Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Risk Factors

Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Risk Factors

Age, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebral atherosclerosis, aneurysms located at the internal carotid artery (ICA) and aneurysm neck width (N) correlated negatively with rupture risk. Aneurysms located at the anterior communicating artery, bifurcation, irregularity, with a daughter sac, aneurysm height, maximum size, aspect ratio (AR), height-to-width ratio and bottleneck factor were significantly and positively correlated with rupture risk 1).

The anterior communicating artery (AcomA) junction is the most common location for cerebral aneurysms. This might because of increased vascular wall shear stress due to the complex structure of the junction. The aim of a study of İdil Soylu et al. was to investigate the effect of morphological parameters in the development of anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. A retrospective analysis of the hospital database was performed to identify patients with AcomA aneurysms. Patients with normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) examinations were enrolled in the study as the control group. The control group was similar to the patient group in gender and age. Morphological parameters (vessel diameters, vessel diameter ratios, and vessel angles) on the same side (ipsilateral) and on the opposite side (contralateral) of the patients with aneurysm, and morphological parameters of the control group were compared. A total of 171 subjects were involved in the study (86 patients with aneurysms and 85 patients in the control group). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the ipsilateral A1-A2 angle (OR: 0.932; 95% CI: 0.903-0.961; p < 0.001), the ipsilateral A1/A2 vessel diameter ratio (OR: 27.725; 95% CI: 1.715-448.139; p = 0.019), and the contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA)/A1 ratio (OR: 11.817; 95% CI: 2.617-53.355; p = 0.001) were significant morphological predictors for developing an aneurysm. An increased contralateral ICA/A1 ratio, an increased ipsilateral A1/A2 vessel diameter ratio, and a narrow bifurcation angle are significant predictors for developing an aneurysm. Therefore, in patients with clinical risk factors these parameters may be interpreted as additional morphological risk factors for developing an aneurysm 2).


An asymmetry of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery is an assumed risk factor for the development of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (ACoAAs).

In clinic, it’s very common to find out the unequal development of section A1 of anteromedial brain artery. The resulting hemodynamic changes are considered to be one of the main reasons for the formation of anterior communicating artery aneurysms 3).

An asymmetry of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1SA) was identified on digital subtraction angiography studies from 127 patients (21.4%) and was strongly associated with ACoAA (p < 0.0001, OR 13.7). An A1SA independently correlated with the occurrence of ACA infarction in patients with ACoAA (p = 0.047) and in those without an ACoAA (p = 0.015). Among patients undergoing ACoAA coiling, A1SA was independently associated with the severity of ACA infarction (p = 0.023) and unfavorable functional outcome (p = 0.045, OR = 2.4).

An A1SA is a common anatomical variation in SAH patients and is strongly associated with ACoAA. Moreover, the presence of A1SA independently increases the likelihood of ACA infarction. In SAH patients undergoing ACoAA coiling, A1SA carries the risk for severe ACA infarction and thus an unfavorable outcome. Clinical trial registration no.: DRKS00005486 (http://www.drks.de/) 4).


Findings in a study of Matsukawa et al. demonstrated that the anterior projection of an ACoA aneurysm may be related to rupturing. The authors would perhaps recommend treatment to patients with unruptured ACoA aneurysms that have an anterior dome projection, a bleb(s), and a size ≥ 5 mm 5)

References

1)

Wang GX, Zhang D, Wang ZP, Yang LQ, Yang H, Li W. Risk factors for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Jan;147(1):51-57. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1665_15. PubMed PMID: 29749361; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5967217.
2)

İdil Soylu A, Ozturk M, Akan H. Can vessel diameters, diameter ratios, and vessel angles predict the development of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: A morphological analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2019 Jul 26. pii: S0967-5868(19)30755-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.07.024. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31358430.
3)

Okamoto S, Itoh A. Craniotomy side for neck clipping of the anterior communicating aneurysm via the pterional approach. No Shinkei Geka. 2002;30:285–291.
4)

Jabbarli R, Reinhard M, Roelz R, Kaier K, Weyerbrock A, Taschner C, Scheiwe C, Shah M. Clinical relevance of anterior cerebral artery asymmetry in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2017 Nov;127(5):1070-1076. doi: 10.3171/2016.9.JNS161706. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 28009232.
5)

Matsukawa H, Uemura A, Fujii M, Kamo M, Takahashi O, Sumiyoshi S. Morphological and clinical risk factors for the rupture of anterior communicating artery aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 2013 May;118(5):978-83. doi: 10.3171/2012.11.JNS121210. Epub 2012 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 23240701.

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm (size > 2.5 cm)

Case reports

Bendok et al. presented the case of a 61-year-old female who was brought to the emergency room after she had partial complex seizures. CT and MRI of the brain revealed a right temporal lobe mass which was initially thought to be a tumor. The patient was therefore referred to us for further management. The round nature of the lesion raised suspicion for an aneurysm. A CT angiography was performed followed by a diagnostic conventional cerebral angiogram and confirmed the presence of a giant thrombosed aneurysm 1).


A video case illustrates key surgical steps required in safe management of a giant recurrent previously coiled MCA aneurysm. The patient described in this case was a 68-year old male who presented with a sudden onset severe headache and dizziness. The patient had a history of a prior coil embolization of a 12 mm left middle cerebral artery aneurysm at an outside hospital. Imaging demonstrated recurrence of now a giant left middle cerebral artery aneurysm with coil compaction and left temporal lobe edema. MRI further demonstrated thrombus in the aneurysm and aneurysm wall enhancement concerning for impending rupture. Given the aneurysm size, imaging features and mass effect, the aneurysm was treated with microsurgical clipping. This case is valuable to the literature with a clear video case illustration of aneurysm dome excision, aneurysm endarterectomy and picket fence aneurysm neck reconstruction. Aneurysm dome excision is critical for treatment of giant aneurysms causing mass effect and was only used in this case as thrombus and coil mass did not allow for direct clipping across the neck without compromise of the MCA M2 branch. Hence, this video highlights key technical tenets, such as safe thrombus removal and adequate cleaning of the endoluminal surface and preparedness for bypass in challenging cases 2).


A 64-year-old woman who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2005. She was treated with coiling of the aneurysm at an outside institution. She presented to the clinic with headaches and was found on angiography to have giant recurrence of the aneurysm. To allow adequate exposure for clipping, Arko et al. performed the surgery through a cranio-orbito-zygomatic (COZ) skull base approach, which is demonstrated. The surgery was performed in an operating room/angiography hybrid suite allowing for high quality intraoperative angiography. The technique and room flow are also demonstrated. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/eePcyOMi85M 3).

Videos

Left pterional craniotomy for thrombectomy and clipping of ruptured left MCA giant aneurysm

Cranio-orbito-zygomatic approach of a giant MCA aneurysm in a hybrid angio/OR suite

References

1)

Bendok BR, Abi-Aad KR, Rahme R, Turcotte EL, Welz ME, Patra DP, Hess R, Kalen B, Krishna C, Batjer HH. Tulip Giant Aneurysm Amputation and “Shingle Clip Cut Clip” Technique for Microsurgical Reconstruction of a Giant Thrombosed Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm. World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 2. pii: S1878-8750(19)32108-4. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.192. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31377441.
2)

Glauser G, Piazza M, Choudhri O. Aneurysm Dome Excision and Picket Fence Clip Reconstruction of a Previously Coiled Recurrent Giant MCA Aneurysm: Technical Nuances. World Neurosurg. 2019 Apr 1. pii: S1878-8750(19)30913-1. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.233. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30947002.
3)

Arko L, Quach E, Sukul V, Desai A, Gassie K, Erkmen K. Cranio-orbito-zygomatic approach for a previously coiled/recurrent giant MCA aneurysm in a hybrid angio/OR suite. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Jul;39(VideoSuppl1):V8. PubMed PMID: 26132625.

Common carotid artery occlusion treatment

Common carotid artery occlusion treatment

No consensus exists for treatment of asymptomatic patients, and decisions for treatment of symptomatic patients are controversial and made according to each case 1). The 2011 American Heart Association guidelines recommend open surgery or endovascular intervention to treat symptomatic ischemic lesions affecting the anterior cerebral circulation caused by Common carotid artery occlusion 2) In contrast, the 2009 European Society of Cardiology Protocol has no specific recommendations on this matter, 3) which emphasizes the need for further studies.

Literature review

A review of English-language medical literature from 1965 to 2012 was conducted using the PubMed and EMBASE databases to find all studies involving management of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). The search identified 21 articles encompassing 146 patients/arteries (73.2% men; mean age 65 ± 6.9 years).

The majority of the patients (93.8%) were symptomatic. Most of the patients (61.5%) had ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) patent, while an occluded ICA and a patent ECA were found in 26.6% of the patients. Eighty per cent of the patients treated underwent a surgical bypass procedure, with the subclavian artery as the most common inflow vessel (64.1%). During the first 30 days of the procedure two strokes (1.5%) were reported. During a follow-up period spanning an average of 25.6 ± 11.2 months nine patients (6.6%) experienced a clinical cerebrovascular event. Seven restenoses (5.1%) and two reocclusions (1.5%) also occurred-eight after open surgical and one after endovascular repair.

The necessity to intervene to a CCAO remains controversial. Open surgical management of symptomatic CCA occlusive disease is a safe, durable, and effective therapeutic strategy with low perioperative cerebrovascular morbidity 4).

Case series

Hecht et al. from the Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Charité and Department of Neurology, Aarhus, analyzed the experience with surgical revascularization of CCA-occlusion to develop an algorithm for selection of the most suitable bypass strategy according to the Riles classification.

During a 10-year period, 16 out of 288 patients with cerebrovascular disease and compromised hemodynamic reserve underwent revascularization for unilateral CCA-occlusion. The utilized bypass strategies included (1) a saphenous vein graft from the subclavian artery (SA) to the internal carotid artery (ICA), (2) a radial artery graft from the V3 segment of the vertebral artery (VA) to a superficial branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), or (3) a saphenous vein graft from the SA to a deep branch of the MCA.

In CCA-occlusion with maintained external carotid artery (ECA)/ICA patency (Riles type 1A), an SA-ICA bypass was performed (25%). In cases without ECA/ICA patency (Riles type 1B or 2) but suitable VA, a VA-MCA bypass was grafted (31%). In cases with unsuitable VA, a long SA-MCA interposition bypass was performed (38%). Transient postoperative neurological deficits occurred in 5 patients (31%) with 1 patient (6%) suffering permanent neurological worsening and 1 mortality (6%). Overall, no difference was found between the median preoperative mRS (2; range, 1-4) and the mRS at the time point of the last follow-up (2; range, 1-6; p = 0.75). The long-term graft patency was 94%.

Although surgical revascularization for CCA-occlusion is feasible, it is associated with a higher risk than standard bypass grafting. Considering the poor natural history of CCA-occlusion, however, this risk may be justified in carefully selected patients 5).


Eight patients with common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion underwent bypass with saphenous vein to either the carotid bifurcation (five), the internal carotid artery (two), or the external carotid artery (one). Indications included ipsilateral transient ischemic attack (two), recent nondisabling hemispheric stroke (two), and transient nonhemispheric cerebral symptoms (two). Two asymptomatic patients with CCA occlusion and contralateral internal carotid stenosis underwent prophylactic revascularization prior to planned aortic surgery. There were no perioperative strokes, occlusions, or deaths. Late ipsilateral stroke occurred in two patients, and one patient had a single transient ischemic attack after 2 years. The four patients with preoperative transient cerebral ischemia experienced relief of their symptoms. Duplex ultrasound is an accurate screening modality for distal patency. Collateral filling of the internal or external carotid artery can usually be demonstrated after aortic arch or retrograde brachial contrast injection. End-to-end distal anastomosis after endarterectomy eliminates the original occlusive plaque as a potential source of emboli. The subclavian artery is preferred for inflow on the left. The CCA origin is easily accessible for inflow on the right. Bypass of the occluded CCA is safe and may be effective in relieving transient cerebral ischemic symptoms, although long-term ipsilateral neurologic sequelae may still occur 6).

References

1)

Takagi T, Yoshimura S, Yamada K, Enomoto Y, Iwama T. Angioplasty and stenting of totally occluded common carotid artery at the chronic stage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50(11):998-1000. PubMed PMID: 21123985.
2)

Brott TG, Halperin JL, Abbara S, Bacharach JM, Barr JD, Bush RL, Cates CU, Creager MA, Fowler SB, Friday G, Hertzberg VS, McIff EB, Moore WS, Panagos PD, Riles TS, Rosenwasser RH, Taylor AJ, Jacobs AK, Smith SC Jr, Anderson JL, Adams CD, Albert N, Buller CE, Creager MA, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Halperin JL, Hochman JS, Hunt SA, Krumholz HM, Kushner FG, Lytle BW, Nishimura RA, Ohman EM, Page RL, Riegel B, Stevenson WG, Tarkington LG, Yancy CW. 2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Society of Neuroradiology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery, Society for Vascular Medicine, and Society for Vascular Surgery. Developed in collaboration with the American Academy of Neurology and Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Jan 1;81(1):E76-123. doi: 10.1002/ccd.22983. Epub 2011 Feb 3. Review. PubMed PMID: 23281092.
3)

Liapis CD, Bell PR, Mikhailidis D, Sivenius J, Nicolaides A, Fernandes e Fernandes J, Biasi G, Norgren L; ESVS Guidelines Collaborators. ESVS guidelines. Invasive treatment for carotid stenosis: indications, techniques. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009 Apr;37(4 Suppl):1-19. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.11.006. Review. PubMed PMID: 19286127.
4)

Klonaris C, Kouvelos GN, Kafeza M, Koutsoumpelis A, Katsargyris A, Tsigris C. Common carotid artery occlusion treatment: revealing a gap in the current guidelines. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013 Sep;46(3):291-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.06.006. Epub 2013 Jul 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 23870716.
5)

Hecht N, Wessels L, Fekonja L, von Weitzel-Mudersbach P, Vajkoczy P. Bypass strategies for common carotid artery occlusion. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 Aug 3. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-04001-4. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31377956.
6)

Martin RS 3rd, Edwards WH, Mulherin JL Jr, Edwards WH Jr. Surgical treatment of common carotid artery occlusion. Am J Surg. 1993 Mar;165(3):302-6. PubMed PMID: 8447533.
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