the stenotic IJVs were corrected by stenting. ∆MPG decreased and the abnormal collateral veins disappeared or shrank immediately. Headache, tinnitus, papilledema and ICP were significantly ameliorated at 14 ± 3 days of follow-up (all P < 0.01). At 12 ± 5.6 months of outpatient follow-up, headache disappeared in 14 out of 15 patients (93.3%), visual impairments were recovered in 10 of 12 patients (83.3%) and tinnitus resolved in 10 out of 11 patients (90.9%). In 12 out of 15 cases, the Frisén papilledema grade scores declined to 1 (0-2). The stented IJVs in all 15 patients kept to sufficient blood flows on computed tomographic venography follow-up without stenting-related adverse events.

Non-thrombotic IJV stenosis may be a potential etiology of IIH. Stenting seems to be a promising option to address the issue of intracranial hypertension from the etiological level, particularly after medical treatment failure 2).


Previous magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown abnormalities of the internal jugular veins in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), but this finding has largely been ignored. We, thus, prospectively performed diagnostic brachiocephalic venograms in all patients with diagnosed neurogenic TOS from April 2008 to December 2011 (mean age, 42.6; r, 16-68; 77.8% women and 22.2% men). Stenosis of the left internal jugular vein, left subclavian vein, right internal jugular vein, and right subclavian vein were assessed, and significant stenoses of these vessels were seen in 63.49%, 65.08%, 60.32%, and 68.25% of patients, respectively. Internal jugular vein stenosis was not present in 23.81%, present unilaterally in 28.57%, and present bilaterally in 47.62% of patients. Subclavian vein stenosis was not present in 17.46%, present unilaterally in 28.57%, and present bilaterally in 53.97% of patients. Phi coefficients of correlation were 0.067 between left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein stenoses, 0.061 between right internal jugular vein and right subclavian vein stenoses, and 0 between any internal jugular vein and any subclavian vein stenoses, indicating there is no correlation between jugular vein stenosis and subclavian vein stenosis in these patients. We conclude that right and left internal jugular vein stenosis is common in patients with neurogenic TOS symptoms. Treatment of internal jugular vein stenosis could potentially benefit these patients, and the implications of these findings warrant further study 3).

Clinical trials

References

1)

Zhou D, Ding J, Asmaro K, Pan L, Ya J, Yang Q, Fan C, Ding Y, Ji X, Meng R. Clinical Characteristics and Neuroimaging Findings in Internal Jugular Venous Outflow Disturbance. Thromb Haemost. 2019 Jan 3. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676815. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30605919.
2)

Zhou D, Meng R, Zhang X, Guo L, Li S, Wu W, Duan J, Song H, Ding Y, Ji X. Intracranial hypertension induced by internal jugular vein stenosiscan be resolved by stenting. Eur J Neurol. 2018 Feb;25(2):365-e13. doi: 10.1111/ene.13512. Epub 2017 Dec 7. PubMed PMID: 29114973.
3)

Ahn SS, Miller TJ, Chen SW, Chen JF. Internal jugular vein stenosis is common in patients presenting with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Ann Vasc Surg. 2014 May;28(4):946-50. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2013.12.009. Epub 2014 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 24462538.

UpToDate: Temporal horn entrapment

Temporal horn entrapment

Entrapment of the temporal horn, known as isolated lateral ventricle (ILV).

Temporal horn entrapment is a very rare kind of isolated focal non communicating hydrocephalus caused by obstruction at the trigone of the lateral ventricle, which seals off the temporal horn from the rest of the ventricular system 1) 2) 3).

A very thoughtful review of the literature in 2013 reported only 24 cases 4)

In 2017 Guive Sharifi et al published a Review of Literature http://www.jneuro.com/neurology-neuroscience/an-idiopathic-huge-trapped-temporal-horn-surgical-strategy-and-review-of-literature.pdf

Etiology

Obstruction around the trigone of the lateral ventricle caused by inflammations, tumors, infections, or after surgical processes. Most reports are unilateral and acquired.

Treatment

Standard treatment has not yet been established for this condition, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature.

Entrapped temporal horn syndrome secondary to obstructive neoplastic lesions is most frequently treated by surgical excision of the offending lesion.

Golpayegani et al., from the Department of Neurosurgery, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, TehranIran, reported in 2018 the first congenital case of huge bilateral temporal horn entrapment. A six-month-old boy was admitted with progressive intracranial hypertension who was managed with bilateral ventricular catheters and Y tube connected to one peritoneal catheter 5).


Zhang et al., reviewed their database to report their experience with endoscopic fenestration for treating entrapped temporal horn caused by atrial adhesions. All endoscopic operations performed from February 2015 to December 2016 were reviewed.

Three patients developed temporal horn entrapment after tumor resection. Fenestration was successful in all patients, with a subsequent stomy of the septum pellucidum. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 1 year later showed a patent reduction of the entrapped horn.

Endoscopic fenestration is an option in the treatment of entrapped temporal horns. However, more experience is required to recommend it as the treatment of choice 6).


Entrapment of the temporal horn, known as isolated lateral ventricle (ILV), is a rare type of noncommunicating focal hydrocephalus, and its standard treatment has not been established.

Hasegawa et al. report two cases of endoscopic surgery for ILV, and highlight the anatomical surgical nuances to avoid associated surgical risks.

The authors present two surgical cases with ILV treated by endoscopic surgery. The first patient with recurrent ILV, due to shunt malfunction, following the initial shunt placement for ILV. In the second patient, the ILV recurred due to choroid plexus inflammation caused by cryptococcal infection. Endoscopic temporal ventriculocisternostomy was effective in both cases. However, in the second case, the choroidal fissure was fenestrated, which led to cerebral infarction in the territory of the choroidal artery zone, attributed to damaging the branches of the choroidal segment of the anterior choroidal artery.

Endoscopic temporal ventriculocisternostomy is considered as a safe and less invasive procedure for treatment of symptomatic ILV. However, the technique is still associated with risks. To avoid complications, it is necessary to be familiar with the anatomy of the choroidal arteries and the pertinent endoscopic intraventricular orientation. Addtitionally, sufficient experience is required before it can be recommended as the treatment of choice 7).


A 76-year-old male presented with altered mental status and left-sided weakness. Noncontrast computed tomography of the head showed a right ganglionic intraparenchymal hemorrhage with resultant entrapment of the temporal horn. Using Robotic Stereotactic Assistance (ROSA), intrahematomal and intraventricular catheters were placed. The temporal horn was immediately decompressed, and the hematoma almost completely resolved with scheduled administration of intrathecal alteplase in the ensuing 48 hours postoperatively.

Frameless image-guided placement of intraparenchymal hematoma catheter using Robotic Stereotactic Assistance is safe and efficient 8)


Paredes et al., reviewed their cases of temporal horn entrapment treated between May 2013 and December 2014 and report their experience with endoscopic temporal ventriculocisternostomy. Four patients were identified (3 adults and 1 child) who underwent this treatment. In 3 patients, the condition developed after tumor resection, and in 1 patient it developed after resection of an arteriovenous malformation. In 1 patient, a recurrent trapped temporal horn developed and a refenestration was successfully performed. No procedure-related complications were observed, and all of the patients remained shunt-free at last follow-up (range 4-24 months). Endoscopic temporal horn ventriculocisternostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of symptomatic temporal horn entrapment in selected cases. However, there is little experience with the procedure to recommend it as the treatment of choice 9).


In 2015 Spallone et al., reported a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with pure Wernicke aphasia (never described before in the albeit rare cases of isolated temporal horn dilatation) that regressed completely following successful ventriculoperitoneal shunting 10).

Chen et al described in 2013 an alternate approach involving temporal horn to prepontine cistern shunting followed by radiosurgery of the offending lesion. This 41-year-old woman with a history of meningiomatosis presented with progressive, incapacitating headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed growth of a right trigone meningioma, causing entrapment of the right temporal horn. A ventricular catheter was placed using frame-based stereotaxy and image fusion computed tomography/MRI to connect the entrapped lateral ventricle to the prepontine cistern. The patient reported complete resolution of her symptoms after the procedure.

Postoperative MRI revealed decompression of the temporal horn. The trigonal meningioma was treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. The patient remained asymptomatic at the 2-year follow-up 11).

In 1992 two cases of entrapment of the temporal horn, computed tomography demonstrated the typical appearance of a comma-shaped homogeneous area isodense with water surrounded by a periventricular low-density area. The cause was probably choroid plexitis resulting in obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid pathway at the atrium. External drainage followed by shunt emplacement was indicated 12).

Maurice-Williams and Choksey reported in 1986 three cases of temporal horn entrapment: A recurrent glioma, a previous tuberculous meningitisand surgical excision of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation which extended into the trigone. Shunting of the trapped temporal horn provided satisfactory treatment 13)

References

1)

Berhouma M, Abderrazek K, Krichen W, Jemel H (2009) Apropos of an unusual and menacing presentation of neurosarcoidosis: The space-occupying trapped temporal horn. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 111: 196-199.

2)

Bohl MA, Almefty KK, Nakaji P (2015) Defining a standardized approach for the bedside insertion of temporal horn external ventricular drains: Procedure development and case series. Neurosurgery 79: 296-304.

3)

Bruck W, Sander U, Blanckenberg P, Friede RL (1991) Symptomatic xanthogranuloma of choroid plexus with unilateral hydrocephalus. Case report. J Neurosurg 75: 324-327.

4)

Krähenbühl AK, Baldauf J, Gaab MR, Schroeder HW. Endoscopic temporal ventriculocisternostomy: an option for the treatment of trapped temporal horns. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 May;11(5):568-74. doi: 10.3171/2013.2.PEDS12417. Epub 2013 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 23521153.

5)

Golpayegani M, Salari F, Anbarlouei M, Habibi Z, Nejat F. Huge bilateral temporal horn entrapment: a congenital abnormality and management. Childs Nerv Syst. 2018 Jul 28. doi: 10.1007/s00381-018-3924-5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30056473.

6)

Zhang B, Wang X, Li C, Li Z. Neuroendoscopic Fenestration for Entrapped Temporal Horn After Surgery: Report of 3 Cases. World Neurosurg. 2018 Apr;112:77-80. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.01.096. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 29371166.

7)

Hasegawa T, Ogiwara T, Nagm A, Goto T, Aoyama T, Hongo K. Risks of endoscopic temporal ventriculocisternostomy for isolated lateral ventricle: Anatomical surgical nuances. World Neurosurg. 2017 Nov 15. pii: S1878-8750(17)31959-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.11.036. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29155114.

8)

Alan N, Lee P, Ozpinar A, Gross BA, Jankowitz BT. Robotic Stereotactic Assistance (ROSA) Utilization for Minimally Invasive Placement of Intraparenchymal Hematoma and Intraventricular Catheters. World Neurosurg. 2017 Dec;108:996.e7-996.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.09.027. Epub 2017 Sep 14. PubMed PMID: 28919568.

9)

Paredes I, Orduna J, Fustero D, Salgado JA, de Diego JM, de Mesa FG. Endoscopic temporal ventriculocisternostomy for the management of temporal horn entrapment: report of 4 cases. J Neurosurg. 2017 Jan;126(1):298-303. doi: 10.3171/2016.1.JNS152248. Epub 2016 Apr 15. PubMed PMID: 27081903.

10)

Spallone A, Belvisi D, Marsili L. Entrapment of the Temporal Horn as a Cause of Pure Wernicke Aphasia: Case Report. J Neurol Surg Rep. 2015 Jul;76(1):e109-12. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549225. Epub 2015 May 13. PubMed PMID: 26251784; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4520970.

11)

Chen CC, Kasper EM, Zinn PO, Warnke PC. Management of entrapped temporal horn by temporal horn to prepontine cistern shunting. World Neurosurg. 2013 Feb;79(2):404.e7-10. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.02.025. Epub 2011 Nov 7. PubMed PMID: 22120406.

12)

Tsugane R, Shimoda M, Yamaguchi T, Yamamoto I, Sato O. Entrapment of the temporal horn: a form of focal non-communicating hydrocephalus caused by intraventricular block of cerebrospinal fluid flow–report of two cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1992 Apr;32(4):210-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 1378565.

13)

Maurice-Williams RS, Choksey M. Entrapment of the temporal horn: a form of focal obstructive hydrocephalus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Mar;49(3):238-42. PubMed PMID: 3958736; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1028721.
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