Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)

Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)

http://touchcalc.com/calculators/cci_js

https://www.mdcalc.com/charlson-comorbidity-index-cci


The purpose of the study was to assess whether the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was associated with in-hospital death and short-term functional outcome in elderly patients (age ≥ 70) with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

This was a retrospective cohort of aged ICH patients (≥70 years old) admitted within 24 hours of ICH onset. The CCI was derived using hospital discharge ICD-9 CM codes and patient history obtained from standardized case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent effect of the CCI score on clinical outcomes.

In this cohort of 248 aged ICH patients, comorbid conditions were common, with CCI scores ranging from 2 to 12. Logistic regression showed that the CCI score was independently predictive of 1-month functional outcome (OR = 1.642, P < 0.001) and in-hospital death (OR = 1.480, P = 0.003). Neither ICH volume nor the presence of IVH was an independent predictive factor for the 1-month functional outcome or in-hospital mortality (P < 0.05).

Comorbid medical conditions as assessed by the CCI independently influence short-term outcomes in aged ICH patients. The characteristics of the hematoma itself, such as intracerebral hemorrhage volume and the presence of IVH, seem to have a reduced effect on it 1).


Complications in spine trauma patients with Ankylosing spinal disorders may be driven by comorbidity burden rather than operative or injury-related factors. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of this unique population 2)


Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) provides a simple way of predicting recurrence in patients with chronic subdural hematoma and should be incorporated into decision-making processes, when counseling patients 3).


Data show that elderly with a good performance status and few co-morbidity may be treated as younger patients; moreover, age confirms a negative impact on survival while (CCI) ≤ 2 did not correlate with overall survival (OS4).


Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), functional status computed by the Karnofsky performance scale (KPS)), tumor characteristics (size, location, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation status), and treatment parameters (volumetrically quantified extent of resection and adjuvant therapy), evidence that aside established prognostic parameters (age and KPS) for glioblastoma patient outcome, the CCI additionally significantly impacts outcome and may be employed for preoperative patient stratification 5).

Maximal resection and radiochemotherapy treatment completion are associated with longer OS, and age alone should not preclude elderly patients from receiving surgery and adjuvant treatment. However, only a few patients were able to finish the proposed treatments. Poor performance and high comorbidity index status might compromise the benefit of treatment aggressiveness and must be considered in therapeutic decision 6).


1)

Zhang T, Chen R, Wen D, Wang X, Ma L. The prognostic value of the Charlson comorbidity index in aged patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. BMC Neurol. 2022 Nov 28;22(1):443. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02980-z. PMID: 36443745.
2)

Lakomkin N, Mikula AL, Pinter ZW, Wellings E, Alvi MA, Scheitler KM, Pennington Z, Lee NJ, Freedman BA, Sebastian AS, Fogelson JL, Bydon M, Clarke MJ, Elder BD. Perioperative risk stratification of spine trauma patients with ankylosing spinal disorders: a comparison of 3 quantitative indices. J Neurosurg Spine. 2022 May 27:1-7. doi: 10.3171/2022.4.SPINE211449. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35623371.
3)

Martinez-Perez R, Tsimpas A, Rayo N, Cepeda S, Lagares A. Role of the patient comorbidity in the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2020 Mar 7. doi: 10.1007/s10143-020-01274-7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32146611.
4)

Balducci M, Fiorentino A, De Bonis P, Chiesa S, Manfrida S, D’Agostino GR, Mantini G, Frascino V, Mattiucci GC, De Bari B, Mangiola A, Miccichè F, Gambacorta MA, Colicchio G, Morganti AG, Anile C, Valentini V. Impact of age and co-morbidities in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a pooled data analysis of three prospective mono-institutional phase II studies. Med Oncol. 2012 Dec;29(5):3478-83. doi: 10.1007/s12032-012-0263-3. Epub 2012 Jun 7. PubMed PMID: 22674154.
5)

Ening G, Osterheld F, Capper D, Schmieder K, Brenke C. Charlson comorbidity index: an additional prognostic parameter for preoperative glioblastoma patient stratification. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25577223.
6)

Pereira AF, Carvalho BF, Vaz RM, Linhares PJ. Glioblastoma in the elderly: Therapeutic dilemmas. Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Nov 16;6(Suppl 23):S573-S582. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26664927.

Vancomycin

Vancomycin

Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic medication.

Blood levels may be measured to determine the correct dose.

When taken by mouth it is poorly absorbed.

A study described the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exposure of vancomycin in 8 children prescribed intravenous vancomycin therapy for cerebral ventricular shunt infection. Vancomycin CSF concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 9.13 mg/L and the CSF: plasma ratio ranged from 0 to 0.66. Two of 3 children with a staphylococcal CSF infection had CSF concentrations greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration at the end of the dosing interval 1).


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration and the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were studied after continuous infusion (50 to 60 mg/kg of body weight/day after a loading dose of 15 mg/kg) in 13 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Seven patients were treated for sensitive bacterial meningitis and the other six patients, who had a severe concomitant neurologic disease with intracranial hypertension, were treated for various infections. Vancomycin CSF penetration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the meningitis group (serum/CSF ratio, 48%) than in the other group (serum/CSF ratio, 18%). Vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ from those obtained with conventional dosing. No adverse effect was observed, in particular with regard to renal function 2).


Ichinose et al. evaluated the concentration of Vancomycin in the plasma and CSF of postoperative neurosurgical patients with bacterial meningitis and evaluated the factors that affect the transferability of VCM to CSF. The concentrations of VCM in plasma (trough) and CSF were determined in eight patients (four males and four females) with bacterial meningitis who were treated with VCM using High-performance liquid chromatography. The ratio of the VCM concentrations in CSF/plasma was also calculated by estimating the blood VCM concentration at the same time as the VCM concentration in CSF was measured. The results showed that the VCM concentration in CSF was 0.9-12.7 µg/mL and the CSF/plasma VCM concentration ratio was 0.02-0.62. They examined the effect of drainage on the transferability of VCM to CSF, which showed that the VCM concentration in CSF and the CSF/plasma VCM concentration ratio were significantly higher in patients not undergoing drainage than in patients who were undergoing drainage. The CSF protein and glucose concentrations, which are diagnostic indicators of meningitis, were positively correlated with the VCM concentration in CSF and the CSF/plasma VCM concentration ratio. Thus, VCM transferability to CSF may be affected by changes in the status of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier due to drainage or meningitis 3).

Vancomycin Indications.

see Vancomycin powder.

Intraventricular Vancomycin


1)

Autmizguine J, Moran C, Gonzalez D, Capparelli EV, Smith PB, Grant GA, Benjamin DK Jr, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Watt KM. Vancomycin cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics in children with cerebral ventricular shunt infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Oct;33(10):e270-2. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000385. PMID: 24776517; PMCID: PMC4209191.
2)

Albanèse J, Léone M, Bruguerolle B, Ayem ML, Lacarelle B, Martin C. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin administered by continuous infusion to mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 May;44(5):1356-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.44.5.1356-1358.2000. PMID: 10770777; PMCID: PMC89870.
3)

Ichinose N, Shinoda K, Yoshikawa G, Fukao E, Enoki Y, Taguchi K, Oda T, Tsutsumi K, Matsumoto K. Exploring the Factors Affecting the Transferability of Vancomycin to Cerebrospinal Fluid in Postoperative Neurosurgical Patients with Bacterial Meningitis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2022;45(9):1398-1402. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b22-00361. PMID: 36047211.

Meningioma treatment

Meningioma treatment

see Intracranial meningioma treatment.

see Spinal meningioma treatment


World health organization grade 1 meningioma treatment

World health organization grade 2 meningioma treatment

World health organization grade 3 meningioma treatment

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