Pituitary adenoma

Pituitary adenoma

Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common pituitary tumor that arises from the adenohypophysis, in the pituitary gland.

Pituitary adenoma epidemiology.

see Pituitary adenoma classification.

Pituitary tumors have very few known risk factors, and these are related to genetics. There are no known environmental or lifestyle-related risk factors for pituitary tumors. Though science has suggested that people who are overweight or obese might be at increased risk.

Youn et al. discovered that a 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) variant, rs181031884 of CDKN2B (Asian-specific variant), had significant association with the risk of pituitary adenoma (PA) (Odds ratio = 0.58, P = 0.00003). Also, rs181031884 appeared as an independent causal variant among the significant variants in CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and showed dose-dependent effects on PA.

Although further studies are needed to verify the impact of this variant on pituitary adenoma susceptibility, the results may help to understand CDKN2B polymorphism and the risk of pituitary adenoma 1).

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4

McCune-Albright syndrome

Carney complex

Pituitary adenoma pathogenesis

see Pituitary adenoma Natural History.

see Pituitary adenoma clinical features.

Pituitary Adenoma Diagnosis.

see Pituitary adenoma treatment.

Pituitary Adenoma Outcome.

see Pituitary adenoma recurrence.

see Pituitary adenoma case series.


Youn BJ, Cheong HS, Namgoong S, Kim LH, Baek IK, Kim JH, Yoon SJ, Kim EH, Kim SH, Chang JH, Kim SH, Shin HD. Asian-specific 3’UTR variant in CDKN2B associated with risk of pituitary adenoma. Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Sep 12. doi: 10.1007/s11033-022-07796-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36097105.

Glioma Guidelines

Glioma Guidelines

The Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO) published guidelines for managing adult glioma in 2019, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Association of Neuro-Oncology published guidelines in September 2021 and March 2021, respectively. However, these guidelines have several different recommendations in practice, including tissue management, adjuvant treatment after surgical resection, and salvage treatment for recurrent/progressive gliomas. Currently, the KSNO guideline working group is preparing an updated version of the guideline for managing adult gliomas 1).

EANO guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse gliomas of adulthood2)

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines for Patients Brain Cancer: Gliomas https://www.nccn.org/patients/guidelines/content/PDF/brain-gliomas-patient.pdf

Zhao et al. systematically searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases to retrieve guidelines on glioma in China published from the establishment of the database to 24 January 2022. We performed a narrative review of current clinical studies related to the management of glioblastoma, especially in the surgical, targeted, and immunotherapy therapy and tumor-treating fields.

Key content and findings: In this review, 19 guidelines were included, including 8 subclassified as the guideline, 8 subclassified as the consensus, and 3 subclassified as the standard. Two guidelines reported the contents of the system search, 4 guidelines are updated, and 9 guidelines reported the source of funding. At present, most clinical trials on the immune and targeted therapy of glioblastoma are ongoing in China.

China’s guidelines still need to be improved in terms of preciseness, applicability, and editorial independence. In addition, the cooperation in clinical research of glioblastoma in multiple centers needs to be strengthened in China 3).

To follow the revision of the fourth edition of WHO classification and the recent progress on the management of diffuse gliomas, the joint guideline committee of Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group (CGCG), Society for Neuro-Oncology of China (SNO-China) and Chinese Brain Cancer Association (CBCA) updated the clinical practice guideline. It provides recommendations for diagnostic and management decisions, and for limiting unnecessary treatments and cost. The recommendations focus on molecular and pathological diagnostics, and the main treatment modalities of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In this guideline, we also integrated the results of some clinical trials of immune therapies and target therapies, which we think are ongoing future directions. The guideline should serve as an application for all professionals involved in the management of patients with adult diffuse glioma and also a source of knowledge for insurance companies and other institutions involved in the cost regulation of cancer care in China and other countries 4).


Kim YZ, Kim CY, Lim DH. The Overview of Practical Guidelines for Gliomas by KSNO, NCCN, and EANO. Brain Tumor Res Treat. 2022 Apr;10(2):83-93. doi: 10.14791/btrt.2022.0001. PMID: 35545827; PMCID: PMC9098981.

Weller M, van den Bent M, Preusser M, Le Rhun E, Tonn JC, Minniti G, Bendszus M, Balana C, Chinot O, Dirven L, French P, Hegi ME, Jakola AS, Platten M, Roth P, Rudà R, Short S, Smits M, Taphoorn MJB, von Deimling A, Westphal M, Soffietti R, Reifenberger G, Wick W. EANO guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse gliomas of adulthood. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2021 Mar;18(3):170-186. doi: 10.1038/s41571-020-00447-z. Epub 2020 Dec 8. Erratum in: Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2022 May;19(5):357-358. PMID: 33293629; PMCID: PMC7904519.

Zhao MJ, Lu T, Ma C, Wang ZF, Li ZQ. A narrative review on the management of glioblastoma in China. Chin Clin Oncol. 2022 Aug;11(4):29. doi: 10.21037/cco-22-18. PMID: 36098100.

Jiang T, Nam DH, Ram Z, Poon WS, Wang J, Boldbaatar D, Mao Y, Ma W, Mao Q, You Y, Jiang C, Yang X, Kang C, Qiu X, Li W, Li S, Chen L, Li X, Liu Z, Wang W, Bai H, Yao Y, Li S, Wu A, Sai K, Li G, Yao K, Wei X, Liu X, Zhang Z, Dai Y, Lv S, Wang L, Lin Z, Dong J, Xu G, Ma X, Zhang W, Zhang C, Chen B, You G, Wang Y, Wang Y, Bao Z, Yang P, Fan X, Liu X, Zhao Z, Wang Z, Li Y, Wang Z, Li G, Fang S, Li L, Liu Y, Liu S, Shan X, Liu Y, Chai R, Hu H, Chen J, Yan W, Cai J, Wang H, Chen L, Yang Y, Wang Y, Han L, Wang Q; Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group (CGCG); Society for Neuro‐Oncology of China (SNO-China); Chinese Brain Cancer Association (CBCA); Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA); Asian Glioma Genome Atlas (AGGA) network. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of adult diffuse gliomas. Cancer Lett. 2021 Feb 28;499:60-72. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2020.10.050. Epub 2020 Nov 6. PMID: 33166616.

Cranioplasty for hydrocephalus prevention after decompressive craniectomy

Cranioplasty for hydrocephalus prevention after decompressive craniectomy

After decompressive craniectomy, the occurrence of hydrocephalus is reported with varying incidences (10–45%) mainly due to differences in diagnostic criteria 1) 2) 3) 4).

The management of Hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy in need of cranial reconstruction can be challenging and thus is not precisely defined. The debate mainly revolves around the timing of cerebrospinal fluid shunt with respect to the cranioplasty 5).

To prevent decompressive craniectomy complications, such as sinking skin flap syndrome, studies suggested early cranioplasty (CP). However, several groups reported higher complication rates in early CP. In a single-center observational cohort, study cranioplasty has high complication rates, 23%. Contrary to recent systematic reviews, early CP was associated with more complications (41%), explained by the higher incidence of pre-CP CSF flow disturbance and acute subdural hematoma as etiology of DC. CP in such patients should therefore be performed with the highest caution. 6).

Delayed time to cranioplasty is linked with the development of persistent hydrocephalus, necessitating permanent CSF diversion in some patients. Waziri et al., propose that early cranioplasty, when possible, may restore normal intracranial pressure dynamics and prevent the need for permanent CSF diversion 7).

Ozoner et al. showed that early cranioplasty within 2 months after decompressive craniectomy was associated with a lower rate of posttraumatic hydrocephalus 8)

The goal of the study of Sethi et al. was to ascertain the efficacysafety, and comparability of ultra-early cranioplasty (CP; defined here as <30 days from the original craniectomy) to conventional cranioplasty (defined here as >30 days from the original craniectomy). A retrospective review of CPs performed between January 2016 and July 2020 was performed. Craniectomies initially performed at other institutions were excluded. Seventy-seven CPs were included in the study. Ultra-early CP was defined as CP performed within 30 days of craniectomy whereas conventional CP occurred after 30 days. Post-operative wound infection rates, rate of return to the operating room (OR) with or without bone flap removal, operative length, and rate of post-CP hydrocephalus were compared between the two groups. Thirty-nine and 38 patients were included in the ultra-early and conventional CP groups, respectively. The average number of days to CP in the ultra-early group was 17.70 ± 7.75 days compared to 95.70 ± 65.60 days in the conventional group. The mean Glasgow Coma Scale upon arrival to the emergency room was 7.28 ± 3.90 and 6.92 ± 4.14 for the ultra-early and conventional groups, respectively. The operative time was shorter in the ultra-early cohort than that in the conventional cohort (ultra-early, 2.40 ± 0.71 h; conventional, 3.00 ± 1.63 h; p = 0.0336). The incidence of post-CP hydrocephalus was also lower in the ultra-early cohort (ultra-early, 10.3%; conventional, 31.6%; p = 0.026). No statistically significant differences were observed regarding post-operative infection, return to the OR, or bone flap removal. The study shows that ultra-early CP can significantly reduce the rate of post-CP hydrocephalus, as well as operative time in comparison to conventional CP. However, the timing of CP post-DC should remain a patient-centered consideration 9).


De Bonis P, Pompucci A, Mangiola A, Rigante L, Anile C. Post-traumatic hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy: an underestimated risk factor. J Neurotrauma. (2010) 27:1965–70. 10.1089/neu.2010.1425

Cooper DJ, Rosenfeld JV, Murray L, Arabi YM, Davies AR, D’Urso P, et al.. Decompressive craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. (2011) 364:1493–502. 10.1056/NEJMoa1102077

Honeybul S, Ho KM. Incidence and risk factors for post-traumatic hydrocephalus following decompressive craniectomy for intractable intracranial hypertension and evacuation of mass lesions. J Neurotrauma. (2012) 29:1872–8. 10.1089/neu.2012.2356

Takeuchi S, Takasato Y, Masaoka H, Hayakawa T, Yatsushige H, Nagatani K, et al.. Hydrocephalus following decompressive craniectomy for ischemic stroke. Acta Neurochir Suppl. (2013) 118:289–91. 10.1007/978-3-7091-1434-6_56

Iaccarino C, Kolias AG, Roumy LG, Fountas K, Adeleye AO. Cranioplasty Following Decompressive Craniectomy. Front Neurol. 2020 Jan 29;10:1357. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.01357. PMID: 32063880; PMCID: PMC7000464.

Goedemans T, Verbaan D, van der Veer O, Bot M, Post R, Hoogmoed J, Lequin MB, Buis DR, Vandertop WP, Coert BA, van den Munckhof P. Complications in cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy: timing of the intervention. J Neurol. 2020 May;267(5):1312-1320. doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09695-6. Epub 2020 Jan 17. PMID: 31953606; PMCID: PMC7184041.

Waziri A, Fusco D, Mayer SA, McKhann GM 2nd, Connolly ES Jr. Postoperative hydrocephalus in patients undergoing decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Neurosurgery. 2007 Sep;61(3):489-93; discussion 493-4. PubMed PMID: 17881960.

Ozoner B, Kilic M, Aydin L, Aydin S, Arslan YK, Musluman AM, Yilmaz A. Early cranioplasty associated with a lower rate of post-traumatic hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2020 Aug;46(4):919-926. doi: 10.1007/s00068-020-01409-x. Epub 2020 Jun 3. PMID: 32494837.

Sethi A, Chee K, Kaakani A, Beauchamp K, Kang J. Ultra-Early Cranioplasty versus Conventional Cranioplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Study at an Academic Level 1 Trauma Center. Neurotrauma Rep. 2022 Aug 1;3(1):286-291. doi: 10.1089/neur.2022.0026. PMID: 36060455; PMCID: PMC9438438.
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