Primary central nervous system ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma

Primary central nervous system ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma

see also Primary central nervous system ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma


Primary central nervous system anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an extremely rare type of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).

There are only nine cases reported in the literature to date, most of which have an overall survival time of no more than 8 months. Yuan et al. reported such a rare case that has a good outcome with the longest survival time and performed a literature review 1).


George et al. reported four new cases of primary central nervous system ALCL from the Mayo Clinic and incorporated additional data from five previously published cases. ALK-1 expression was determined in all nine tumors. Patient age was 4-66 years (mean 29 years) with a bimodal distribution: 6 < or = 22 years, 3 > or = 50 years. Six were female. Tumors were mostly supratentorial, five were multifocal, and seven had involvement of dura or leptomeninges. Seven tumors were T cells, two were null cells, and five of nine were ALK-1 immunopositive. Total mortality was six of nine. Three patients, 4-18 years of age (mean 13 years), were alive at 4.8-6.1 years postdiagnosis; these tumors were all ALK-positive. Five patients, 13-66 years of age (mean 43 years), died of tumor 4 days to 11 weeks postdiagnosis; four of five of these tumors were ALK-negative. One 10-year-old child with an ALK-positive tumor died of sepsis, but in remission. The central nervous system ALCL is aggressive. The study suggests that a better outcome may be associated with young age and ALK-1 positivity, prognostic parameters similar to systemic ALCL 2).


A review demonstrated that ALK-negative ALCL exhibits a poor prognosis and is very often fatal. The majority of ALK-negative patients were treated with radiotherapy or supportive care, due to their older age or poor PS. As ALK-negative ALCL tends to occur in older individuals, similar to PCNSL and DLBCL, chemoradiotherapy including HD-MTX should be initiated earlier.

In conclusion, findings indicate that the prognosis of ALCL of the CNS is correlated with ALK positivity and patient age of <40 years. Chemoradiotherapy with MTX is recommended as the standard treatment for ALCL. However, additional multicenter studies including large numbers of cases are required 3).

A 19-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of dizzinessCT and MRI imaging showed a heterogeneous enhanced lesion in the left parieto-occipital lobe and the leptomeninges of the occipital lobe and the cerebellum. The lesion was resected and confirmed to be ALK-negative ALCL by pathological examination. Then, the patient received 10 cycles of chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and whole brain radiotherapy. The patient recovered well and was regularly followed up. He was free of symptoms without recurrence on imaging examination 3 years later. ALCL is a rare type of PCNSL. HD-MTX combined with radiation is an effective therapeutic approach. However, further prospective studies with a large number of patients are needed to identify the biological characteristics of this rare type of PCNSL 4).


1) , 4)

Yuan C, Duan H, Wang Y, Zhang J, Ou J, Wang W, Zhang M. Primary central nervous system ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a case report and literature review. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 Jul 1:apm-21-557. doi: 10.21037/apm-21-557. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34263607.
2)

George DH, Scheithauer BW, Aker FV, Kurtin PJ, Burger PC, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, McLendon RE, Parisi JE, Paulus W, Roggendorf W, Sotelo C. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the central nervous system: prognostic effect of ALK-1 expression. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Apr;27(4):487-93. doi: 10.1097/00000478-200304000-00008. PMID: 12657933.
3)

Nomura M, Narita Y, Miyakita Y, Ohno M, Fukushima S, Maruyama T, Muragaki Y, Shibui S. Clinical presentation of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in the central nervous system. Mol Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul;1(4):655-660. doi: 10.3892/mco.2013.110. Epub 2013 Apr 30. PMID: 24649224; PMCID: PMC3915681.

Anaplastic astrocytoma management

Anaplastic astrocytoma management

Treatment

Treatment consists of maximal safe resectionradiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Trials of patients with newly diagnosed grade III glioma have shown survival benefit from adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy compared with initial treatment using radiotherapy alone. Both temozolomide and the combination of procarbazinelomustine, and vincristine provide survival benefit. In contrast, trials that compare single modality treatment of chemotherapy alone with radiotherapy alone did not observe survival differences. Currently, for patients with grade III gliomas who require postsurgical treatment, the preferred treatment consists of a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy 1).


After treatment, all patients have to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging procedure quarterly or half-yearly for 5 years and then on an annual basis. In patients with recurrent tumor, wherever possible re-resection or re-irradiation or chemotherapy can be considered along with supportive and palliative care. High-grade malignant glioma should be managed in a multidisciplinary center


Treatment of noncodeleted AA based on preliminary results from the CATNON clinical trial consists of maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy with post-radiotherapy temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. The role of concurrent TMZ and whether IDH1 subgroups benefit from TMZ is currently being evaluated in the recently completed randomized, prospective Phase III clinical trial, CATNON 2).

In 2017 the Interim results from the CATNON trial was that adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy was associated with a significant survival benefit in patients with newly diagnosed non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma. Further analysis of the role of concurrent temozolomide treatment and molecular factors is needed 3).

Surgery

VFLAIR/VCE-T1WI is an important classifier that could divide the high grade astrocytoma (HGA) into 2 subtypes with distinct invasive features. Patients with proliferation-dominant HGA can benefit from extensive resection of the FLAIR abnormality region, which provides the theoretical basis for a personalized resection strategy 4).

Postoperative management

The criteria used to assess extent of resection (EOR) have an impact on findings of association between EOR and survival. Current assessment of EOR mainly relies on pre and postoperative contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images (CE-T1WI).

This method is subject to several inherent limitations, including failure to evaluate nonenhancing components of glioma.

To solve this problem, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging is added in the RANO criteria 5).

References

1)

van den Bent MJ, Smits M, Kros JM, Chang SM. Diffuse Infiltrating Oligodendroglioma and Astrocytoma. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jul 20;35(21):2394-2401. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2017.72.6737. Epub 2017 Jun 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 28640702.
2)

Grimm SA, Chamberlain MC. Anaplastic astrocytoma. CNS Oncol. 2016 Jul;5(3):145-57. doi: 10.2217/cns-2016-0002. Epub 2016 May 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 27230974; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6042632.
3)

van den Bent MJ, Baumert B, Erridge SC, Vogelbaum MA, Nowak AK, Sanson M, Brandes AA, Clement PM, Baurain JF, Mason WP, Wheeler H, Chinot OL, Gill S, Griffin M, Brachman DG, Taal W, Rudà R, Weller M, McBain C, Reijneveld J, Enting RH, Weber DC, Lesimple T, Clenton S, Gijtenbeek A, Pascoe S, Herrlinger U, Hau P, Dhermain F, van Heuvel I, Stupp R, Aldape K, Jenkins RB, Dubbink HJ, Dinjens WNM, Wesseling P, Nuyens S, Golfinopoulos V, Gorlia T, Wick W, Kros JM. Interim results from the CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma: a phase 3, randomised, open-label intergroup study. Lancet. 2017 Oct 7;390(10103):1645-1653. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31442-3. Epub 2017 Aug 8. Erratum in: Lancet. 2017 Oct 7;390(10103):1644. PubMed PMID: 28801186; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5806535.
4)

Jiang H, Cui Y, Liu X, Ren X, Li M, Lin S. Proliferation-dominant high-grade astrocytoma: survival benefit associated with extensive resection of FLAIR abnormality region. J Neurosurg. 2019 Mar 22:1-8. doi: 10.3171/2018.12.JNS182775. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30901758.
5)

Wen PY, Macdonald DR, Reardon DA, Cloughesy TF, Sorensen AG, Galanis E, et al: Updated response assessment criteria for high-grade gliomas: response assessment in neuro-oncology working group. J Clin Oncol 28:1963–1972, 2010

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a newly recognized entity in the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System 2016, characterized by elevated mitotic activity with or without necrosis, and shorter survival when compared with WHO grade II PXAs. BRAF V600E mutations are frequent.

Treatment

While grade II PXAs can often be managed surgically, there is no consensus on the optimal treatment for anaplastic PXA. Rarely, anaplastic PXA can present with leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD), which is associated with poor prognosis.

Case reports

In a report Purkait et al., from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.describe a BRAF V600E-mutated tumor with divergent morphological appearance comprising of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and astroblastoma. Both of these tumor entities are extremely rare and a combined morphology has not been described till now 1).


A 16-year-old girl diagnosed with a left frontal anaplastic PXA with BRAF V600E mutations and high grade features of necrosis. Following subtotal resection, cranial radiation, and temozolomide chemotherapy her tumor recurred with bulky, nodular LMD throughout the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. She received palliative radiation to the thoracic spine and then started targeted therapy with dabrafenib with a partial radiographic response and then trametinib was added to dabrafenib with sustained response for 5 months. When the leptomeningeal tumor progressed, bevacizumab was added to the dabrafenib and trametinib therapy, and the patient remained stable for an additional 4 months. The combined therapy was very well tolerated; the patient experienced a grade II rash with initiation of dabrafenib, but no other side effects. To our knowledge this is the first time dabrafenib, trametinib, and bevacizumab have been combined to treat a pediatric high grade glioma. This is also the first report of BRAF inhibition in glial LMD. Our experience suggests that targeted therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib can be safely combined with anti-angiogenic therapy and may improve quality of life and survival in patients with LMD associated with high grade PXA. The growing experience with targeted therapy in rare pediatric gliomas may justify a need for a larger clinical trial 2). 1) Purkait S, Bansal S, Malgulwar PB. BRAF V600E-mutated central nervous system tumor with divergent morphological feature – Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-like and astroblastoma-like. Neuropathology. 2018 Dec 17. doi: 10.1111/neup.12527. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30557911. 2)https://academic.oup.com/neuro-oncology/article-abstract/19/suppl_6/vi216/4591299?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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