UpToDate: Edinburgh visual gait score

Edinburgh visual gait score

Complex gait test analysis systems are not generally available worldwide, and no simple system of assessing gait by observation has been validated specifically for use in patients with cerebral palsy.

Read et al., developed a visual gait analysis score for use in cerebral palsy. Videotaped sequences of patients were recorded before and after surgery as part of a three-dimensional gait study using a Vicon (Oxford, U.K.) gait analysis system. The score demonstrated good intraobserver and interobserver reliability. The numeric values of the score elements correlated well with the measurements obtained from instrumented gait analysis for the same patients, and the score was able to detect postoperative change 1).


EVGS can be a supportive tool that adds quantitative data instead of only qualitative assessment to a video only gait evaluation 2).


Robinson et al., propose an MCID value of 2.4 for the EVGS; representing the improvement in gait score after surgery that is likely to reflect a clinical improvement in function. This MCID is closely related to other studies defining post-operative improvements in kinematic data (GPS) and may offer guidance to post-surgical changes that might reasonably be expected to either improve or prevent deteriorating function 3).


36 children (age 4-13 y) with spastic diplegia (gross motor classification system level I (n=14), II (n=15) and III (n=7) were included retrospectively from the database of the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam. Children underwent Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia (SDR) between January 1999 and May 2011. Patients were included if they received clinical gait analysis before and five years post-SDR, age >4 years at time of SDR and if brain MRI-scan was available.

Overall gait quality was assessed with Edinburgh visual gait score (EVGS), before and five years after SDR. In addition, knee and ankle angles at initial contact and midstance were evaluated. To identify predictors for gait improvement, several factors were evaluated including: functional mobility level (GMFCS), presence of white matter abnormalities on brain-MRI, and selective motor control during gait (synergy analysis).

Overall gait quality improved after SDR, with a large variation between patients. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that worse score on EVGS and better GMFCS were independently related to gait improvement. Gait improved more in children with GMFCS I & II compared to III. No differences were observed between children with or without white matter abnormalities on brain MRI. Selective motor control during gait was predictive for improvement of knee angle at initial contact and midstance, but not for EVGS.

Functional mobility level and baseline gait quality are both important factors to predict gait outcomes after SDR. If candidates are well selected, SDR can be a successful intervention to improve gait both in children with brain MRI abnormalities as well as other causes of spastic diplegia 4).

1)

Read HS, Hazlewood ME, Hillman SJ, Prescott RJ, Robb JE. Edinburgh visual gait score for use in cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003 May-Jun;23(3):296-301. PubMed PMID: 12724590.
2)

Del Pilar Duque Orozco M, Abousamra O, Church C, Lennon N, Henley J, Rogers KJ, Sees JP, Connor J, Miller F. Reliability and validity of Edinburgh visual gait score as an evaluation tool for children with cerebral palsy. Gait Posture. 2016 Sep;49:14-18. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.017. Epub 2016 Jun 15. PubMed PMID: 27344448.
3)

Robinson LW, Clement ND, Herman J, Gaston MS. The Edinburgh visual gait score – The minimal clinically important difference. Gait Posture. 2017 Mar;53:25-28. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.12.030. Epub 2017 Jan 3. PubMed PMID: 28073083.
4)

Oudenhoven LM, van der Krogt MM, Romei M, van Schie PEM, van de Pol LA, van Ouwerkerk WJR, Harlaar Prof J, Buizer AI. Factors associated with long-term improvement of gait after selective dorsal rhizotomy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Jul 4. pii: S0003-9993(18)30442-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.06.016. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29981315.

Update: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess

Intramedullary spinal cord abscess

Intramedullary spinal cord abscess due to congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is rare and often co-exists with an inclusion tumor such as dermoid/epidermoid cyst.

CDS are the commonest cause of intramedullary spinal cord abscess (IMSCA) 1).

Prasad et al. did a literature review to analyze all cases of pediatric IMSCA secondary to CDS by searching online databases starting from the oldest case reported.

Only 50 cases have been reported and were analyzed. Mean age was 22.6 months (range 1 month-15 years). Fever, acute flaccid lower limbweakness, and urinary disturbances were the most common presenting features. Dermal sinus was commonest in lumbosacral region. Inclusion cysts were observed in 50% of cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most the common organism. Mean follow-up duration was 18.2 months (range 1 week-156 months). Majority of the cases underwent multilevel laminectomy with myelotomy and drainage of abscess. Outcome was good-to-excellent in around 60% cases with four deaths. Presence of fever and limb weakness was significantly associated with poor outcomes.

Intramedullary abscess secondary to CDS is very rare. Complete sinus tract excision, myelotomy and drainage of abscess, and decompression of co-existent inclusion cysts with prolonged antibiotic therapy remain the standard treatment. Approximately 60% cases achieve good outcomes. Fever and limb weakness portend poorer outcomes than those without 2).

1)

Kanaheswari Y, Lai C, Raja Lope RJ, Azizi AB, Zulfiqar MA. Intramedullary spinal cord abscess: The result of a missed congenital dermal sinus. J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Aug 7. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12707. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25099316.

2)

Prasad GL, Hegde A, Divya S. Spinal Intramedullary Abscess Secondary to Dermal Sinus in Children. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jun 1. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1655736. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29857348.

Cavum velum interpositum treatment

Cavum velum interpositum treatment

Endoscopic ventricular fenestration is the treatment of choice for these as well as all other intraventricular and intracerebral CSF cysts, because it ensures communication between the cyst and the ventricular system and avoids definitive shunting of the cyst 1).

Tong et al., from the UBC Hospital, reported the clinical outcomes of a 3-year-old male patient and a 13-year-old female patient with symptoms and Cavum velum interpositum cysts on imaging who were treated successfully with endoscopic fenestration.

The developmental delay and occasional headache present in the 3-year-old male patient resolved after endoscopic fenestration; however, the 13-year-old patient who had neuropsychiatric symptoms did not improve.

This cases add to the literature describing the response to cyst treatment in symptomatic patients harboring CVI cysts. Symptoms due to CSF pathway obstruction may respond to cyst fenestration, while the response of symptoms in patents who do not have clear CSF circulation disorders is less predictable 2).


Gangemi et al., from Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University Federico II, Naples, Italy. A 9-year-old boy with psychomotor retardation and epileptic seizures had a large CSF cyst in the region of the cavum veli interpositi, diagnosed by CT and MR. The patient was treated by endoscopic surgery, with introduction of the endoscope into the occipital horn of the right lateral ventricle and multiple fenestrations from the right ventricle to the cyst, and then from the cyst to the left lateral ventricle. The surgery resulted in decrease in the size of the cyst and reduction of the frequency of seizures 3).

References

1) , 3)

Gangemi M, Donati P, Maiuri F, Sigona L. Cyst of the velum interpositum treated by endoscopic fenestration. Surg Neurol. 1997 Feb;47(2):134-6; discussion 136-7. PubMed PMID: 9040815.
2)

Tong CK, Singhal A, Cochrane DD. Endoscopic fenestration of cavum velum interpositum cysts: a case study of two symptomatic patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012 Aug;28(8):1261-4. doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1770-4. Epub 2012 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 22543434.
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