Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Lance-Adams syndrome

Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Lance-Adams syndrome

A 79-year-old woman presented with a history of cardiac arrest due to internal carotid artery rupture following carotid endarterectomy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, within 1 month, the patient developed sensory stimulation-induced myoclonus in her face and extremities. Because her myoclonic symptoms were refractory to pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation of the GPi was performed 1 year after the hypoxic attack.

Continuous bilateral Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation with optimal parameter settings remarkably improved the patient’s myoclonic symptoms. At the 2-year follow-up, her Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale score decreased from 90 to 24. In addition, Mure et al. observed burst firing and interburst pause patterns on intraoperative microelectrode recordings of the bilateral GPi and stimulated this area as the therapeutic target.

The results show that impairment in the basal ganglion circuitry might be involved in the pathogenesis of myoclonus in patients with Lance-Adams syndrome 1).


A 23-year-old male with chronic medication refractory PHM following a cardiopulmonary arrest related to an asthmatic attack who improved with bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Ramdhani et al. reviewed the clinical features of PHM, as well as the preoperative and postoperative Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale scores and DBS programming parameters in this patient and compare them with the three other published PHM-DBS cases in the literature.

This patient experienced an alleviation of myoclonic jerks at rest and a 39% reduction in action myoclonus with improvement in both positive and negative myoclonus with bilateral GPi-DBS. High frequency stimulation (130 Hz) with amplitudes >2.5 V were needed for the therapeutic response.

They demonstrated a robust improvement in a medication refractory PHM patient with bilateral GPi-DBS, and suggest that it is a viable therapeutic option for debilitating post-hypoxic myoclonus 2).


The first case of a patient who developed action myoclonus after experiencing perinatal anoxia and was successfully treated by chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus (thalamic DBS).

The effectiveness of chronic thalamic DBS in this patient supports the concept of involvement of the thalamus in post-perinatal anoxic myoclonus 3).


Asahi T, Kashiwazaki D, Dougu N, et al. Alleviation of myoclonus after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation for Lance-Adams syndrome. J Neurol. 2015;262(6):1581-1583. doi:10.1007/s00415-015-7748-x 4).


Yamada K, Sakurama T, Soyama N, Kuratsu J. Gpi pallidal stimulation for Lance-Adams syndrome. Neurology. 2011;76(14):1270-1272. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821482f4 5).

References

1)

Mure H, Toyoda N, Morigaki R, Fujita K, Takagi Y. Clinical Outcome and Intraoperative Neurophysiology of the Lance-Adams Syndrome Treated with Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Internus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 7]. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2020;1-5. doi:10.1159/000509318
2) , 3)

Ramdhani RA, Frucht SJ, Kopell BH. Improvement of Post-hypoxic Myoclonus with Bilateral Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y). 2017;7:461. Published 2017 May 19. doi:10.7916/D8NZ8DXP
4)

Asahi T, Kashiwazaki D, Dougu N, et al. Alleviation of myoclonus after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation for Lance-Adams syndrome. J Neurol. 2015;262(6):1581-1583. doi:10.1007/s00415-015-7748-x
5)

Yamada K, Sakurama T, Soyama N, Kuratsu J. Gpi pallidal stimulation for Lance-Adams syndrome. Neurology. 2011;76(14):1270-1272. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821482f4

Subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease outcome

Subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease outcome

The surgical and clinical outcomes of asleep DBS for Parkinson’s disease are comparable to those of awake DBS 1).


Suboptimal targeting within the STN can give rise to intolerable sensorimotor side effects, such as dysarthria, contractions and paresthesias 2) 3) 4). eye movement perturbations, and psychiatric symptoms 5) 6) 7), limiting the management of motor symptoms. The small size of the STN motor territory and the consequences of spreading current to immediately adjacent structures obligate precise targeting. Neurosurgeons therefore rely on a combination of imaging, electrophysiology, kinesthetic responses, and stimulation testing to accurately place the DBS lead into the sensorimotor domain of STN 8) 9) 10).

Deep Brain Stimulation has been associated with post-operative neuropsychology changes, especially in verbal memory.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely accepted to treat advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, published studies were mainly conducted in Western centers 11).

High frequency subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the cardinal motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and attenuates STN alpha/beta band neural synchrony in a voltage-dependent manner. While there is a growing interest in the behavioral effects of lower frequency (60 Hz) DBS, little is known about its effect on STN neural synchrony.

Low-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus via the optimal contacts is effective in improving overall motor function of patients with Parkinson Disease 12). In Parkinson’s disease significantly improved important aspects of QoL as measured by PDQ-39. The improvements were maintained at 2 years follow-up except for social support and communication. Sobstyl et al., demonstrated a positive correlation between changes in the off condition of motor UPDRS scores and Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale in several PDQ-39 dimensions, whereas fluctuation UPDRS scores were negatively correlated with PDQ-39 mobility scores 13).

The degree of clinical improvement achieved by deep brain stimulation (DBS) is largely dependent on the accuracy of lead placement.

A study reports on the evaluation of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for adjusting deviated electrodes to the accurate anatomical position during DBS surgery and acute intracranial changes 14).


Although dementia is a contraindication in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease, the concept is supported by little scientific evidence. Moreover, it is unclear whether PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) or domain-specific cognitive impairments affect the outcome of DBS in non-demented PD patients.

Baseline cognitive levels of patients with PD who underwent DBS were classified into PD with dementia (PDD) (n = 15), PD-MCI (n = 210), and normal cognition (PD-NC) (n = 79). The impact of the cognitive level on key DBS outcome measures [mortality, nursing home admission, progression to Hoehn&Yahr (HY) stage 5 and progression to PDD] were analyzed using Cox regression models. Park et al. also investigated whether impairment of a specific cognitive domain could predict these outcomes in non-demented patients.

Results: Patients with PDD showed a substantially higher risk of nursing home admission and progression to HY stage 5 compared with patients with PD-MCI [hazard ratio (HR) 4.20, P = .002; HR = 5.29, P < .001] and PD-NC (HR 7.50, P < .001; HR = 7.93, P < .001). MCI did not alter the prognosis in patients without dementia, but those with visuospatial impairment showed poorer outcomes for nursing home admission (P = .015), progression to HY stage 5 (P = .027) and PDD (P = .006).

Conclusions: Cognitive profiles may stratify the pre-operative risk and predict long-term outcomes of DBS in PD 15).

References

1)

Wang J, Ponce FA, Tao J, Yu HM, Liu JY, Wang YJ, Luan GM, Ou SW. Comparison of Awake and Asleep Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: A Detailed Analysis Through Literature Review. Neuromodulation. 2019 Dec 12. doi: 10.1111/ner.13061. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31830772.
2) , 9)

Benabid AL, Chabardes S, Mitrofanis J, Pollak P: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 8:67–81, 2009
3) , 10)

Groiss SJ, Wojtecki L, Südmeyer M, Schnitzler A: Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Ther Adv Neurol Disorder 2:20–28, 2009
4)

Zhang S, Zhou P, Jiang S, Wang W, Li P: Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease: a report of 12 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e5575, 2016
5)

Kulisevsky J, Berthier ML, Gironell A, Pascual-Sedano B, Molet J, Parés P: Mania following deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 59:1421–1424, 2002
6)

Mallet L, Schüpbach M, N’Diaye K, Remy P, Bardinet E, Czernecki V, et al: Stimulation of subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus reveals its role in the integration of the emotional and motor aspects of behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10661–10666, 2007
7)

Raucher-Chéné D, Charrel CL, de Maindreville AD, Limosin F: Manic episode with psychotic symptoms in a patient with Parkinson’s disease treated by subthalamic nucleus stimulation: improvement on switching the target. J Neurol Sci 273:116–117, 2008
8)

Abosch A, Timmermann L, Bartley S, Rietkerk HG, Whiting D, Connolly PJ, et al: An international survey of deep brain stimulation procedural steps. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 91:1–11, 2013
11)

Chiou SM, Lin YC, Huang HM. One-year Outcome of Bilateral Subthalamic Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: An Eastern Experience. World Neurosurg. 2015 Jun 10. pii: S1878-8750(15)00709-3. doi: 0.1016/j.wneu.2015.06.002. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26072454.
12)

Khoo HM, Kishima H, Hosomi K, Maruo T, Tani N, Oshino S, Shimokawa T, Yokoe M, Mochizuki H, Saitoh Y, Yoshimine T. Low-frequency subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized clinical trial. Mov Disord. 2014 Jan 21. doi: 10.1002/mds.25810. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24449169.
13)

Sobstyl M, Ząbek M, Górecki W, Mossakowski Z. Quality of life in advanced Parkinson’s disease after bilateral subthalamic stimulation: 2 years follow-up study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014 Sep;124:161-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.06.019. Epub 2014 Jun 23. PubMed PMID: 25051167.
14)

Cui Z, Pan L, Song H, Xu X, Xu B, Yu X, Ling Z. Intraoperative MRI for optimizing electrode placement for deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan;124(1):62-9. doi: 10.3171/2015.1.JNS141534. Epub 2015 Aug 14. PubMed PMID: 26274983.
15)

Park KW, Jo S, Kim MS, et al. Cognitive profile as a predictor of the long-term outcome after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 28]. J Neurol Sci. 2020;417:117063. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.117063

Asleep subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease

Asleep subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation under general anesthesia (GA) is of great importance for patients with disabling off-medication symptoms or medical comorbidities. However, the relative advantages/disadvantages of routine local anesthesia (LA) surgery versus GA regarding clinical outcomes are controversial, and the safety of DBS implantation under GA is debatable.

Meta-Analysis

Liu et al. systematically reviewed the literature to compare the efficacy and safety of awake and asleep deep brain stimulation surgery. They identified cohort studies from the Cochrane libraryMEDLINE, and EMBASE (January 1970 to August 2019) by using Review Manager 5.3 software to conduct a meta-analysis following the PRISMA guidelines. Fourteen cohort studies involving 1,523 patients were included. The meta-analysis results showed that there were no significant differences between the GA and LA groups in UPDRSIII score improvement (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.06; 95% CI -0.16 to 0.28; p = 0.60), postoperative LEDD requirement (SMD -0.17; 95% CI -0.44 to 0.12; p = 0.23), or operation time (SMD 0.18; 95% CI -0.31 to 0.67; p = 0.47). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.53-1.80; p = 0.94), including postoperative speech disturbance and intracranial hemorrhage. However, the volume of intracranial air was significantly lower in the GA group than that in the LA group. In a subgroup analysis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between the microelectrode recording (MER) and non-MER groups. We demonstrated equivalent clinical outcomes of DBS surgery between GA and LA in terms of improvement of symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Key Messages: MER might not be necessary for DBS implantation. For patients who cannot tolerate DBS surgery while being awake, GA should be an appropriate alternative 1).

Case series

The objective of a study of Senemmar et al. was to investigate whether asleep deep brain stimulation surgery of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves therapeutic window (TW) for both directional (dDBS) and omnidirectional (oDBS) stimulation in a large single-center population.

A total of 104 consecutive patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) undergoing STN-DBS surgery (80 asleep and 24 awake) were compared regarding TW, therapeutic thresholdside effect threshold, improvement of Unified PD Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS-III) and degree of levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) reduction.

Asleep DBS surgery led to significantly wider TW compared to awake surgery for both dDBS and oDBS. However, dDBS further increased TW compared to oDBS in the asleep group only and not in the awake group. Clinical efficacy in terms of UPDRS-III improvement and LEDD reduction did not differ between groups.

The study provides first evidence for improvement of therapeutic window by asleep surgery compared to awake surgery, which can be strengthened further by dDBS. These results support the notion of preferring asleep over awake surgery but needs to be confirmed by prospective trial2).


Clinical outcome studies have shown that “asleep” DBS lead placement, performed using intraoperative imaging with stereotactic accuracy as the surgical endpoint, has motor outcomes comparable to traditional “awake” DBS using microelectrode recording (MER), but with shorter case times and improved speech fluency 3).


Ninety-six patients were retrospectively matched pairwise (48 asleep and 48 awake) and compared regarding improvement of Unified PD Rating Scale Motor Score (UPDRS-III), cognitive function, Levodopa-equivalent-daily-dose (LEDD), stimulation amplitudes, side effects, surgery duration, and complication rates. Routine testing took place at three months and one year postoperatively.

Results: Chronic DBS effects (UPDRS-III without medication and with stimulation on [OFF/ON]) significantly improved UPDRS-III only after awake surgery at three months and in both groups one year postoperatively. Acute effects (percentage UPDRS-III reduction after activation of stimulation) were also significantly better after awake surgery at three months but not at one year compared to asleep surgery. UPDRS-III subitems “freezing” and “speech” were significantly worse after asleep surgery at three months and one year, respectively. LEDD was significantly lower after awake surgery only one week postoperatively. The other measures did not differ between groups.

Overall motor function improved faster in the awake surgery group, but the difference ceased after one year. However, axial subitems were worse in the asleep surgery group suggesting that worsening of axial symptoms was risked improving overall motor function. Awake surgery still seems advantageous for STN-DBS in PD, although asleep surgery may be considered with lower threshold in patients not suitable for awake surgery 4).

References

1)

Liu Z, He S, Li L. General Anesthesia versus Local Anesthesia for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2019;97(5-6):381-390. doi:10.1159/000505079
2)

Senemmar F, Hartmann CJ, Slotty PJ, Vesper J, Schnitzler A, Groiss SJ. Asleep Surgery May Improve the Therapeutic Window for Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 13]. Neuromodulation. 2020;10.1111/ner.13237. doi:10.1111/ner.13237
3)

Mirzadeh Z, Chen T, Chapple KM, Lambert M, Karis JP, Dhall R, Ponce FA. Procedural Variables Influencing Stereotactic Accuracy and Efficiency in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 Oct 18. doi: 10.1093/ons/opy291. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30339204.
4)

Blasberg F, Wojtecki L, Elben S, Slotty PJ, Vesper J, Schnitzler A, Groiss SJ. Comparison of Awake vs. Asleep Surgery for Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease. Neuromodulation. 2018 Aug;21(6):541-547. doi: 10.1111/ner.12766. Epub 2018 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 29532
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