Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia


Microvascular decompression is a first-line neurosurgical approach for classical trigeminal neuralgia with neurovascular conflict, but can show clinical relapse despite proper decompression. Second-line destructive techniques like radiofrequency thermocoagulation have become reluctantly used due to their potential for irreversible side effects. Subcutaneous peripheral nerve field stimulation (sPNFS) is a minimally invasive neuromodulatory technique which has been shown to be effective for chronic localised pain conditions.

The most frequently used surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia is Microvascular decompression (MVD), followed closely by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Percutaneous stereotactic rhizotomy (PSR) , despite being the most cost-effective, is by far the least utilized treatment modality 1).

Microvascular decompression (MVD) via lateral suboccipital approach is the standard surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia treatment.

Teflon™ and Ivalon® are two materials used in MVD for TN. It is an effective treatment with long-term symptom relief and recurrence rates of 1-5% each year. Ivalon® has been used less than Teflon™ though is associated with similar success rates and similar complication rates 2)

Although microvascular decompression (MVD) is the most effective long-term operative treatment for TN, its use in older patient populations has been debated due to its invasive nature.

see Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis

see Awake Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia.

see also Endoscope assisted microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia.


Compared with the standard microscope-assisted techniques, the 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted MVD offers an improved visualisation without compromising the field of view within and outside the surgical field 3).

97 patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) underwent fully endoscopic microvascular decompression (MVD) via keyhole approach in Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital from December 2014 to February 2019 was collected. During fully endoscopic MVD in PTN via keyhole approach, performer use natural clearance without grinding except developed rock bone crest or excessive retraction of the brain tissue, visually and panoramically observe and evaluate the CPA area, accurately identify the responsible vessels, to avoid the omission of responsible vessels or insufficient decompression. And the use of preplaced technology, bridging technology and submersible technology, ensure the efficacy of surgery and reduce the surgical side injuries. Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score was used to evaluate the efficacy and identify the recurrence. The surgical efficacy was analyzed. The offending vessels were identified under endoscope in 96 cases. Among them, arterial compression was found in 77 cases, venous compression in 6 cases, and both arterial and venous compression in 13 cases. About the pain outcomes, 87 cases had immediate and complete relief of pain, 5 cases had almost relief of pain, 4 cases had partial relief of pain, and still needed medication control, but the dose was lower than that before operation, and 1 case had no obvious relief of pain. About complications, there were 4 cases of temporary facial numbness, 1 case of temporary hearing loss, both of them recovered after symptomatic treatment. There was no cerebral infarction or hemorrhage, intracranial or incision infection. All cases were followed up for 3.0-38.0 months with a median period of(22.4±2.2) months. During the follow-up periods, postoperative recurrence occurred in 3 cases. Fully endoscopic MVD for PTN through keyhole approach, provides panoramic view to avoid omission of offending vessels and reduce complications, seemed to be a safe and effective surgical method 4).

Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, PubMedCochrane Library, and Scopus were queried for primary studies examining pain outcomes after MVD for TN published between 1988 and March 2018. Potential biases were assessed for included studies. Pain freedom (ie, Barrow Neurological Institute score of 1) at last follow-up was the primary outcome measure. Variables associated with pain freedom on preliminary analysis underwent formal meta-analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for possible predictors.

Outcome data were analyzed for 3897 patients from 46 studies (7 prospective, 39 retrospective). Overall, 76.0% of patients achieved pain freedom after MVD with a mean follow-up of 1.7 ± 1.3 (standard deviation) yr. Predictors of pain freedom on meta-analysis using random effects models included (1) disease duration ≤5 yr (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.08-3.95); (2) arterial compression over venous or other (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.91-5.88); (3) superior cerebellar artery involvement (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.02-4.03), and (4) type 1 Burchiel classification (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.32-4.67).

Approximately three-quarters of patients with drug-resistant TN achieve pain freedom after MVD. Shorter disease duration, arterial compression, and type 1 Burchiel classification may predict a more favorable outcome. These results may improve patient selection and provider expectations 5).

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia technique.

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia outcome.

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia complications

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia case series.


1)

Sivakanthan S, Van Gompel JJ, Alikhani P, van Loveren H, Chen R, Agazzi S. Surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia: use and cost-effectiveness from an analysis of the medicare claims database. Neurosurgery. 2014 Sep;75(3):220-6. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000430. PubMed PMID: 24871139.
2)

Pressman E, Jha RT, Zavadskiy G, Kumar JI, van Loveren H, van Gompel JJ, Agazzi S. Teflon™ or Ivalon®: a scoping review of implants used in microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg Rev. 2019 Nov 30. doi: 10.1007/s10143-019-01187-0. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31786660.
3)

Li Ching Ng A, Di Ieva A. How I do it: 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted microvascular decompression. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 May 29. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03954-w. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31144166.
4)

Peng WC, Guan F, Hu ZQ, Huang H, Dai B, Zhu GT, Mao BB, Xiao ZY, Zhang BL, Liang X. [Efficacy analysis of fully endoscopic microvascular decompression in primary trigeminal neuralgia via keyhole approach]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2021 Mar 30;101(12):856-860. Chinese. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20200630-02002. PMID: 33789367.
5)

Holste K, Chan AY, Rolston JD, Englot DJ. Pain Outcomes Following Microvascular Decompression for Drug-Resistant Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neurosurgery. 2020 Feb 1;86(2):182-190. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyz075. PubMed PMID: 30892607.

Central diabetes insipidus epidemiology

Central diabetes insipidus epidemiology

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disease with a reported prevalence of 1/25,000.


Central diabetes insipidus is a significant cause of morbidity in craniopharyngioma surgery.


The incidence of CDI in children presenting with polydipsia and polyuria is low. Factors associated with higher likelihood of pathology include older age, propensity for cold beverage intake, and higher baseline serum Na and osmolality on a WDT 1).


Central DI is observed in 16-34% of patients recovering from sellar region operations and is generally transient; however, this condition may increase the length of hospitalization, as well as cause morbidity after pituitary surgery. In addition, DI can lead to severe hypernatremia if the fluid is not instantly replenished. Hence, monitoring for DI is essential during the first post-operative days; correspondingly, accurate diagnosis followed by correct treatment is crucial 2).

Angelousi et al. systematically reviewed the existing data for defining the prevalence of DI before any treatment in adult patients with sellar lesion/parasellar lesions, excluding pituitary adenomas and pituitary metastases. In total, 646 patients with sellar lesion/parasellar lesions presenting with DI at diagnosis were identified. The most common pathologies of sellar/parasellar lesions presenting with DI at diagnosis were lymphocytic hypophysitis (26.5%), craniopharyngiomas (23.4%), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (18.9%) and Rathke’s cleft cyst (12.7%), accounting for the vast majority (more than 80%) of these lesions. Overall, DI at diagnosis was found in 23.4% of all patients with sellar/parasellar lesions, albeit with a wide range from 10.6% to 76.7%, depending on the nature of the pathology. The highest prevalence of DI was found in less commonly encountered lesions namely germ cell tumors (76.7%), abscesses (55.4%), and neurosarcoidosis (54.5%), each accounting for less than 3% of all sellar/parasellar lesions. Most DI cases (68.8%) were associated with anterior pituitary hormonal deficiencies, in contrast to pituitary adenomas that rarely present with DI. The enlargement and enhancement of the pituitary stalk were the most common findings on magnetic resonance imaging besides the loss of the high signal of the posterior pituitary on T1-weighted images. Resolution of DI spontaneously or following systemic and surgical management occurred in 22.4% of cases. Post-operative DI, not evident before surgery, was found in 27.8% of non-adenomatous sellar/parasellar lesions and was transient in 11.6% of them. Besides distinctive imaging features and symptoms, early recognition of DI in such lesions is important because it directs the diagnosis towards a non-adenomatous sellar/parasellar tumor and the early initiation of appropriate treatment 3).


1)

Haddad NG, Nabhan ZM, Eugster EA. INCIDENCE OF CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS IN CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH POLYDIPSIA AND POLYURIA. Endocr Pract. 2016 Dec;22(12):1383-1386. doi: 10.4158/EP161333.OR. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27540876.
2)

Lampropoulos KI, Samonis G, Nomikos P. Factors influencing the outcome of microsurgical transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas: a study on 184 patients. Hormones (Athens). 2013 Apr-Jun;12(2):254-64. PubMed PMID: 23933694.
3)

Angelousi A, Mytareli C, Xekouki P, Kassi E, Barkas K, Grossman A, Kaltsas G. Diabetes insipidus secondary to sellar/parasellar lesions. J Neuroendocrinol. 2021 Mar;33(3):e12954. doi: 10.1111/jne.12954. PMID: 33769630.

Esthesioneuroblastoma

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB)

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), originally described in 1924, AKA olfactory neuroblastoma, AKA olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma, AKA esthesioneurocytoma, AKA olfactory placode tumor 1).

Malignant tumor of sinonasal origin.

A rare nasal neoplasm with an incidence of 0.4 per 1,000,000 people. 2).

Believed to arise from the olfactory neural crest cells in the upper nares, it is considered to be malignant. These tumors occur over a wide age range (3 to 90 years), with a bimodal peak between the second and third decade and a second peak in the sixth and seventh decades.

Esthesioneuroblastoma classification.

These tumors typically present with unilateral nasal obstruction and epistaxis.

Diagnosis is confirmed on biopsy.

MRI: isointense with the brain on T1-weighted imaging and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2- weighted imaging and enhance heterogeneously with gadolinium. Signal characteristics may mimic meningioma. For higher stage lesions, the cribriform plate may be eroded; better seen on thin-cut CT. The most important factor determining resectability is an intracranial extension. Magnetic resonance aids in the distinction between extradural tumors, dural invasion, or parenchymal brain invasion. None of these are specific to this tumor.


Endoscopic biopsy is typically performed in the otolaryngology office prior to surgery. A clinical oncology exam should be performed, and if there is suspicion for metastatic disease a PET scan, which is sensitive for metastatic disease, should be ordered.

Includes SNUC, nasal melanoma, nasal squamous cell carcinoma, and meningioma.

see Esthesioneuroblastoma treatment.

Esthesioneuroblastoma outcome.

Esthesioneuroblastoma case series.

Esthesioneuroblastoma case reports.


1)

Berger L, Luc G, Richard D. L’Esthesioneuroepitheliome Olfactif. Bull Assoc Franc Etude Cancer. 1924; 13: 410–421
2)

Theilgaard SA, Buchwald C, Ingeholm P, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a Danish demographic study of 40 patients registered between 1978 and 2000. Acta Otolaryngol. 2003; 123:433–439
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