Ventriculostomy related infection risk factors

Ventriculostomy related infection risk factors

Ventriculostomy related infection risk factors include prior brain surgerycerebrospinal fluid fistula, and insertion site dehiscence. Walek et al. from Rhode Island Hospital found no significant association between infection risk and duration of external ventricular drainage placement 1).


A total of 15 supposed influencing factors includes: age, age & sex interactions, coinfection, catheter insertion outside the hospital, catheter type, CSF leakage, CSF sampling frequency, diagnosis, duration of catheterization, ICP > 20 mmHg, irrigation, multiple catheter, neurosurgical operation, reduced CSF glucose at catheter insertion and sex 2).


In a large series of patients, ventriculostomy related infection (VRI) was associated with a longer ICU stay, but its presence did not influence survival. A longer duration of ventriculostomy catheter monitoring in patients with VRI might be due to an increased volume of drained CSF during infection. Risk factors associated with VRIs are SAH, IVH, craniotomy, and coinfection 3).


A retrospective cohort study strengthens a growing body of works suggesting the importance of inoculation of skin flora as a critical risk factor in ventriculostomy related infections, underscoring the importance of drain changes only when clinically indicated and, that as soon as clinically permitted, catheters should be removed 4).


Associated with a longer ICU stay, but its presence did not influence survival. A longer duration of ventriculostomy catheter monitoring in patients with VAI might be due to an increased volume of drained CSF during infection. Risk factors associated with VAIs are subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage IVH, craniotomy, and coinfection 5).

The risk of infection increases with increasing duration of catheterization and with repeated insertions. The use of local antibiotic irrigation or systemic antibiotics does not appear to reduce the risk of VAI. Routine surveillance cultures of CSF were no more likely to detect infection than cultures obtained when clinically indicated. These findings need to be considered in infection control policies addressing this important issue 6).


An increased risk of infection has been observed in patients with subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage, in patients with concurrent systemic infections as well as with longer duration of catheterization, cerebrospinal (CSF) leakage, and frequent manipulation of the EVD system 7) 8) 9).

Many studies have been conducted to identify risk factors of EVD-related infections. However, none of these risk factors could be confirmed in a cohort of patients. Furthermore they not show any difference in infection rates between patients who were placed in single- or multibed rooms, respectively 10).


Interestingly no risk factor for EVD-related infection could be identified in a retrospective single center study 11).


1)

Walek KW, Leary OP, Sastry R, Asaad WF, Walsh JM, Horoho J, Mermel LA. Risk factors and outcomes associated with external ventricular drain infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022 Apr 26:1-8. doi: 10.1017/ice.2022.23. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35471129.
2)

Sorinola A, Buki A, Sandor J, Czeiter E. Risk Factors of External Ventricular Drain Infection: Proposing a Model for Future Studies. Front Neurol. 2019 Mar 15;10:226. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00226. eCollection 2019. Review. PubMed PMID: 30930840; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6428739.
3)

Bota DP, Lefranc F, Vilallobos HR, Brimioulle S, Vincent JL. Ventriculostomy-related infections in critically ill patients: a 6-year experience. J Neurosurg. 2005 Sep;103(3):468-72. PubMed PMID: 16235679.
4)

Katzir M, Lefkowitz JJ, Ben-Reuven D, Fuchs SJ, Hussein K, Sviri G. Decreasing external ventricular drain related infection rates with duration-independent, clinically indicated criteria for drain revision: A retrospective study. World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 2. pii: S1878-8750(19)32121-7. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.205. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31382072.
5)

Bota DP, Lefranc F, Vilallobos HR, Brimioulle S, Vincent JL. Ventriculostomy-related infections in critically ill patients: a 6-year experience. J Neurosurg. 2005 Sep;103(3):468-72. PubMed PMID: 16235679.
6)

Arabi Y, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Francis C, Ferayan A, Al Shimemeri A, Almuneef MA. Ventriculostomy-associated infections: incidence and risk factors. Am J Infect Control. 2005 Apr;33(3):137-43. PubMed PMID: 15798667.
7)

Camacho E. F., Boszczowski Í., Basso M., Jeng B. C. P., Freire M. P., Guimarães T., Teixeira M. J., Costa S. F. Infection rate and risk factors associated with infections related to external ventricular drain. Infection. 2011;39(1):47–51. doi: 10.1007/s15010-010-0073-5.
8)

Kim J.-H., Desai N. S., Ricci J., Stieg P. E., Rosengart A. J., Hrtl R., Fraser J. F. Factors contributing to ventriculostomy infection. World Neurosurgery. 2012;77(1):135–140. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.04.017.
9)

Mayhall C. G., Archer N. H., Lamb V. A., Spadora A. C., Baggett J. W., Ward J. D., Narayan R. K. Ventriculostomy-related infections. A positive epidemiologic study. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1984;310(9):553–559. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198403013100903.
10)

Hagel S, Bruns T, Pletz MW, Engel C, Kalff R, Ewald C. External Ventricular Drain Infections: Risk Factors and Outcome. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2014;2014:708531. Epub 2014 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 25484896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4251652.
11)

Hagel S, Bruns T, Pletz MW, Engel C, Kalff R, Ewald C. External ventricular drain infections: risk factors and outcome. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2014;2014:708531. doi: 10.1155/2014/708531. Epub 2014 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 25484896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4251652.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive coccal bacteria that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the human respiratory tract and on the skin. It is positive for catalase and nitrate reduction. Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections (e.g. boils), respiratory disease (e.g. sinusitis), and food poisoning. Disease-associated strains often promote infections by producing potent protein toxins, and expressing cell-surface proteins that bind and inactivate antibodies.

Implant failure is a severe and frequent adverse event in all areas of neurosurgery. It often involves infection with biofilm formation, accompanied by inflammation of surrounding tissue, including the brain, and bone loss. The most common bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus.

see Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

see Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounting for most of the infections in the series of Vallejo et al.

The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and spinal epidural abscess (SEA) occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear 1).

Neurosurgical procedures and immunocompromisation are major risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus central nervous system infections. Hand hygienesurveillance nasal swabs and perioperative prophylaxis are crucial points for effective SA infectionprevention. In case of SA-CNS infections, pending microbiological results, anti-methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) antibiotic, with good CNS penetration, should be included, with prompt de-escalation as soon as MRSA is ruled out. Consultation with an expert in antimicrobial therapy is recommended as well as prompt source control when feasible 2).

Staphylococcus aureus treatment.

see Staphylococcus aureus brain abscess.

Among central nervous system infections (e.g., meningitisbrain abscessventriculitistransverse myelitis), those caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are particularly challenging both in management and treatment, with poor clinical outcomes and long hospital stay 3).

Staphylococcus Aureus Case Series.


1)

Vallejo JG, Cain AN, Mason EO, Kaplan SL, Hultén KG. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Oct;36(10):947-951. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001603. PubMed PMID: 28399057.
2) , 3)

Antonello RM, Riccardi N. How we deal with Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA) central nervous system infections. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2022 Jan 12;14(1):1. doi: 10.31083/j.fbs1401001. PMID: 35320912.

Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal infection in the epidural space.

Spinal epidural abscess epidemiology.

Spinal Epidural Abscess Classification.

Spinal epidural abscess etiology.

Spinal epidural abscess pathophysiology.

Spinal epidural abscess clinical features.

Spinal epidural abscess diagnosis.

Spinal epidural abscess differential diagnosis.

Spinal epidural abscess treatment.

Spinal epidural abscess outcome.

Spinal epidural abscess case series.

Spinal epidural abscess case reports.

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