ShuntScope

ShuntScope

Autoclavable reusable SHUNTSCOPE® is designed to facilitate the endoscopic ventricular drainage placement during shunt surgery.

A retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients undergoing ventricular catheter placement using the ShuntScope from 01/2012 to 01/2022 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg was performed. Demographic, clinical, and radiological data were evaluated. The visualization quality of the intraoperative endoscopy was stratified into the categories of excellent, medium, and poor and compared to the postoperative catheter tip placement. Follow-up evaluation included the surgical revision rate due to proximal catheter occlusion.

A total of 65 ShuntScope-assisted surgeries have been performed on 51 children. The mean age was 5.1 years. The most common underlying pathology was a tumor- or cyst-related hydrocephalus in 51%. Achieved image quality was excellent in 41.5%, medium in 43%, and poor in 15.5%. Ideal catheter placement was achieved in 77%. There were no intraoperative ventricular catheter placement complications and no technique-related morbidity associated with the ShuntScope. The revision rate due to proximal occlusion was 4.61% during a mean follow-up period of 39.7 years. No statistical correlation between image grade and accuracy of catheter position was observed (p-value was 0.290).

The ShuntScope can be considered a valuable addition to standard surgical tools in pediatric hydrocephalus treatment. Even suboptimal visualization contributes to high rates of correct catheter placement and, thereby, to a favorable clinical outcome 1).


The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy of catheter placement and the complication and revision rates between SG and freehand (FH) techniques.

A retrospective study based on a prospectively acquired database of patients who underwent VC placement between September 2018 and July 2021. The accuracy of catheter placement was graded on postoperative imaging using a three-point Hayhurst grading system. Complication and revision rates were documented and compared between both groups with an average follow-up period of 20.84 months.

Results: Fifty-seven patients were included. SG technique was used in 29 patients (mean age was 6.3 years, 1.4 -27.7 years, 48.1% females), and FH technique was used in 28 patients (mean age was 26.7 years, 0.83 – 79.5 years, 67.9% female). The success rate for the optimal placement of the VC with a grade I on the Hayhurst scale was significantly higher in the SG group (93.1%) than in the FH group (60.7%), P = 0.012. The revision rate was higher in the FH group with 35.7% vs. 20.7% of in the SG group, P = 0.211.

Conclusion: VC placement using the SG technique is a safe and effective procedure, which enabled a significantly higher success rate and lower revision and complication rate. Accordingly, we recommend using the SG technique especially in patients with difficult anatomy 2)


The experience of shuntscope-guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt in 9 cases done from June 2015 to April 2016. Shuntscope is a 1 mm outer diameter semi-rigid scope from Karl Storz with 10000 pixels of magnification. It has a fiber optic lens system with a camera and light source attachment away from the scope to make it lightweight and easily maneuverable.

Results: In all cases, VC was placed in the ipsilateral frontal horn away from choroid plexuses, septae, or membranes. Septum pellucidum perforation and placement to the opposite side of the ventricle was identified with shunt scope assistance and corrected.

Conclusion: Although our initial results are encouraging, larger case series would be helpful. Complications and cost due to shunt dysfunction can thus be reduced to a great extent with shuntscope 3)


The semi-rigid ShuntScope (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with an outer diameter of 1.0 mm and an image resolution of 10,000 pixels was used in a series of 27 children and adolescents (18 males, 9 females, age range 2 months-18 years). Indications included catheter placement in aqueductal stenting (n = 4), first-time shunt placement (n = 5), burr hole reservoir insertion (n = 4), catheter placement after endoscopic procedures (n = 7) and revision surgery of the ventricle catheter (n = 7).

ShuntScope-guided precise catheter placement was achieved in 26 of 27 patients. In one case of aqueductal stenting, the procedure had to be abandoned. One single wound healing problem was noted as a complication. Intraventricular image quality was always sufficient to recognize the anatomical structures. In the case of catheter removal, it was helpful to identify adherent vessels or membranes. Penetration of small adhesions or thin membranes was feasible. Postoperative imaging studies demonstrated catheter tip placements analogous to the intraoperative findings.

Misplacements of shunt catheters are completely avoidable with the presented intra-catheter technique including slit ventricles or even aqueductal stenting. Potential complications can be avoided during revision surgery. The implementation of the ShuntScope is recommended in pediatric neurosurgery 4).


1)

Prajsnar-Borak A, Teping F, Oertel J. Image quality and related outcomes of the ShuntScope for catheter implantation in pediatric hydrocephalus-experience of 65 procedures. Childs Nerv Syst. 2022 Dec 2. doi: 10.1007/s00381-022-05776-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36459211.
2)

Issa M, Nofal M, Miotik N, Seitz A, Unterberg A, El Damaty A. ShuntScope®-Guided Versus Free Hand Technique for Ventricular Catheter Placement: A Retrospective Comparative Study of Intra-Ventricular Catheter Tip Position and Complication Rate. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2022 Feb 10. doi: 10.1055/a-1768-3892. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35144299.
3)

Agrawal V, Aher RB. Endoluminal Shuntscope-Guided Ventricular Catheter Placement: Early Experience. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1071-1073. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_98_17. PMID: 30459870; PMCID: PMC6208226.
4)

Senger S, Antes S, Salah M, Tschan C, Linsler S, Oertel J. The view through the ventricle catheter – The new ShuntScope for the therapy of pediatric hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci. 2018 Feb;48:196-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.10.046. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 29102235.

Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)

Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN)

see PECARN traumatic brain injury algorithm.

The overuse of CT leads to inefficient care. Therefore, to maximize precision and minimize the overuse of CT, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) previously derived clinical prediction rules for identifying children at high risk and very low risk for intra-abdominal trauma undergoing acute intervention and clinically important traumatic brain injury after blunt trauma in large cohorts of children who are injured.

A study aimed to validate the IAI and age-based TBI clinical prediction rules for identifying children at high risk and very low risk for IAIs undergoing acute intervention and clinically important TBIs after blunt trauma.

This was a prospective 6-center observational study of children aged <18 years with the blunt torso or head trauma. Consistent with the original derivation studies, enrolled children underwent a routine history and physical examinations, and the treating clinicians completed case report forms prior to knowledge of CT results (if performed). Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical courses and outcomes for all patients, and for those who were discharged from the emergency department, a follow-up survey via a telephone call or SMS text message was performed to identify any patients with missed IAIs or TBIs. The primary outcomes were IAI undergoing acute intervention (therapeutic laparotomy, angiographic embolization, blood transfusion, or intravenous fluid for ≥2 days for pancreatic or gastrointestinal injuries) and clinically important TBI (death from TBI, neurosurgical procedure, intubation for >24 hours for TBI, or hospital admission of ≥2 nights due to a TBI on CT). Prediction rule accuracy was assessed by measuring rule classification performance, using a standard point and 95% CI estimates of the operational characteristics of each prediction rule (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic likelihood ratios).

The project was funded in 2016, and enrollment was completed on September 1, 2021. Data analyses are expected to be completed by December 2022, and the primary study results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2023.

This study will attempt to validate previously derived clinical prediction rules to accurately identify children at high and very low risk for clinically important intra-abdominal trauma and traumatic brain injury. Assuming successful validation, widespread implementation is then indicated, which will optimize the care of children who are injured by better aligning CT use with need.

International registered report identifier (irrid): RR1-10.2196/43027 1).

Blunt head trauma is common in children and a common reason for presentation to an emergency department. Head CT involves radiation exposure and the risk of fatal radiation-related malignancy increases with younger age at CT 2). The PECARN flow diagram flags assessment features that increase the risk of ci-TBI and weigh them against the risk of radiation exposure. Therefore, it is useful in avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure in younger patients, where it is safe to do so, and identifying those at risk that require further investigation.

In PECARN, altered mental status was defined as GCS 14 or agitation, somnolence, repetitive questioning, or slow response to verbal communication.

Severe mechanisms of injuries including:

motor vehicle crash with patient ejection

death of another passenger, or rollover

pedestrian or bicyclist without helmet struck by a motorized vehicle falls

more than 1.5 m (5 feet) for patients aged 2 years and older

more than 0.9 m (3 feet) for those younger than 2 years

head struck by a high-impact object

The algorithm was created from patients presenting to an emergency department within 24 hours of the trauma and with blunt trauma only.

Excluded criteria included:

penetrating trauma

known brain tumors

pre-existing neurological disorders complicating assessment

neuroimaging at a hospital outside before transfer

and therefore may not apply to patients with these features.

TBI on CT was defined as any of:

intracranial hemorrhage or contusion

cerebral edema

traumatic infarction

diffuse axonal injury

shearing injury

sigmoid sinus thrombosis

midline shift of intracranial contents or signs of brain herniation

diastasis of the skull

pneumocephalus

skull fracture depressed by at least the width of the table of the skull


Kuppermann et al. analyzed 42 412 children (derivation and validation populations: 8502 and 2216 younger than 2 years, and 25 283 and 6411 aged 2 years and older). We obtained CT scans on 14 969 (35.3%); ciTBIs occurred in 376 (0.9%), and 60 (0.1%) underwent neurosurgery. In the validation population, the prediction rule for children younger than 2 years (normal mental status, no scalp hematoma except frontal, no loss of consciousness or loss of consciousness for less than 5 s, non-severe injury mechanism, no palpable skull fracture, and acting normally according to the parents) had a negative predictive value for ciTBI of 1176/1176 (100.0%, 95% CI 99.7-100 0) and sensitivity of 25/25 (100%, 86.3-100.0). 167 (24.1%) of 694 CT-imaged patients younger than 2 years were in this low-risk group. The prediction rule for children aged 2 years and older (normal mental status, no loss of consciousness, no vomiting, non-severe injury mechanism, no signs of basilar skull fracture, and no severe headache) had a negative predictive value of 3798/3800 (99.95%, 99.81-99.99) and sensitivity of 61/63 (96.8%, 89.0-99.6). 446 (20.1%) of 2223 CT-imaged patients aged 2 years and older were in this low-risk group. Neither rule missed neurosurgery in validation populations.

These validated prediction rules identified children at very low risk of ciTBIs for whom CT can routinely be obviated 3).


A study applied two different machine learning (ML) models to diagnose mTBI in a paediatric population collected as part of the paediatric emergency care applied research network (PECARN) study between 2004 and 2006. The models were conducted using 15,271 patients under the age of 18 years with mTBI and had a head CT report. In the conventional model, random forest (RF) ranked the features to reduce data dimensionality and the top ranked features were used to train a shallow artificial neural network (ANN) model. In the second model, a deep ANN applied to classify positive and negative mTBI patients using the entirety of the features available. The dataset was divided into two subsets: 80% for training and 20% for testing using five-fold cross-validation. Accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and specificity were calculated by comparing the model’s prediction outcome to the actual diagnosis for each patient. RF ranked ten clinical demographic features and twelve CT-findings; the hybrid RF-ANN model achieved an average specificity of 99.96%, sensitivity of 95.98%, precision of 99.25%, and accuracy of 99.74% in identifying positive mTBI from negative mTBI subjects. The deep ANN proved its ability to carry out the task efficiently with an average specificity of 99.9%, sensitivity of 99.2%, precision of 99.9%, and accuracy of 99.9%. The performance of the two proposed models demonstrated the feasibility of using ANN to diagnose mTBI in a paediatric population. This is the first study to investigate deep ANN in a paediatric cohort with mTBI using clinical and non-imaging data and diagnose mTBI with balanced sensitivity and specificity using shallow and deep ML models. This method, if validated, would have the potential to reduce the burden of TBI evaluation in EDs and aide clinicians in the decision-making process 4).


1)

Ugalde IT, Chaudhari PP, Badawy M, Ishimine P, McCarten-Gibbs KA, Yen K, Atigapramoj NS, Sage A, Nielsen D, Adelson PD, Upperman J, Tancredi D, Kuppermann N, Holmes JF. Validation of Prediction Rules for Computed Tomography Use in Children With Blunt Abdominal or Blunt Head TraumaProtocol for a Prospective Multicenter Observational Cohort Study. JMIR Res Protoc. 2022 Nov 24;11(11):e43027. doi: 10.2196/43027. PMID: 36422920.
2)

Brenner D, Elliston C, Hall E, Berdon W. Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Feb;176(2):289-96.
3)

Kuppermann N, Holmes JF, Dayan PS, Hoyle JD Jr, Atabaki SM, Holubkov R, Nadel FM, Monroe D, Stanley RM, Borgialli DA, Badawy MK, Schunk JE, Quayle KS, Mahajan P, Lichenstein R, Lillis KA, Tunik MG, Jacobs ES, Callahan JM, Gorelick MH, Glass TF, Lee LK, Bachman MC, Cooper A, Powell EC, Gerardi MJ, Melville KA, Muizelaar JP, Wisner DH, Zuspan SJ, Dean JM, Wootton-Gorges SL; Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). Identification of children at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1160-70. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61558-0. Epub 2009 Sep 14. Erratum in: Lancet. 2014 Jan 25;383(9914):308. PMID: 19758692.
4)

Ellethy H, Chandra SS, Nasrallah FA. The detection of mild traumatic brain injury in paediatrics using artificial neural networks. Comput Biol Med. 2021 Aug;135:104614. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104614. Epub 2021 Jun 30. PMID: 34229143.

Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Complications

Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Complications

see External ventricular drainage complications

see also Cerebrospinal fluid shunt complications.


Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is the most common treatment to manage hydrocephalus; It is unfortunately burdened by up to 25% of complications. The peritoneal approach may expose patients to many complications.

Patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt tend to develop epidural fluid accumulation after cranioplasty and also have a higher frequency of syndrome of the trephined after bone flap removal. Thus treatment of patients with postcranioplasty infection and a VP shunt is often challenging.

The management of ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication or failure is a common problem in neurosurgical practice. On occasion, extraperitoneal sites for CSF diversion are required when shunting to the peritoneal cavity has failed after multiple attempts.

Complications frequently associated with a VP shunt: includes shunt obstruction, infection, overdrainage of CSF, and perforation of the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, vagina, and abdominal wall at the umbilicus… 1).

Despite procedural and equipment advances, the procedure it is accompanied by frequent complications and malfunctions. Some studies have shown an overall shunt failure rate as high as 59%, with the majority of failures occurring within the first 6 months after shunt placement 2).

Endoscopic placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt catheters in pediatric patients has been increasingly used in an attempt to minimize the unacceptably high rates of revision. Although this procedure carries an increased expense, there is currently no evidence to support an improved long-term outcome.

Endoscopic assisted ventricular catheter placement decreased the odds of proximal obstruction but failed to improve overall shunt survival in a 6 year experience 3).

The evaluation of children with suspected ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) malfunction has evolved into a diagnostic dilemma. This patient population is vulnerable not only to the medical risks of hydrocephalus and surgical complications but also to silent but harmful effects of ionizing radiation secondary to imaging used to evaluate shunt efficacy and patency. The combination of increased medical awareness regarding ionizing radiation and public concern has generated desire to reduce the reliance on head computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of VPS malfunction. Many centers have started to investigate the utility of low dose computed tomography and alternatives, such as fast magnetic resonance imaging for the investigation of VP shunt malfunction in order to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable.

A pilot study demonstrates that utilization of limited head CT scan in the evaluation of children with suspected VP shunt malfunction is a feasible strategy for the evaluation of the ventricular size 4).

In the study of Afat et al., low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) provides excellent sensitivity and higher diagnostic confidence with lower radiation exposure compared with radiographic shunt series (SS) 5).

see Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

Ventriculitis

Intraventricular administration of proper antibiotics is a reliable and effective way to treat ventriculitis associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Vancomycin is the preferred antibiotic for ventriculitis, but other kind(s) of some antibiotics are necessary in a few patients in addition to or instead of vancomycin 6).

see Ventriculoperitoneal shunt overdrainage

see Ventriculoperitoneal shunt obstruction

see Shunt calcification

see Ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal complications.

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have rarely been attributed to silicone allergy, with only a handful of cases reported in literature. The classic presentation of allergy to silicone ventriculoperitoneal shunt, i.e., abdominal pain with recurrent skin breakdown along the shunt tract, is nonspecific and difficult to distinguish clinically from other causes of shunt-related symptoms. It can be diagnosed by detection of antisilicone antibodies and is treated with removal of the shunt and replacement, if needed, with a polyurethane shunt system.

Kurin et al. report the first case of suspected silicone allergy presenting as clinical peritonitis without overt colonic perforation 7).


Progression of Normal-Tension Glaucoma 8).

Merkler et al., performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized at the time of their first recorded procedure code for VPS surgery between 2005 and 2012 at nonfederal acute care hospitals in California, Florida, and New York. We excluded patients who during the index hospitalization for VPS surgery had concomitant codes for VPS revision, CNS infection, or died during the index hospitalization. Patients were followed for the primary outcome of a VPS complication, defined as the composite of CNS infection or VPS revision. Survival statistics were used to calculate the cumulative rate and incidence rate of VPS complications.

17,035 patients underwent VPS surgery. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 (±1.8) years, at least one VPS complication occurred in 23.8% (95% CI, 22.9-24.7%) of patients. The cumulative rate of CNS infection was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.7-6.5%) and of VPS revision 22.0% (95% CI, 21.1-22.9%). The majority of complications occurred within the first year of hospitalization for VPS surgery. Complication rates were 21.3 (95% CI, 20.6-22.1) complications per 100 patients per year in the first year after VPS surgery, 5.7 (95% CI, 5.3-6.1) in the second year after VPS surgery, and 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.0) in the fifth year after VPS surgery.

Complications are not infrequent following VPS surgery; however, the majority of complications appear to be clustered in the first year following VPS insertion 9).

2015

A extremely rare and potentially severe complication of vesical calculi formation on the slit valves of distal end of VP shunt which erosively migrated into the urinary bladder. Suprapubic cystolithotomy performed, peritoneal end of the tube found to be eroding and entering into the bladder with two calculi firmly stuck to slit valves in the distal end of the tubing were removed. Shunt was functional, therefore, it was pulled out and repositioned on the superior aspect of the liver; the urinary bladder was repaired. Patient did well postoperatively. This complication was revealed 1.5 years after the shunt was implanted. Although there were symptoms of dysuria and dribbling of urine of short duration, the patient did not show obvious peritoneal signs; suggesting that, penetration of a VP shunt into the urinary bladder can remain asymptomatic for a long period of time, disclosed late and can lead to considerable morbidity. Careful follow-up is important and management should be individualized 10).

2009

An unusual case of perforation of the distal end of the VP shunt into the bladder, with vesical calculus formation 11).

2002

A bladder stone formed secondary to the erosion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt through a normal bladder wall 12).


1)

Blount JP, Campbell JA, Haines SJ. Complications in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid shunting. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1993;4:633–56.
2)

Reddy GK, Bollam P, Shi R, Guthikonda B, Nanda A. Management of adult hydrocephalus with ventriculoperitoneal shunts: long-term single-institution experience. Neurosurgery. 2011;69(4):774–781.
3)

Villavicencio AT, Leveque JC, McGirt MJ, Hopkins JS, Fuchs HE, George TM. Comparison of revision rates following endoscopically versus nonendoscopically placed ventricular shunt catheters. Surg Neurol. 2003 May;59(5):375-9; discussion 379-80. PubMed PMID: 12765808.
4)

Park DB, Hill JG, Thacker PG, Rumboldt Z, Huda W, Ashley B, Hulsey T, Russell WS. The Role of Limited Head Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Pediatric Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Malfunction. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27299297.
5)

Afat S, Pjontek R, Hamou HA, Herz K, Nikoubashman O, Bamberg F, Brockmann MA, Nikolaou K, Clusmann H, Wiesmann M, Othman AE. Imaging of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Complications: Comparison of Whole Body Low-Dose Computed Tomography and Radiographic Shunt Series. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2016 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27529684.
6)

Li XY, Wang ZC, Li YP, Ma ZY, Yang J, Cao EC. [Study on treatment strategy for ventriculitis associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2005 Sep;17(9):558-60. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 16146606.
7)

Kurin M, Lee K, Gardner P, Fajt M, Umapathy C, Fasanella K. Clinical peritonitis from allergy to silicone ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar 6. doi: 10.1007/s12328-017-0729-0. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28265895.
8)

Chen BH, Drucker MD, Louis KM, Richards DW. Progression of Normal-Tension Glaucoma After Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt to Decrease Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure. J Glaucoma. 2014 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25350819.
9)

Merkler AE, Ch’ang J, Parker WE, Murthy SB, Kamel H. The Rate of Complications after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery. World Neurosurg. 2016 Nov 5. pii: S1878-8750(16)31137-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.10.136. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27826086.
10)

Gupta R, Dagla R, Agrawal LD, Sharma P. Vesical calculi formation on the slit valves of a migrated distal end of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2015 Oct-Dec;10(4):368-70. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.174444. PubMed PMID: 26962346.
11)

Ramana Murthy KV, Jayaram Reddy S, Prasad DV. Perforation of the distal end of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the bladder with calculus formation. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2009;45(1):53-5. doi: 10.1159/000204904. Epub 2009 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 19258730.
12)

Eichel L, Allende R, Mevorach RA, Hulbert WC, Rabinowitz R. Bladder calculus formation and urinary retention secondary to perforation of a normal bladder by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Urology. 2002 Aug;60(2):344. PubMed PMID: 12137842.
WhatsApp WhatsApp us
%d bloggers like this: