Brain Mapping: Indications and Techniques

Brain Mapping: Indications and Techniques

by Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa (Author), Kaisorn Chaichana (Author), Deependra Mahato (Author)

List Price: $149.99

Buy

Comprehensive resource features state-of-the-art brain mapping techniques and pearls from international recognized neurosurgeons Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa and Kaisorn Chaichana and coeditor Deependra Mahato

Despite advances in imaging techniques to identify eloquent cortical brain regions and subcortical white matter, brain mapping is the only method for obtaining real-time information with high sensitivity and specificity. This groundbreaking technology greatly enhances the neurosurgeon’s ability to safely resect challenging lesions located in eloquent areas of the brain. Brain Mapping: Indications and Techniques by esteemed neurosurgeons Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Kaisorn Chaichana, and Deependra Mahato, is a comprehensive overview of the most critical aspects of brain mapping from leaders in the field.

The book starts with discussion of preoperative aspects, including the history of brain mapping and anatomy of eloquent cortical and eloquent white matter tracts. Subsequent chapters cover perioperative aspects of brain mapping including indirect and direct functional mapping, the role of neurophysiology, awake craniotomy operating room set-up and surgical instruments, and anesthetic considerations. Diverse awake and asleep brain mapping techniques are described for various intracranial pathologies, as well as advances in postoperative recovery of neurological function including physical and speech therapy.

Key Features

Dedicated chapters focused on essential sensory functions cover speech mapping, asleep motor mapping, awake subcortical language mapping, and visual cortex and visual tract mapping Disease- and region-specific techniques that encompass extra-operative brain mapping for epilepsy, surgery mapping for insular tumors, seizure mapping, and brainstem and spinal cord mapping Clinical pearls on postoperative issues such as rehabilitation, emergence of DBS-evoked functional connectomics, brain neuroplasticity, and radiating eloquent areas High-quality illustrations and videos enhance understanding of brain regions targeted in different mapping techniques This is the most comprehensive resource available to date on brain mapping and surgery in eloquent regions. As such, it is a must-have for neurosurgical residents, fellows, practicing neurosurgeons, and allied healthcare practitioners who treat patients with brain conditions.

This book includes complimentary access to a digital copy on https://medone.thieme.com.

Interstitial photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid for malignant brain tumor

Interstitial photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid for malignant brain tumor

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) remains a promising therapeutic approach that requires further study in high grade gliomas. Use of 5-ALA PDT permits selective tumor targeting due to the intracellular metabolism of 5-ALA. The immunomodulatory effects of PDT further strengthen its use for treatment of HGGs and requires a better understanding. The combination of PDT with adjuvant therapies for HGGs will need to be studied in randomized, controlled studies 1). 2).

PDT might be feasible for eliminating brain tumor cells in malignant pediatric brain tumors 3)


Computer simulation of the photophysical process in ALA-iPDT can offer a quantitative tool for understanding treatment outcomes, which depend on various variables related to clinical treatment conditions. Izumoto et al. proposed a clinical simulation method of ALA-iPDT for malignant brain tumors using a singlet oxygen (O12) model and O12 threshold to induce cell death. In this method, the amount of O12 generated is calculated using a photosensitizer photobleaching coefficient and O12 quantum yield, which have been measured in several previous studies. Results of the simulation using clinical magnetic resonance imaging data show the need to specify the insertion positions of cylindrical light diffusers and the level of light fluence. Detailed analysis with a numerical brain tumor model demonstrates that ALA-iPDT treatment outcomes depend on combinations of photobleaching and threshold values. These results indicate that individual medical procedures, including pretreatment planning and treatment monitoring, will greatly benefit from simulation of ALA-iPDT outcomes 4).


Glioma stem cells (GSLCs) expressed higher mRNA levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) biosynthesis enzymes and its transporters PEPT1/2 and ABCB6, when compared to the parental A172 glioma cells. Consistently, flow cytometry analysis revealed that upon incubation with ALA, GSLCs accumulate a higher level of PpIX. Finally, Fujishiro et al., from the Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan showed that GSLCs were more sensitive to 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) than the original A172 cells, and confirmed that all patient-derived glioma sphere lines also showed significantly increased sensitivity to ALA-PDT if cultivated under the pro-stem cell condition. This data indicate that ALA-PDT has potential as a novel clinically useful treatment that might eliminate GBM stem cells that are highly resistant to the current chemo- and radio-therapy 5).

References

1)

Mahmoudi K, Garvey KL, Bouras A, Cramer G, Stepp H, Jesu Raj JG, Bozec D, Busch TM, Hadjipanayis CG. 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol. 2019 Feb;141(3):595-607. doi: 10.1007/s11060-019-03103-4. Epub 2019 Jan 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 30659522; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6538286.
2)

Beck TJ, Kreth FW, Beyer W, Mehrkens JH, Obermeier A, Stepp H, Stummer W, Baumgartner R. Interstitial photodynamic therapy of nonresectable malignant glioma recurrences using 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX. Lasers Surg Med. 2007 Jun;39(5):386-93. PubMed PMID: 17565715.
3)

Schwake M, Nemes A, Dondrop J, Schroeteler J, Schipmann S, Senner V, Stummer W, Ewelt C. In-Vitro Use of 5-ALA for Photodynamic Therapy in Pediatric Brain Tumors. Neurosurgery. 2018 Dec 1;83(6):1328-1337. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyy054. PubMed PMID: 29538709.
4)

Izumoto A, Nishimura T, Hazama H, Ikeda N, Kajimoto Y, Awazu K. Singlet oxygen model evaluation of interstitial photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid for malignant brain tumor. J Biomed Opt. 2019 Dec;25(6):1-13. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.25.6.063803. PubMed PMID: 31838789.
5)

Fujishiro T, Nonoguchi N, Pavliukov M, Ohmura N, Park Y, Kajimoto Y, Ishikawa T, Nakano I, Kuroiwa T. 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy can target human glioma stem-like cells refractory to antineoplastic agents. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018 Jul 7. pii: S1572-1000(18)30185-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.07.004. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29990642.

Subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease outcome

Subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease outcome

The surgical and clinical outcomes of asleep DBS for Parkinson’s disease are comparable to those of awake DBS 1).


Suboptimal targeting within the STN can give rise to intolerable sensorimotor side effects, such as dysarthria, contractions and paresthesias 2) 3) 4). eye movement perturbations, and psychiatric symptoms 5) 6) 7), limiting the management of motor symptoms. The small size of the STN motor territory and the consequences of spreading current to immediately adjacent structures obligate precise targeting. Neurosurgeons therefore rely on a combination of imaging, electrophysiology, kinesthetic responses, and stimulation testing to accurately place the DBS lead into the sensorimotor domain of STN 8) 9) 10).

Deep Brain Stimulation has been associated with post-operative neuropsychology changes, especially in verbal memory.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely accepted to treat advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, published studies were mainly conducted in Western centers 11).

High frequency subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the cardinal motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and attenuates STN alpha/beta band neural synchrony in a voltage-dependent manner. While there is a growing interest in the behavioral effects of lower frequency (60 Hz) DBS, little is known about its effect on STN neural synchrony.

Low-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus via the optimal contacts is effective in improving overall motor function of patients with Parkinson Disease 12). In Parkinson’s disease significantly improved important aspects of QoL as measured by PDQ-39. The improvements were maintained at 2 years follow-up except for social support and communication. Sobstyl et al., demonstrated a positive correlation between changes in the off condition of motor UPDRS scores and Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale in several PDQ-39 dimensions, whereas fluctuation UPDRS scores were negatively correlated with PDQ-39 mobility scores 13).

The degree of clinical improvement achieved by deep brain stimulation (DBS) is largely dependent on the accuracy of lead placement.

A study reports on the evaluation of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for adjusting deviated electrodes to the accurate anatomical position during DBS surgery and acute intracranial changes 14).

References

1)

Wang J, Ponce FA, Tao J, Yu HM, Liu JY, Wang YJ, Luan GM, Ou SW. Comparison of Awake and Asleep Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: A Detailed Analysis Through Literature Review. Neuromodulation. 2019 Dec 12. doi: 10.1111/ner.13061. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31830772.
2) , 9)

Benabid AL, Chabardes S, Mitrofanis J, Pollak P: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 8:67–81, 2009
3) , 10)

Groiss SJ, Wojtecki L, Südmeyer M, Schnitzler A: Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Ther Adv Neurol Disorder 2:20–28, 2009
4)

Zhang S, Zhou P, Jiang S, Wang W, Li P: Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease: a report of 12 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e5575, 2016
5)

Kulisevsky J, Berthier ML, Gironell A, Pascual-Sedano B, Molet J, Parés P: Mania following deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 59:1421–1424, 2002
6)

Mallet L, Schüpbach M, N’Diaye K, Remy P, Bardinet E, Czernecki V, et al: Stimulation of subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus reveals its role in the integration of the emotional and motor aspects of behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10661–10666, 2007
7)

Raucher-Chéné D, Charrel CL, de Maindreville AD, Limosin F: Manic episode with psychotic symptoms in a patient with Parkinson’s disease treated by subthalamic nucleus stimulation: improvement on switching the target. J Neurol Sci 273:116–117, 2008
8)

Abosch A, Timmermann L, Bartley S, Rietkerk HG, Whiting D, Connolly PJ, et al: An international survey of deep brain stimulation procedural steps. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 91:1–11, 2013
11)

Chiou SM, Lin YC, Huang HM. One-year Outcome of Bilateral Subthalamic Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: An Eastern Experience. World Neurosurg. 2015 Jun 10. pii: S1878-8750(15)00709-3. doi: 0.1016/j.wneu.2015.06.002. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26072454.
12)

Khoo HM, Kishima H, Hosomi K, Maruo T, Tani N, Oshino S, Shimokawa T, Yokoe M, Mochizuki H, Saitoh Y, Yoshimine T. Low-frequency subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized clinical trial. Mov Disord. 2014 Jan 21. doi: 10.1002/mds.25810. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24449169.
13)

Sobstyl M, Ząbek M, Górecki W, Mossakowski Z. Quality of life in advanced Parkinson’s disease after bilateral subthalamic stimulation: 2 years follow-up study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014 Sep;124:161-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.06.019. Epub 2014 Jun 23. PubMed PMID: 25051167.
14)

Cui Z, Pan L, Song H, Xu X, Xu B, Yu X, Ling Z. Intraoperative MRI for optimizing electrode placement for deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan;124(1):62-9. doi: 10.3171/2015.1.JNS141534. Epub 2015 Aug 14. PubMed PMID: 26274983.
WhatsApp WhatsApp us
%d bloggers like this: