Third ventricular tumor treatment

Third ventricular tumor treatment

A plethora of surgical strategies have been described to reach deep-seated lesions situated within the third ventricle including the Rosenfeld, or transcallosal anterior interfoniceal approach.

Third ventricle tumors are surgical challenges because of the complex surrounding structures, including the hypothalamus, infundibulum, optic pathways, limbic system, and nearby vasculature 1).

These tumors cause obstructive hydrocephalus and thus necessitate a CSF diversion procedure such as an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), often coupled with an endoscopic biopsy (EBX). Lesions located posterior to the massa intermedia pose a technical challenge, as the use of a rigid endoscope for performing both an ETV and EBX is limited.

Roth and Constantini, recommend using a combined rigid-flexible endoscope for endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy to approach posterior third ventricular tumors (behind the massa intermedia). This technique overcomes the limitations of using a rigid endoscope by reaching 2 distant regions 2).

The first choice treatment option for third ventricle lesions with dilated ventricles was endoscopic management 3). Among microsurgical approaches, the expanded transcallosal transforaminal approach was a more recently practiced and safe method of accessing the anterior and middle third ventricle. With this approach, the risk of damage to most of the vital structures, such as the fornix or the thalamus was avoided 4). The location of the junction of the anterior septal and internal cerebral vein is essential. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) venography can identify the junction. Some areas remain inaccessible, such as the anterosuperior and posterosuperior regions of the third ventricle 5).

The expanded transcallosal transforaminal approach remains a safe and relatively secure method of gaining access to the third ventricle 6).


There are three broad categories – anterior, lateral, and posterior routes. The anterior routes include transforaminal, interforniceal, transchoroidal, and subchoroidal. The subtemporal route is the main lateral corridor to the third ventricle and recommended if the tumor is located lateral to the sella turcica or extends into the middle cranial fossa 7). A transtubular access to the third ventricle is also practical. It enables blunt dissection of the corpus callosum which may minimize retraction injuries. Three-dimensional endoscopic visualization, coupled with a transparent plastic retractor, provides absolute and undeviating monitoring of the surgical corridor 8). In the third ventricle’s anterior portion, the endoscopic endonasal approach permits surgical maneuverability. The lamina terminalis and tuber cinereum are thought to be safe entry points for this approach 9). Tumors leading to the blockage of the Sylvian aqueduct can cause obstructive hydrocephalus; this calls for a CSF diversion procedure, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, combined with an endoscopic biopsy. Posterior third ventricular tumors should be approached using a combination of a rigid-flexible endoscope 10).


Colloid cyst treatment.

Choroid plexus papilloma treatment.

Craniopharyngioma treatment.


Operative approaches to tumors of the third ventricle, mainly the bifrontal approach through the lamina terminalis, has several advantages. First, the main arteries can be exposed and the operative field is sufficiently wide to render the operative procedure safe. Second, cortical incision or excision is unnecessary. By cutting the lamina terminalis, which is usually thin and expanded as a result of hydrocephalus, even a large tumor can be removed. In addition, lethal complications are avoided, because this approach has less possibility of damage to the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Seventeen cases of tumor in the third ventricle underwent operation via this approach. The operative technique for the bifrontal approach through the lamina terminalis and three representative cases are reported. This approach can be applied not only to tumors, but to arteriovenous malformations or giant aneurysms adjacent to the third ventricle 11).

References

1)

Tomasello F, Cardali S, Angileri FF, Conti A. Transcallosal approach to third ventricle tumors: How I do it. Acta Neurochir. 2013;155:1031–4.
2) , 10)

Roth J, Constantini S. Combined rigid and flexible endoscopy for tumors in the posterior third ventricle. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jun;122(6):1341-6. doi: 10.3171/2014.9.JNS141397. Epub 2015 Mar 27. PubMed PMID: 25816082.
3)

Chibbaro S, Di Rocco F, Makiese O, Reiss A, Poczos P, Mirone G, Servadei F, George B, Crafa P, Polivka M, Romano A. Neuroendoscopic management of posterior third ventricle and pineal region tumors: technique, limitation, and possible complication avoidance. Neurosurg Rev. 2012 Jul;35(3):331-38; discussion 338-40. doi: 10.1007/s10143-011-0370-1. Epub 2012 Jan 19. PubMed PMID: 22258494.
4) , 6)

Patel P, Cohen-Gadol AA, Boop F, Klimo P Jr. Technical strategies for the transcallosal transforaminal approach to third ventricle tumors: expanding the operative corridor. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Oct;14(4):365-71. doi: 10.3171/2014.6.PEDS1452. Epub 2014 Aug 8. PubMed PMID: 25105512.
5)

Ahmed SI, Javed G, Laghari AA, Bareeqa SB, Aziz K, Khan M, Samar SS, Humera RA, Khan AR, Farooqui MO, Shahbaz A. Third Ventricular Tumors: A Comprehensive Literature Review. Cureus. 2018 Oct 5;10(10):e3417. doi: 10.7759/cureus.3417. Review. PubMed PMID: 30542631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6284874.
7)

Cikla U, Swanson KI, Tumturk A, Keser N, Uluc K, Cohen-Gadol A, Baskaya MK. Microsurgical resection of tumors of the lateral and third ventricles: operative corridors for difficult-to-reach lesions. J Neurooncol. 2016 Nov;130(2):331-340. Epub 2016 May 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 27235145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5090015.
8)

Shoakazemi A, Evins AI, Burrell JC, Stieg PE, Bernardo A. A 3D endoscopic transtubular transcallosal approach to the third ventricle. J Neurosurg. 2015 Mar;122(3):564-73. doi: 10.3171/2014.11.JNS14341. Epub 2015 Jan 2. PubMed PMID: 25555026.
9)

Cavallo LM, Di Somma A, de Notaris M, Prats-Galino A, Aydin S, Catapano G, Solari D, de Divitiis O, Somma T, Cappabianca P. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to the Third Ventricle: Multimodal Anatomical Study with Surgical Implications. World Neurosurg. 2015 Aug;84(2):267-78. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.03.007. Epub 2015 Mar 28. PubMed PMID: 25827043.
11)

Suzuki J, Katakura R, Mori T. Interhemispheric approach through the lamina terminalis to tumors of the anterior part of the third ventricle. Surg Neurol. 1984 Aug;22(2):157-63. PubMed PMID: 6740479.

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) 1): distinct from lymphoepithelioma (less keratinizing). Rare, aggressive carcinoma (a more lethal variant of squamous cell carcinoma) with poor prognosis. Incidence may be higher with prior XRT and in woodworkers and nickel factory workers. May invade adjacent structures, those relevant to neurosurgeons: frontal fossa and cavernous sinus. No relation to EBV. Treatment: tri-modal therapy (XRT, chemotherapy, and salvage surgery)


Abdelmeguid et al. evaluated the experience and the outcomes of patients with sinonasal cancer treated with endoscopic resection.

Overall, 239 patients were included. Median follow up time was 46.6 months. Of the 239 patients, 167 (70%) had a pure endonasal endoscopic approach, while 72 (30%) had an endoscopic-assisted approach. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage occurred in 14 patients (5.9%). Negative margins were achieved in 209 patients (87.4%). There was no significant difference in the margin status between the pure endoscopic and endoscopic-assisted group (P = .682). There was no significant difference in the survival outcomes between both groups.

This data suggest that in properly selected patients, endoscopic approaches have acceptable morbidity with low complication rates and can provide an oncologically sound alternative to open approaches 2).

References

1)

Jeng YM, Sung MT, Fang CL, et al. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and nasopharyngeal-type undifferentiated carcinoma: two clinically, biologically, and histopathologically distinct entities. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002; 26:371–376
2)

Abdelmeguid AS, Raza SM, Su SY, Kupferman M, Roberts D, DeMonte F, Hanna EY. Endoscopic resection of sinonasal malignancies. Head Neck. 2019 Dec 24. doi: 10.1002/hed.26047. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31875340.

Ventriculostomy related infection risk factors

Ventriculostomy related infection risk factors

A total of 15 supposed influencing factors includes: age, age & sex interactions, coinfection, catheter insertion outside the hospital, catheter type, CSF leakage, CSF sampling frequency, diagnosis, duration of catheterization, ICP > 20 mmHg, irrigation, multiple catheter, neurosurgical operation, reduced CSF glucose at catheter insertion and sex 1).


In a large series of patients, ventriculostomy related infection (VRI) was associated with a longer ICU stay, but its presence did not influence survival. A longer duration of ventriculostomy catheter monitoring in patients with VRI might be due to an increased volume of drained CSF during infection. Risk factors associated with VRIs are SAH, IVH, craniotomy, and coinfection 2).


A retrospective cohort study strengthens a growing body of works suggesting the importance of inoculation of skin flora as a critical risk factor in ventriculostomy related infections, underscoring the importance of drain changes only when clinically indicated and, that as soon as clinically permitted, catheters should be removed 3).


Associated with a longer ICU stay, but its presence did not influence survival. A longer duration of ventriculostomy catheter monitoring in patients with VAI might be due to an increased volume of drained CSF during infection. Risk factors associated with VAIs are subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage IVH, craniotomy, and coinfection 4).

The risk of infection increases with increasing duration of catheterization and with repeated insertions. The use of local antibiotic irrigation or systemic antibiotics does not appear to reduce the risk of VAI. Routine surveillance cultures of CSF were no more likely to detect infection than cultures obtained when clinically indicated. These findings need to be considered in infection control policies addressing this important issue 5).


An increased risk of infection has been observed in patients with subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage, in patients with concurrent systemic infections as well as with longer duration of catheterization, cerebrospinal (CSF) leakage, and frequent manipulation of the EVD system 6) 7) 8).

Many studies have been conducted to identify risk factors of EVD-related infections. However, none of these risk factors could be confirmed in a cohort of patients. Furthermore they not show any difference in infection rates between patients who were placed in single- or multibed rooms, respectively 9).


Interestingly no risk factor for EVD-related infection could be identified in a retrospective single center study 10).

References

1)

Sorinola A, Buki A, Sandor J, Czeiter E. Risk Factors of External Ventricular Drain Infection: Proposing a Model for Future Studies. Front Neurol. 2019 Mar 15;10:226. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00226. eCollection 2019. Review. PubMed PMID: 30930840; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6428739.
2)

Bota DP, Lefranc F, Vilallobos HR, Brimioulle S, Vincent JL. Ventriculostomy-related infections in critically ill patients: a 6-year experience. J Neurosurg. 2005 Sep;103(3):468-72. PubMed PMID: 16235679.
3)

Katzir M, Lefkowitz JJ, Ben-Reuven D, Fuchs SJ, Hussein K, Sviri G. Decreasing external ventricular drain related infection rates with duration-independent, clinically indicated criteria for drain revision: A retrospective study. World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 2. pii: S1878-8750(19)32121-7. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.205. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31382072.
4)

Bota DP, Lefranc F, Vilallobos HR, Brimioulle S, Vincent JL. Ventriculostomy-related infections in critically ill patients: a 6-year experience. J Neurosurg. 2005 Sep;103(3):468-72. PubMed PMID: 16235679.
5)

Arabi Y, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Francis C, Ferayan A, Al Shimemeri A, Almuneef MA. Ventriculostomy-associated infections: incidence and risk factors. Am J Infect Control. 2005 Apr;33(3):137-43. PubMed PMID: 15798667.
6)

Camacho E. F., Boszczowski Í., Basso M., Jeng B. C. P., Freire M. P., Guimarães T., Teixeira M. J., Costa S. F. Infection rate and risk factors associated with infections related to external ventricular drain. Infection. 2011;39(1):47–51. doi: 10.1007/s15010-010-0073-5.
7)

Kim J.-H., Desai N. S., Ricci J., Stieg P. E., Rosengart A. J., Hrtl R., Fraser J. F. Factors contributing to ventriculostomy infection. World Neurosurgery. 2012;77(1):135–140. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.04.017.
8)

Mayhall C. G., Archer N. H., Lamb V. A., Spadora A. C., Baggett J. W., Ward J. D., Narayan R. K. Ventriculostomy-related infections. A positive epidemiologic study. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1984;310(9):553–559. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198403013100903.
9)

Hagel S, Bruns T, Pletz MW, Engel C, Kalff R, Ewald C. External Ventricular Drain Infections: Risk Factors and Outcome. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2014;2014:708531. Epub 2014 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 25484896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4251652.
10)

Hagel S, Bruns T, Pletz MW, Engel C, Kalff R, Ewald C. External ventricular drain infections: risk factors and outcome. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2014;2014:708531. doi: 10.1155/2014/708531. Epub 2014 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 25484896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4251652.

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