UpToDate: Race

Race

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

First used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical (phenotypical) traits. Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, that is, a symbolic identity created to establish some cultural meaning. While partially based on physical similarities within groups, race is not an inherent physical or biological quality.


Black and Hispanic patients are at higher risk of intracerebral hemorrhage recurrence; hypertension severity (average BP and its variability) does not fully account for this finding. Additional studies will be required to further elucidate determinants for this health disparity 1).


In spine surgery, racial disparities have been shown to impact various aspects of surgical care. Previous studies have associated racial disparities with inferior surgical outcomes, including increased complication and 30-day readmission rates after spine surgery.

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and satisfaction measures have been proxies for overall quality of care and hospital reimbursements. However, the influence that racial disparities have on short- and long-term PROs and patient satisfaction after spine surgery is relatively unknown.

The aim of a study of Elsamadicy et al., was to investigate the impact of racial disparities on 3- and 12-month PROs and patient satisfaction after elective lumbar spine surgery.

This study was designed as a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database. The medical records of adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients who had undergone elective lumbar spine surgery for spondylolisthesis (grade 1), disc herniation, or stenosis at a major academic institution were included in this study. Patient demographics, comorbidities, postoperative complications, and 30-day readmission rates were collected. Patients had prospectively collected outcome and satisfaction measures. Patient-reported outcome instruments-Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale for back pain (VAS-BP), and VAS for leg pain (VAS-LP)-were completed before surgery and at 3 and 12 months after surgery, as were patient satisfaction measures. RESULTS The authors identified 345 medical records for 53 (15.4%) African American (AA) patients and 292 (84.6%) white patients. Baseline patient demographics and comorbidities were similar between the two cohorts, with AA patients having a greater body mass index (33.1 ± 6.6 vs 30.2 ± 6.4 kg/m2, p = 0.005) and a higher prevalence of diabetes (35.9% vs 16.1%, p = 0.0008). Surgical indications, operative variables, and postoperative variables were similar between the cohorts. Baseline and follow-up PRO measures were worse in the AA cohort, with patients having a greater baseline ODI (p < 0.0001), VAS-BP score (p = 0.0002), and VAS-LP score (p = 0.0007). However, mean changes from baseline to 3- and 12-month PROs were similar between the cohorts for all measures except the 3-month VAS-BP score (p = 0.046). Patient-reported satisfaction measures at 3 and 12 months demonstrated a significantly lower proportion of AA patients stating that surgery met their expectations (3 months: 47.2% vs 65.5%, p = 0.01; 12 months: 35.7% vs 62.7%, p = 0.007).

The study data suggest that there is a significant difference in the perception of health, pain, and disability between AA and white patients at baseline and short- and long-term follow-ups, which may influence overall patient satisfaction. Further research is necessary to identify patient-specific factors associated with racial disparities that may be influencing outcomes to adequately measure and assess overall PROs and satisfaction after elective lumbar spine surgery 2).


A total of 9950 patients underwent transsphenoidalpituitary surgery; 7122 (72%), 2394 (24%), and 434 (4%) patients were treated at high volume center, medium-volume, and low-volume centers, respectively. Patient factors associated with treatment at high-volume centers (HVCs) included: top income quartile, private insurance, urban residence, and white or Asian race (p < 0.05). Patient variables associated with treatment at low-volume centers (LVCs) included: age >65 years, elevated Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores, bottom income quartile, Medicaid and Medicare insurance, rural residence, black race, and Hispanic ethnicity (p < 0.05). Variables predictive of prolonged hospitalizations in our multivariable model included black race, Hispanic ethnicity, Medicaid insurance, low income, female gender, LVC, and comorbidities (panhypopituitarismhypothyroidismdiabetes insipidus [DI], visual disturbances, CCI) while predictors of readmissions included Asian race, female gender, and comorbidities (Cushing syndrome, DI, CCI) 3).


Studies have shown an increased risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for individuals who suffer an initial TBI.

study of Hayward et al., St. John Hospital & Medical CenterDetroitMichiganUSA hypothesized that individuals with recurrent neurotraumawould originate from populations considered ‘vulnerable’, i.e. low income and/or with neuropsychiatric disorders.

Data from the Michigan State Inpatient Database from 2006 to 2014 for the Detroit metropolitan area enlisted a study population of 50 744 patients with neurotraumaBinary logistic regression was used to assess risk factors associated with admission for subsequent neurotrauma compared with single neurotrauma admission.

Patients with repeated neurotrauma admissions were similar to those with one-time trauma in terms of age at first admission and neighbourhood income levels. However, patients with repeated neurotrauma admissions were more likely to be male (p < .001) and African-American (p < .001). Comorbid alcohol use and drug use were 39% and 15% less likely to be readmitted with neurotrauma, respectively. Comorbid conditions associated with greater risk of repeat neurotrauma included depressionpsychosis, and neurological disorders, increasing risk by 38%, 22%, and 58%, respectively.

This study validated the hypothesis that comorbid psychiatric conditions are a significant risk factor for recurrent neurotrauma and validate prior studies showing gender and race as significant risk factors. 4).


The junction of the transverse sinus with the sigmoid sinus can differ up to 0.5 cm in the craniocaudal axis depending on race. As neuronavigationis not standard to the approach to the cerebellopontine angle, the study aimed to provide the neurosurgeon operating in the retrosigmoid area additional knowledge to avoid sinus injury with subsequent complications, such as blood loss, sinus occlusion, or air embolism 5).

References

1)

Rodriguez-Torres A, Murphy M, Kourkoulis C, Schwab K, Ayres AM, Moomaw CJ, Young Kwon S, Berthaud JV, Gurol ME, Greenberg SM, Viswanathan A, Anderson CD, Flaherty M, James ML, Birnbaum L, Yong Sung G, Parikh G, Boehme AK, Mayson D, Sheth KN, Kidwell C, Koch S, Frankel M, Langefeld CD, Testai FD, Woo D, Rosand J, Biffi A. Hypertension and intracerebral hemorrhage recurrence among white, black, and Hispanic individuals. Neurology. 2018 Jul 3;91(1):e37-e44. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005729. Epub 2018 Jun 6. PubMed PMID: 29875221.
2)

Elsamadicy AA, Kemeny H, Adogwa O, Sankey EW, Goodwin CR, Yarbrough CK, Lad SP, Karikari IO, Gottfried ON. Influence of racial disparities on patient-reported satisfaction and short- and long-term perception of health status after elective lumbar spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2018 Jul;29(1):40-45. doi: 10.3171/2017.12.SPINE171079. Epub 2018 Apr 27. PubMed PMID: 29701564.
3)

McKee S, Yang A, Kidwai S, Govindaraj S, Shrivastava R, Iloreta A. The socioeconomic determinants for transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: a review of New York State from 1995 to 2015. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2018 Jul 14. doi: 10.1002/alr.22148. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30007017.
4)

Hayward RD, Fessler MM, Buck J, Fessler RD. Risk factors for recurrent neurotrauma: a population-based study in Southeastern Michigan. Brain Inj. 2018 Jun 18:1-4. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2018.1487584. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29913083.
5)

Dao Trong P, Beynon C, Unterberg A, Schneider T, Jesser J. Racial Differences in the Anatomy of the Posterior Fossa: Neurosurgical Considerations. World Neurosurg. 2018 Jun 20. pii: S1878-8750(18)31305-6. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.06.089. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29935317.

UpToDate: Shunt dependency syndrome

Shunt dependency syndrome

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common affliction of preterm infants and often results in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). These patients typically eventually require permanent CSF diversion and are presumed to be indefinitely shunt-dependent.

In a cohort of patients with clinical grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) at admission, larger amounts of subarachnoid blood and large ventricular size on preoperative cerebral CT, and CSF drainage in excess of 1,500 ml during the 1st week after the ictus were significant predictors of shunt dependency. Shunt dependency did not hamper outcome 1).

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to induce an intrathecal inflammatory reaction reflected by cytokine release, particularly interleukin 6 (IL-6), which correlates with early brain damage and poor outcome.

CSF IL-6 values of ≥10,000 pg/ml in the early post-SAH period may be a useful diagnostic tool for predicting shunt dependency in patients with acute posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The development of shunt-dependent posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus remains a multifactorial process 2).

Graeb Score or LeRoux scores improve the prediction of shunt dependency and in parts of case fatality rate (CFR) in aneurysmal SAH patients therefore confirming the relevance of the extent and distribution of intraventricular hemorrhage for the clinical course in SAH 3).

A significantly higher rate of shunt dependency was observed for age older than 65 years, poor initial neurological status, and thick SAH with presence of initial intraventricular hemorrhage. By understanding these factors related to development of SDHC and results, it is expected that management of aneurysmal SAH will result in a better prognosis 4).

In a study SD after aSAH showed no correlations with three of the parameters previously identified as risk factors for shunt dependent hydrocephalus, namely, the amount of SAH, the presence of IVH, or acute hydrocephalus. Instead, a longer duration of CSF drainage correlated with SD as an independent factor. These data suggest that a longer duration of CSF drainage may be one of the risk factors for SD after aSAH 5).

Case series

2015

A total of 471 patients who were part of the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) from 2003 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. All variables including demographic data, medical history, treatment, imaging, and functional outcomes were included as part of the trial. No additional variables were retrospectively collected.

Ultimately, 147 patients (31.2%) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in this series. Age, dissecting aneurysm type, ruptured vertebrobasilar aneurysm, Fisher grade, Hunt and Hess grade, admission intraventricular hemorrhage, admission intraparenchymal hemorrhage, blood in the fourth ventricle on admission, perioperative ventriculostomy, and hemicraniectomy were significant risk factors (P < .05) associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, intraventricular hemorrhage and intraparenchymal hemorrhage were independent risk factors for shunt dependency (P < .05). Clipping vs coiling treatment was not statistically associated with VPS after SAH on both univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients who did not receive a VPS at discharge had higher Glasgow Outcome Scale and Barthel Index scores and were more likely to be functionally independent and to return to work 72 months after surgery (P < .05).

There is no difference in shunt dependency after SAH among patients treated by endovascular or microsurgical means. Patients in whom shunt-dependent hydrocephalus does not develop after SAH tend to have improved long-term functional outcomes 6).


Wang et al. analyzed retrospectively collected data for 89 preterm patients diagnosed with grades III and IV IVH and PHH from 1998 to 2011.

Sixty-nine out of 89 patients (77.5 %) underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and 33 (47.8 %) required at least one shunt revision and 18 (26.1 %) required multiple revisions. The mean ± standard deviation follow-up time for shunted patients was 5.0 ± 3.3 years. The majority of early failures were due to proximal catheter malfunction, while later failures were mostly due to distal catheter problems. There was a significant difference in the number of patients requiring revisions in the first 3 years following initial VP shunt insertion compared after 3 years, with 28 revisions versus 10 (p < 0.004). In 8 out of 10 patients who underwent shunt revisions after 3 years, evidence of obstructive hydrocephalus was found on imaging either in the form of an isolated fourth ventricular cyst or aqueductal stenosis.

The results suggest that in a distinct subset of patients with PHH, obstructive hydrocephalus may develop, resulting in long-term dependence on CSF diversion. Further study on the factors associated with long-term shunt dependence and revision requirements within the PHH group is warranted 7).

2014

88 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH requiring external ventricular drain placement and endovascular aneurysm closure were included. Functional outcome and shunt dependency were assessed 90 days after event. A matched controlled sub-analysis was carried out to investigate the effects of IVF treatment (n = 14; matching criteria: age, neuro-status and imaging). Multivariate modeling was performed to identify independent predictors for permanent shunt dependency.

In IVF-patients neurological status was significantly poorer [Hunt&Hess: IVF = 4(3-5) vs. non-IVF = 3(1-5); p = 0.035] and the extent of ventricular hemorrhage was increased [Graeb Score: IVF = 7(6-8) vs. non-IVF = 3(1-4); p ≤ 0.001]. Consecutive matched controlled sub-analysis revealed no significant therapeutic effect of IVF with respect to shunt dependency rate and functional outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed Graeb score [OR = 1.34(1.02-1.76); p = 0.035] and sepsis [OR = 11.23(2.28-55.27); p = 0.003] as independent predictors for shunt dependency, whereas IVF did not exert significant effects (p = 0.820).

In endovascular-treated SAH patients IVF neither reduced permanent shunt dependency nor influenced functional outcome. Despite established effects on intraventricular clot resolution IVF appears less powerful in SAH as compared to ICH. Given the reported positive effects of lumbar drainage (LD) in SAH, a prospective analysis of a combined treatment approach of IVF and subsequent lumbar drain sOeems warranted aiming to reduce permanent shunting and improve functional outcome 8).

1999

Of 138 patients treated for ruptured aneurysms the development of shunt dependent hydrocephalus was evaluated regarding possible predictive factors. In 15 patients (11%) ventriculo-atrial shunt was implanted due to hydrocephalus. One predictive factor was the localisation of aneurysms as patients with hydrocephalus had PcoA aneurysms in 40% compared to 20% in the group of patients without hydrocephalus and only 7% compared to 28% MCA aneurysms. An other predictive factor was the severity of the subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) as 7 patients out of the 15 were graded Fisher IV on admission. Furthermore, an important predictive factor was the presence of acute hydrocephalus as 13 out of the 15 patients (87%) with shunt dependent hydrocephalus had acute hydrocephalus requiring external ventricular drainage. An other possible factor was the intraoperative opening of the lamina terminalis as in 73% of the patients with shunt dependent hydrocephalus compared to 82% in the group of patients without hydrocephalus this procedure was performed during surgery. The results suggest that shunt dependency is more likely after severe SAH especially in the presence of an acute hydrocephalus and in patients with aneurysms located in the basal cisterns. Therefore treatment of the acute hydrocephalus and possible the opening of the lamina terminalis could have a positive effect on the development of shunt dependent hydrocephalus after SAH 9).

1979

Five patients with shunt dependency were observed to have apparently normal ventricular size despite marked increases in ventricular pressure after shunt malfunctionElastance (dP/dV) was determined in four of these patients by removing increments of cerebrospinal fluid and measuring the resulting pressure. These patients without ventricular enlargement and with markedly increased ventricular pressure had high elastance. This group of patients with “normal volume” hydrocephalus had distal shunt occlusions, in contrast to previously reported patients with cephalic shunt obstructions after ventricular decompression. Initial shunting in early infancy, prolonged shunt dependency, and lack of recent shunt revision were common factors in these patients. Markedly elevated pressure with normal volume is a threatening clinical entity, requiring prompt surgical intervention 10).

1975

In suitable cases, intermittent cranial compression by means of an elastic bandage or a helmet with an inflatable inner-lining may be effective. There was arrested hydrocephalus in nine of 14 children treated with this method, eight of whom have developed normally. When cranial compression is contra-indicated or not successful, the preferred method of treatment is an ‘on-off’ type of valve which is used intermittently to drain a fixed volume of cerebrospinal fluid. Of 18 children who had such shunts inserted, 10 have become totally independent of their shunts and their hydrocephalus has become compensated. All are of normal intelligence. Subtemporal craniectomy was performed on seven shunt-dependent children with recurrent catheter obstruction. Four have been followed for six months and three for two years and in no case has there been further malfunction of the proximal catheter 11).

Case reports

Dong et al., from the Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuhanChina report two children with middle fossa arachnoid cysts who underwent cystoperitoneal shunt with fixed pressure valve at an opening pressure of 7 cmH2O and then developed dependency syndrome. Both patients were effectively treated by mini-invasive cyst wall excision with the shunts reserved. The clinical manifestation, radiological findings, treatment methods, and therapeutic outcomes were reviewed retrospectively.

The time from shunt surgery to shunt dependency syndrome occurrence was 4 and 2 years, respectively. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance findings of the brain showed remarkably collapsed cysts with normal or small ventricles. Both patients underwent secondary mini-invasive cyst wall excision and shunt catheters were reserved. After the operations, their symptoms were resolved except one case with marginally improved visual impairment.

Shunt dependency syndrome is a rare but dangerous complication of CP shunt and should be treated in time. Collapsed and thickened cyst wall intermittent covering the catheter head end, decreased brain compliance due to chronic fibrosis, as well as regression of cerebrospinal fluidabsorption could be the pathogenesis. They suggest keyhole resection of the residual cyst wall as an effective and mini-invasive treatment option12).


Sonobe et al. report two cases of high shunt dependency, which were first thought to be shunt independent arrested hydrocephalus. Though their shunt systems didn’t seem to work, symptoms of rapid increasing intracranial pressure were observed after obstruction or replacement of shunt tube. Their ventricles looked so small like a slit on CT scan and PVG that the apex of the ventricular tube were easily obstructed by a ventricle wall. This is the reason why we misjudged them to be shunt independent arrested hydrocephalus. The cause of slit-like ventricles was overflow of CSF fluid due to the low pressure valve and the siphon effect. In general, after the shunt operation, most of the cases with thickening of cerebral mantle show the shunt dependency. Especially the cases showing rapid and marked thickening of the cerebral mantle are highly shunt dependent. Therefore, we must observe such cases carefully, in which the ventricle becomes small. Short interval follow-ups by CT scan after the shunt operation are quite necessary in order to observe the ventricle size. Easy and reliable judging method to know whether the shunt system is working or not is required to be developed 13).

References

1)

Erixon HO, Sorteberg A, Sorteberg W, Eide PK. Predictors of shunt dependency after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: results of a single-center clinical trial. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2014 Nov;156(11):2059-69. doi: 10.1007/s00701-014-2200-z. Epub 2014 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 25143185.
2)

Wostrack M, Reeb T, Martin J, Kehl V, Shiban E, Preuss A, Ringel F, Meyer B, Ryang YM. Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Role of Intrathecal Interleukin-6. Neurocrit Care. 2014 May 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24840896.
3)

Czorlich P, Ricklefs F, Reitz M, Vettorazzi E, Abboud T, Regelsberger J, Westphal M, Schmidt NO. Impact of intraventricular hemorrhage measured by Graeb and LeRoux score on case fatality risk and chronic hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015 Mar;157(3):409-15. doi: 10.1007/s00701-014-2334-z. Epub 2015 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 25599911.
4)

Bae IS, Yi HJ, Choi KS, Chun HJ. Comparison of Incidence and Risk Factors for Shunt-dependent Hydrocephalus in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg. 2014 Jun;16(2):78-84. doi: 10.7461/jcen.2014.16.2.78. Epub 2014 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 25045646; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4102754.
5)

Sugawara T, Maehara T, Tadashi N, Aoyagi M, Ohno K. Independent predictors of shunt-dependent normal pressure hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Sci. 2014 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25069541.
6)

Zaidi HA, Montoure A, Elhadi A, Nakaji P, McDougall CG, Albuquerque FC, Spetzler RF, Zabramski JM. Long-term functional outcomes and predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the BRAT trial: revisiting the clip vs coil debate. Neurosurgery. 2015 May;76(5):608-13; discussion 613-4; quiz 614. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000677. PubMed PMID: 25714521.
7)

Wang JY, Jackson EM, Jallo GI, Ahn ES. Shunt revision requirements after posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity: insight into the time course of shunt dependency. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015 Nov;31(11):2123-30. doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2865-5. Epub 2015 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 26248674.
8)

Gerner ST, Kuramatsu JB, Abel H, Kloska SP, Lücking H, Eyüpoglu IY, Doerfler A, Schwab S, Huttner HB. Intraventricular fibrinolysis has no effects on shunt dependency and functional outcome in endovascular-treated aneurysmal SAH. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec;21(3):435-43. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-9961-3. PubMed PMID: 24566979.
9)

Schmieder K, Koch R, Lücke S, Harders A. Factors influencing shunt dependency after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Zentralbl Neurochir. 1999;60(3):133-40. PubMed PMID: 10726336.
10)

Engel M, Carmel PW, Chutorian AM. Increased intraventricular pressure without ventriculomegaly in children with shunts: “normal volume” hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 1979 Nov;5(5):549-52. PubMed PMID: 534062.
11)

Epstein FJ, Hochwald GM, Wald A, Ransohoff J. Avoidance of shunt dependency in hydrocephalus. Dev Med Child Neurol Suppl. 1975;(35):71-7. PubMed PMID: 812752.
12)

Dong F, Wang Z, Li Y, Chen Z, Zhang S, Wan F. Shunt Dependency Syndrome after Cyst-Peritoneal Shunt Resolved by Keyhole Microsurgical Cyst Resection: Two Case Reports and Literature Review. Neuropediatrics. 2018 Jul 12. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1661395. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30001565.
13)

Sonobe M, Kodama N, Fujiwara S, Takaku A, Suzuki J. [On-off mechanism of shunt system due to slit ventricle (author’s transl)]. No Shinkei Geka. 1978 Dec;6(12):1193-6. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 732936.

UpToDate: Intercostal neurolysis

Intercostal neurolysis

Cappellari et al., from the Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Italy.investigated the possible role of intercostal surgical neurolysis in relieving chronic neuropathic painrefractory to other non-surgical treatments in patients with postsurgical thoracic pain.

They retrospectively collected clinical data on ten patients (age range: 20-68 years) suffering from neuropathic pain for at least two months following thoracic surgery underwent intercostal neurolysis.

Compared to pre-neurolysis, pain intensity decreased one month post-neurolysis and remained stable two months post-neurolysis [median score (IQR): 8 (6; 9) pre-neurolysis, 4 (3; 5) one month after and 3 (2; 5) two months after, p<0.0001]. Antiepileptic drugs for pain control decreased after neurolysis (10/10 vs. 2/10, p= 0.008).

Surgical intercostal neurolysis may be a promising therapeutic option in patients with chronic neuropathic pain in association with neurological deficits 1).


11 patients with intractable cancer-associated chest wall pain were treated with a diagnostic intercostal nerve block. Six patients subsequently received chemical neurolysis with phenol using the same approach. No serious adverse events were observed. Radiopaque contrast dye spread into the paravertebral space in all 11 patients, and in 1 patient contrast dye spread into the epidural space. Seven of 11 patients experienced pain relief from the diagnostic blockade. Four of six patients experienced pain relief from the neurolytic blockade. The principal reportable finding from this case series is the observation that contrast dye spread liberally from the intercostal space into other anatomic spaces, even though very small volumes of injectate (less than 5 mL) were used. Definitive evidence of safety and efficacy of intercostal nerve block and neurolysis for cancer pain will require a prospective randomized clinical trial 2).

Complications

Kim et al., report a case in which a lung cancer patient developed paraplegia after receiving left T8-10 and 11th intercostal nerve neurolysis and T9-10 interlaminar epidural injections 3).

References

1)

Cappellari AM, Tiberio F, Alicandro G, Spagnoli D, Grimoldi N. Intercostal neurolysis for the treatment of postsurgical thoracic pain: A case series. Muscle Nerve. 2018 Jul 11. doi: 10.1002/mus.26298. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29995980.
2)

Matchett G. Intercostal Nerve Block and Neurolysis for Intractable Cancer Pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2016 Jun;30(2):114-7. doi: 10.3109/15360288.2016.1167804. Epub 2016 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 27092398.
3)

Kim BH, No MY, Han SJ, Park CH, Kim JH. Paraplegia following intercostal nerve neurolysis with alcohol and thoracic epidural injection in lung cancer patient. Korean J Pain. 2015 Apr;28(2):148-52. doi: 10.3344/kjp.2015.28.2.148. Epub 2015 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 25852838; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4387461.

UpToDate: Pediatric intracranial tumor

Pediatric intracranial tumor

Epidemiology

Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood.

The location of brain tumors in very young children differs from the posterior fossa predominance of older children. This is especially true in the first 6– 12 months of life, where supratentorial location is signicantly more common.

Approximately 20% of pediatric intracranial tumors arise from the thalamus or brainstem, with an incidence rate of 5% and 15%, respectively.

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric intracranial tumor.

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma account for 10% to 25% of pediatric intracranial tumor.

Diagnosis

Bächli et al., from the Heidelberg University Hospital, Germany, report a single-institutional collection of pediatric brain tumor cases that underwent a refinement or a change of diagnosis after completion of molecular diagnostics that affected clinical decision-making including the application of molecularly informed targeted therapies. 13 pediatric central nervous system tumors were analyzed by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular diagnostics including DNA methylation profiling in 12 cases, DNA sequencing in 8 cases and RNA sequencing in 3 cases. 3 tumors had a refinement of diagnosis upon molecular testing, and 6 tumors underwent a change of diagnosis. Targeted therapy was initiated in 5 cases. An underlying cancer predisposition syndrome was detected in 5 cases. Although this case series, retrospectiveand not population based, has its limitations, insight can be gained regarding precision of diagnosis and clinical management of the patients in selected cases. Accuracy of diagnosis was improved in the cases presented here by the addition of molecular diagnostics, impacting clinical management of affected patients, both in the first-line as well as in the follow-up setting. This additional information may support the clinical decision making in the treatment of challenging pediatric CNS tumors. Prospective testing of the clinical value of molecular diagnostics is currently underway 1).

Treatment

Malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neurooncology. Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group.

The pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment. Before the development of specific approaches for this age group, these children received the same kind of treatment than the older children did, but their survival and quality of life were significantly worse. The reasons of these poor results were probably due in part to the fear of late effects induced by radiation therapy, leading to decrease the necessary doses of irradiation which increased treatment failures without avoiding treatment related complications.

At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients. Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors.

Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors.

Different approaches have been explored: * Prolonged postoperative chemotherapy and delayed irradiation as designed in the POG (Pediatric Oncology Group). * Postoperative chemotherapy without irradiation in the SFOP (Société Française d’Oncologie Pédiatrique) and in the GPO (German Pediatric Oncology) studies. *

The role of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cells transplantation was explored in different ways: High-dose chemotherapy given in all patients as proposed in the Head Start protocol. High-dose chemotherapy given in relapsing patients as salvage treatment in the French strategy. In the earliest trials, the same therapy was applied to all histological types of malignant brain tumors and whatever the initial extension of the disease. This attitude was justified by the complexity of the classification of all brain tumors that has evolved over the past few decades leading to discrepancy between the diagnosis of different pathologists for a same tumor specimen. Furthermore, it has become increasingly obvious that the biology of brain tumors in very young children is different from that seen in older children. However, in the analysis of these trials an effort was made to give the results for each histological groups, according to the WHO classification and after a central review of the tumor specimens. All these collected data have brought to an increased knowledge of infantile malignant brain tumors in terms of diagnosis, prognostic factors and response to chemotherapy. Furthermore a large effort was made to study long term side effects as endocrinopathies, cognitive deficits, cosmetic alterations and finally quality of life in long term survivors. Prospective study of sequelae can bring information on the impact of the different factors as hydrocephalus, location of the tumor, surgical complications, chemotherapy toxicity and irradiation modalities. With these informations it is now possible to design therapeutic trials devoted to each histological types, adapted to pronostic factors and more accurate treatment to decrease long term sequelae 2).

Complications

Case series

1)

Bächli H, Ecker J, van Tilburg C, Sturm D, Selt F, Sahm F, Koelsche C, Grund K, Sutter C, Pietsch T, Witt H, Herold-Mende C, von Deimling A, Jones D, Pfister S, Witt O, Milde T. Molecular Diagnostics in Pediatric Brain Tumors: Impact on Diagnosis and Clinical Decision-Making – A Selected Case Series. Klin Padiatr. 2018 Jul 11. doi: 10.1055/a-0637-9653. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29996150.
2)

Kalifa C, Grill J. The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status? J Neurooncol. 2005 Dec;75(3):279-85. Review. PubMed PMID: 16195802.

UpToDate: DOK7

DOK7

Docking protein 7 encoded by the DOK7 gene is essential for neuromuscular synaptogenesis 1).

The protein functions in aneural activation of MuSK (muscle-specific receptor kinase), which is required for postsynaptic differentiation, and in the subsequent clustering of the acetylcholine receptor in myotubes. This protein can also induce autophosphorylation of muscle-specific receptor kinase. Mutations in this gene are a cause of familial limb-girdle myasthenia autosomal recessive, which is also known as congenital myasthenic syndrome type 1B. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.


In Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes with Predominant Limb Girdle Weakness (LG-CMS) some of the currently used drugs can either ameliorate or aggravate the symptoms depending on the underlying genetic defect. The drug most frequently used for the treatment of CMS is pyridostigmine an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. However, pyridostigmine is not effective or is even detrimental in DOK7- and COLQ-related LG-CMS, while beta-adrenergic agonists (ephedrine, salbutamol) show some sustained benefit. Standard clinical trials may be difficult, but standardized follow-up of patients and international collaboration may help to improve the standards of care of these conditions 2).


A 61-year-old female and her older sister showed bilateral ptosis, facial and proximal limb weakness, and scoliosis since childhood. Another female sibling had milder signs, while other family members were asymptomatic. Facial nerve repetitive stimulation in the proband showed decrement of muscle responses. Single fiber EMG revealed increased jitter and blocking. Muscle biopsy showed type 2-fiber atrophy, without tubular aggregates. Mutational analysis in the three affected siblings revealed two compound heterozygous mutations in DOK7: c.1457delC, that predicts p.Pro486Argfs*13 and truncates the protein C-terminal domain, and c.473G>A, that predicts p.Arg158Gln and disruption of the dok7-MuSK interaction in the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain. Unaffected family members carried only one or neither mutation.

Two of the affected sisters showed marked improvement with salbutamol treatment, which illustrates the benefits of a correct diagnosis and treatment of DOK7-CMS 3).

Hua et al., llustrated that the expression of Dok7 was downregulation in human glioma tissues. Dok7 overexpression significantly inhibits proliferation and colony formation in vitro, and the xenograft tumor formation in vivo. In addition, 5-Azacitidine-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), a DNA methylation inhibitor, preventing the loss of Dok7 expression by decreasing aberrant hypermethylation of Dok7 promoter in glioma cells. More importantly, DNMT1 knockdown induced the demethylation of Dok7 promoter, and enhanced the expression of Dok7 in gliomas. These results suggest that epigenetic silencing of Dok7 may provide a novel glioma treatment strategy 4).

References

1)

Okada K, Inoue A, Okada M, Murata Y, Kakuta S, Jigami T, Kubo S, Shiraishi H, Eguchi K, Motomura M, Akiyama T, Iwakura Y, Higuchi O, Yamanashi Y. The muscle protein Dok-7 is essential for neuromuscular synaptogenesis. Science. 2006 Jun 23;312(5781):1802-5. PubMed PMID: 16794080.

2)

Evangelista T, Hanna M, Lochmüller H. Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes with Predominant Limb Girdle Weakness. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2015 Jul 22;2(Suppl 2):S21-S29. PubMed PMID: 26870666; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4746746.

3)

Bevilacqua JA, Lara M, Díaz J, Campero M, Vázquez J, Maselli RA. Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome due to DOK7 mutations in a family from Chile. Eur J Transl Myol. 2017 Sep 20;27(3):6832. doi: 10.4081/ejtm.2017.6832. eCollection 2017 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 29118959; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5658635.

4)

Hua CD, Bian EB, Chen EF, Yang ZH, Tang F, Wang HL, Zhao B. Repression of Dok7 expression mediated by DNMT1 promotes glioma cells proliferation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jul 4;106:678-685. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.156. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29990858.

UpToDate: Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette’s syndrome, Tourette’s disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS or, more commonly, simply Tourette’s or TS) is an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. These tics characteristically wax and wane, can be suppressed temporarily, and are preceded by a premonitory urge. Tourette’s is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional, transient and persistent (chronic) tics.

Tourette’s was once considered a rare and bizarre syndrome, most often associated with the exclamation of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks (coprolalia), but this symptom is present in only a small minority of people with Tourette’s.

Tourette’s is no longer considered a rare condition, but it is not always correctly identified because most cases are mild and the severity of tics decreases for most children as they pass through adolescence. Between 0.4% and 3.8% of children ages 5 to 18 may have Tourette’s; the prevalence of other tic disorders in school-age children is higher, with the more common tics of eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. Extreme Tourette’s in adulthood is a rarity, and Tourette’s does not adversely affect intelligence or life expectancy.

Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of Tourette’s, but the exact causes are unknown. In most cases, medication is unnecessary. There is no effective treatment for every case of tics, but certain medications and therapies can help when their use is warranted. Education is an important part of any treatment plan, and explanation and reassurance alone are often sufficient treatment.

Comorbid conditions (co-occurring diagnoses other than Tourette’s) such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present in many patients seen in tertiary specialty clinics. These other conditions often cause more functional impairment to the individual than the tics that are the hallmark of Tourette’s; hence, it is important to correctly identify comorbid conditions and treat them.

The eponym was bestowed by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette’s in 1885.

Treatment

Case series

Patients with Tourette syndrome diagnosed according to DSM-IV TR criteria with severe medication-recalcitrant disease referred to the Hazrat Rasool Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, TehranIran, were recruited for this study. They underwent bilateral anteromedial globus pallidus internus (amGPi) DBS with Medtronic Brain Neurostimulation Lead 3389. Patients were assessed using Yale Global Tic Severity Scale(YGTSS) and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome-quality of life scale (GTS-QOL) before and one year after DBS.

Six patients (four man and two women) with severe medication-recalcitrant TS, mean age of 26.33 ± 7.25 years fulfilled the follow up visits. All patients revealed significant improvement in tics severity one year after surgery. Based on YGTSS, total tic severity score decreased from 75.66 ± 16.54 to 28.33 ± 13.95, P-value:0.005. Quality of life improved significantly after DBS (26.66 ± 20.65 before and 70.00 ± 17.88 one year after surgery, P-value:0.02).

Results of this study in accordance to previous ones suggest AM-GPi DBS as an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic modality for patients with medication refractory TS 1).

2017

Giorni et al. used intra-operative microelectrode recording during stereotactic neurosurgery to guide implantation of DBS lead.

Units in the medial anterior part of GPi of 7 Tourette’s syndrome patients under general anesthesia were firing at mean and median rate of 32.1 and 21 Hz respectively (n = 101), with 45% of spikes fired during bursts and 21.3 bursts per minute. In the latero-posterior part of GPi of 7 dystonic patients under local anesthesia the mean and median activity were 46.1 and 30.6 Hz respectively (n = 27), and a mean of 21.7 bursts per minute was observed, with 30% of all spikes occurring during these bursts.

Units activity pattern – slow-regular, fast-irregular or fast-regular were present in different proportions between the two targets.

The electrophysiological characteristics of the medial-anterior part of GPi and its latero-posterior portion can be used to assist DBS electrode targeting and also support the refinement of pathophysiological models of Tourette’s syndrome and Dystonia 2).


A study of 15 patients with long-term amGPi DBS for severe TS investigated whether a specific anatomical site within the amGPi correlated with optimal clinical outcome for the measures of tics, obsessive compulsive behaviour (OCB), and mood.

Validated clinical assessments were used to measure tics, OCB, quality of life, anxiety, and depression before DBS and at the latest follow-up (17-82 months). Electric field simulations were created for each patient using information on electrode location and individual stimulation parameters. A subsequent regression analysis correlated these patient-specific simulations to percentage changes in outcome measures in order to identify any significant voxels related to clinical improvement.

A region within the ventral limbic GPi, specifically on the medial medullary lamina in the pallidum at the level of the AC-PC, was significantly associated with improved tics but not mood or OCB outcome.

This study adds further support to the application of DBS in a tic-related network, though factors such as patient sample size and clinical heterogeneity remain as limitations and replication is required 3).

Case reports

2018

Richieri et al., report the first case of a patient with severe, intractable Tourette Syndrome (TS) with comorbid Obsessive Compulsive disorder(OCD), who recovered from both disorders with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery following deep brain stimulation (DBS). This case highlights the possible role of the internal capsule within the neural circuitries underlying both TS and OCD, and suggests that in cases of treatment-refractory TS and comorbid OCD, bilateral anterior capsulotomy using stereotactic radiosurgery may be a viable treatment option 4).

1)

Azimi A, Parvaresh M, Shahidi G, Habibi A, Rohani S, Safdarian M, Fattahi A, Taheri M, Rohani M. Anteromedial GPi deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome: The first case series from Iran. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Jul 4;172:116-119. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.06.045. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29990958.

2)

Giorni A, Windels F, Stratton PG, Cook R, Silberstein P, Coyne T, Silburn PA, Sah P. Single-unit activity of the anterior Globus pallidus internus in Tourette patients and posterior Globus pallidus internus in dystonic patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017 Oct 16;128(12):2510-2518. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2017.10.003. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29101846.

3)

Akbarian-Tefaghi L, Akram H, Johansson J, Zrinzo L, Kefalopoulou Z, Limousin P, Joyce E, Hariz M, Wårdell K, Foltynie T. Refining the Deep Brain Stimulation Target within the Limbic Globus Pallidus Internus for Tourette Syndrome. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2017 Aug 5;95(4):251-258. doi: 10.1159/000478273. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28787721.

4)

Richieri R, Blackman G, Musil R, Spatola G, Cavanna AE, Lançon C, Régis J. Positive clinical effects of gamma knife capsulotomy in a patient with deep brain stimulation-refractory Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Apr 26;170:34-37. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.04.018. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29723733.

UpToDate: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a constellation of neurologic symptoms-seizures, headaches, altered mental status, and visual changes-associated with characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging findings seen on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences.

Etiology

The etiology of this entity includes a sudden increase in blood pressure, renal failure, immunosuppressive drugs, infections, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).

The development of PRES after surgical resection of posterior fossa tumors has mostly been linked to the pediatric neurosurgical practice.

Diagnosis

Classically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings show a symmetric reversible vasogenic edema in the parietooccipital lobes. PRES can involve the brainstem and cerebellum and sometimes can leave irreversible lesions but it can also recur, which is a very rare presentation.

Case reports

Hage et al., report a case of recurrent PRES with cerebellar involvement associated with noncommunicating hydrocephalus in a 2-year-old child with renal failure on peritoneal dialysis after receiving Etoposide for macrophage activation syndrome 1).

2016

Quarante et al report 2 new pediatric cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that developed after surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumor. Appropriate management includes supportive measures, antihypertensive agents, and antiepileptic drugs, if needed. Full recovery is the most likely outcome in line with previous articles 2).

2015

Sorour et al. report the first case of PRES after resection of a giant vestibular schwannoma in an adult patient. This 57-year-old female patient underwent a retrosigmoid approach for total resection of her left-sided giant tumor. On the second postoperative day, she developed the classic clinical and radiologic characteristics of PRES. She was treated aggressively with antihypertensive and anticonvulsant medications and showed complete recovery without sequelae. Conclusion PRES is a potential yet rare complication of surgeries to posterior fossa tumors that are compressing the brainstem. Rapid diagnosis and aggressive management are essential for achieving the best outcome 3).

1)

Hage P, Kseib C, Hmaimess G, Jaoude PA, Noun P. Recurrent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with cerebellar involvementleading to acute hydrocephalus. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Jul 5;172:120-123. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.07.005. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29990959.
2)

Quarante LH, Mena-Bernal JH, Martín BP, Carrasco MR, Casado MJ, de Aragón AM, de Las Heras RS. Posterior reversible encephalopathysyndrome (PRES): a rare condition after resection of posterior fossa tumors: two new cases and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 May;32(5):857-63. doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2954-5. Epub 2015 Nov 19. Erratum in: Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Apr;32(4):763. PubMed PMID: 26584552.
3)

Sorour M, Sayama C, Couldwell WT. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Surgical Resection of a Giant Vestibular Schwannoma: Case Report and Literature Review. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2015 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26091111.

UpToDate: Biomarker

Biomarker

Biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. The term occasionally also refers to a substance whose presence indicates the existence of living organisms.

Biomarkers are often measured and evaluated to examine normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers are used in many scientific fields.


Extracellular vesicles secreted by human glioma cells contain a wealth of tumor-specific proteins and nucleic acids that can be isolated from patients with these neoplasms. Thus, EV contribute to the development of biomarkers, and additionally have certain therapeutic potential for possible use in neurooncology and neurosurgery 1).

see Molecular biomarker.

see Biochemical marker.

see Glioblastoma biomarkers.

see Red cell distribution width.

see Tumor marker.

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of highly promising cancer biomarkers.

It is of great importance to seek further subclassifications in glioblastoma multiformebiomarkers, and new treatment modalities to make a significant change in survival for individuals 2).

Examples

1)

Santiago-Dieppa DR, Gonda DD, Cheung VJ, Steinberg JA, Carter BS, Chen CC. Extracellular Vesicles as a Platform for Glioma Therapeutic Development. Prog Neurol Surg. 2018;32:172-179. doi: 10.1159/000469689. Epub 2018 Jul 10. PubMed PMID: 29990983.
2)

Fekete B, Werlenius K, Örndal C, Rydenhag B. Prognostic factors for glioblastoma patients – a clinical population-based study. Acta Neurol Scand. 2016 Jun;133(6):434-41. doi: 10.1111/ane.12481. Epub 2015 Sep 11. PubMed PMID: 26358197.

UpToDate: Meningioangiomatosis

Free et al., from the Sanford Clinic, Sioux Falls, South Dakota reported two cases of sporadic meningioangiomatosis (MA) – a rare condition of the central nervous system known to cause headaches, seizures and other focal neurologic deficits. Both patients presented with headache and visionchange, somewhat suggestive of migraine. The combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) can establish the diagnosis of MA .

UpToDate: Subdural osteoma

Subdural osteoma

Subdural osteomas are benign neoplasms that are rarely encountered.

Case reports

Yang et al., report the case of a 64‑year‑old female patient with a left temporal subdural osteoma.

The patient presented with intermittent dizziness that first began two years earlier. Non-contrast computed tomography revealed a densely calcified left temporal extra-axial mass. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion revealed signal loss on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and non-enhancement on Gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images, and Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and ADC images demonstrated reduced values attributed to calcium-induced signal loss. Histologically, the lesion predominantly consisted of lamellar bone without bone marrow elements. The patient underwent stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging-guided neurosurgical resection and recovered without complication.

Subdural osteomas may not be enhanced on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical tumourectomy can be considered for symptomatic patients with subdural osteomas 1).


A 29-year-old female presented with a 3-year history of headaches. Computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneous high-density lesion isolated from the inner table of the frontal bone (a lucent dural line) in the right frontal convexity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extra-axial lesion with a broad base without dural tail sign and punctate enhancement pattern characteristic of abundant adipose tissue. Upon surgical excision, we found a hard bony mass clearly demarcated from the dura. The mass displayed characteristics of an osteoma upon histological examination. The symptom was relieved after operation 2).


Cheon JE, Kim JE, Yang HJ. CT and pathologic findings of a case of subdural osteoma. Korean J Radiol. 2002;3:211–213.


Kim JK, Lee KJ, Cho JK, et al. Intracranial intraparenchymal ostemoa. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 1998;27:1450–1454.


Jung TY, Jung S, Jin SG, Jin YH, Kim IY, Kang SS. Solitary intracranial subdural osteoma: intraoperative findings and primary anastomosis of an involved cortical vein. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:468–470.


Lee ST, Lui TN. Intracerebral osteoma: case report. Br J Neurosurg. 1997;11:250–252.


Vakaet A, De Reuck J, Thiery E, vander Eecken H. Intracerebral osteoma: a clinicopathologic and neuropsychologic case study. Childs Brain. 1983;10:281–285.


Haddad FS, Haddad GF, Zaatari G. Cranial osteomas: their classification and management. Report on a giant osteoma and review of the literature. Surg Neurol. 1997;48:143–147.


Akiyama M, Tanaka T, Hasegawa Y, Chiba S, Abe T. Multiple intracranial subarachnoid osteomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2005;147:1085–1089. discussion 1089.


Pau A, Chiaramonte G, Ghio G, Pisani R. Solitary intracranial subdural osteoma: case report and review of the literature. Tumori. 2003;89:96–98.


Aoki H, Nakase H, Sakaki T. Subdural osteoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140:727–728. [PubMed] 10. Choudhury AR, Haleem A, Tjan GT. Solitary intradural intracranial osteoma. Br J Neurosurg. 1995;9:557–559.


Constantinidis J. [Intrathalamic osteoma] Psychiatr Neurol (Basel) 1967;154:366–372.

1)

Yang H, Niu L, Zhang Y, Jia J, Li Q, Dai J, Duan L, Pan Y. Solitary subdural osteoma: A case report and literature review. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2018 Jul 2;172:87-89. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.07.004. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29986201.
2)

Kim EY, Shim YS, Hyun DK, Park H, Oh SY, Yoon SH. Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Findings of Subdural Osteoma: A Case Report. Brain Tumor Res Treat. 2016 Apr;4(1):40-3. doi: 10.14791/btrt.2016.4.1.40. Epub 2016 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 27195262; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4868817.
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