Cerebral cavernous malformation treatment

Cerebral cavernous malformation treatment

see Intracranial cavernous malformation surgery.


There have been few comparative studys of microsurgical excision vs conservative treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) and none of them has reliably demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant difference.

A prospective, population-based study to identify and independently validate definite cerebral cavernous malformation diagnoses first made in 1999-2003 in Scottish adult residents, used multiple sources of prospective follow-up to assess adults’ dependence and to identify and independently validate outcome events.

Moultrie et al., used univariate and multivariable survival analyses to test the influence of CCM excision on outcome, adjusted for prognostic factors and baseline imbalances.

Of 134 adults, 25 underwent CCM excision; these adults were younger (34 vs 43 years at diagnosis, p = 0.004) and more likely to present with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurological deficit than adults managed conservatively (48% vs 26%; odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-6.5). During 5 years of follow-up, CCM excision was associated with a deterioration to an Oxford Handicap Scale score 2-6 sustained over at least 2 successive years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3) and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or new focal neurologic deficit (adjusted HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.0).

CCM excision was associated with worse outcomes over 5 years compared to conservative management. Long-term follow-up will determine whether this difference is sustained over patients’ lifetimes. Meanwhile, a randomized controlled trial appears justified.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that CCM excision worsens short-term disability scores and increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and new focal neurologic deficits 1).


Antithrombotic therapy use is associated with a lower risk of intracranial haemorrhage or focal neurological deficit from cerebral cavernous malformations than avoidance of antithrombotic therapy. These findings provide reassurance about safety for clinical practice and require further investigation in a randomised controlled trial 2).

References

1)

Moultrie F, Horne MA, Josephson CB, Hall JM, Counsell CE, Bhattacharya JJ, Papanastassiou V, Sellar RJ, Warlow CP, Murray GD, Al-Shahi Salman R; Scottish Audit of Intracranial Vascular Malformations (SAIVMs) steering committee and collaborators. Outcome after surgical or conservative management of cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurology. 2014 Aug 12;83(7):582-9. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000684. Epub 2014 Jul 3. PubMed PMID: 24994841.
2)

Zuurbier SM, Hickman CR, Tolias CS, Rinkel LA, Leyrer R, Flemming KD, Bervini D, Lanzino G, Wityk RJ, Schneble HM, Sure U, Al-Shahi Salman R; Scottish Audit of Intracranial Vascular Malformations Steering Committee. Long-term antithrombotic therapy and risk of intracranial haemorrhage from cerebral cavernous malformations: a population-based cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Aug 6. pii: S1474-4422(19)30231-5. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30231-5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31401075.

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm

Giant middle cerebral artery aneurysm (size > 2.5 cm)

Case reports

Bendok et al. presented the case of a 61-year-old female who was brought to the emergency room after she had partial complex seizures. CT and MRI of the brain revealed a right temporal lobe mass which was initially thought to be a tumor. The patient was therefore referred to us for further management. The round nature of the lesion raised suspicion for an aneurysm. A CT angiography was performed followed by a diagnostic conventional cerebral angiogram and confirmed the presence of a giant thrombosed aneurysm 1).


A video case illustrates key surgical steps required in safe management of a giant recurrent previously coiled MCA aneurysm. The patient described in this case was a 68-year old male who presented with a sudden onset severe headache and dizziness. The patient had a history of a prior coil embolization of a 12 mm left middle cerebral artery aneurysm at an outside hospital. Imaging demonstrated recurrence of now a giant left middle cerebral artery aneurysm with coil compaction and left temporal lobe edema. MRI further demonstrated thrombus in the aneurysm and aneurysm wall enhancement concerning for impending rupture. Given the aneurysm size, imaging features and mass effect, the aneurysm was treated with microsurgical clipping. This case is valuable to the literature with a clear video case illustration of aneurysm dome excision, aneurysm endarterectomy and picket fence aneurysm neck reconstruction. Aneurysm dome excision is critical for treatment of giant aneurysms causing mass effect and was only used in this case as thrombus and coil mass did not allow for direct clipping across the neck without compromise of the MCA M2 branch. Hence, this video highlights key technical tenets, such as safe thrombus removal and adequate cleaning of the endoluminal surface and preparedness for bypass in challenging cases 2).


A 64-year-old woman who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2005. She was treated with coiling of the aneurysm at an outside institution. She presented to the clinic with headaches and was found on angiography to have giant recurrence of the aneurysm. To allow adequate exposure for clipping, Arko et al. performed the surgery through a cranio-orbito-zygomatic (COZ) skull base approach, which is demonstrated. The surgery was performed in an operating room/angiography hybrid suite allowing for high quality intraoperative angiography. The technique and room flow are also demonstrated. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/eePcyOMi85M 3).

Videos

Left pterional craniotomy for thrombectomy and clipping of ruptured left MCA giant aneurysm

Cranio-orbito-zygomatic approach of a giant MCA aneurysm in a hybrid angio/OR suite

References

1)

Bendok BR, Abi-Aad KR, Rahme R, Turcotte EL, Welz ME, Patra DP, Hess R, Kalen B, Krishna C, Batjer HH. Tulip Giant Aneurysm Amputation and “Shingle Clip Cut Clip” Technique for Microsurgical Reconstruction of a Giant Thrombosed Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm. World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug 2. pii: S1878-8750(19)32108-4. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.07.192. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31377441.
2)

Glauser G, Piazza M, Choudhri O. Aneurysm Dome Excision and Picket Fence Clip Reconstruction of a Previously Coiled Recurrent Giant MCA Aneurysm: Technical Nuances. World Neurosurg. 2019 Apr 1. pii: S1878-8750(19)30913-1. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.233. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30947002.
3)

Arko L, Quach E, Sukul V, Desai A, Gassie K, Erkmen K. Cranio-orbito-zygomatic approach for a previously coiled/recurrent giant MCA aneurysm in a hybrid angio/OR suite. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Jul;39(VideoSuppl1):V8. PubMed PMID: 26132625.

Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction outcome

Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction outcome

Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is associated with high mortality and morbidity.

The mortality rate of patients with brain edema after malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction approaches 80 % without surgical intervention 1).

Over the past 10 years in Francedecompressive craniectomy (DC) has been increasingly performed for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MCI) regardless of age. However, in-hospital mortality remains considerable, as about one-quarter of patients died within the first weeks. For those who survive beyond 6 months, the risk of death significantly decreases. Early mortality is especially high for comatose patients above 60 years operated in inexperienced centers. Most of those who remain in good functional status tend to undergo a cranioplasty within the year following DC 2).


Three separate studies investigated the effectiveness of decompressive craniectomy after malignant MCA infarction in controlled trials with patients less than 61 years of age 3) 4) 5). These were demonstrated that hemicraniectomy reduced the mortality rate by 49% at one year after stroke when compared with conventional medical treatments. However, the question of how applicable the results are to patients older than 60 years of age still remains unanswered.

When neurosurgeons recommend decompressive surgery for patients with malignant infarcts, patients’ relatives often refuse the operation because of the patients’ age, past medical history or comorbidity. Such a situation occurs more frequently when the patient is older than 70 years of age 6).

References

1)

Huttner HB, Schwab S. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: clinical characteristics, treatment strategies, and future perspectives. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8:949–958.
2)

Champeaux C, Weller J. Long-Term Survival After Decompressive Craniectomy for Malignant Brain Infarction: A 10-Year Nationwide Study. Neurocrit Care. 2019 Jul 9. doi: 10.1007/s12028-019-00774-9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31290068.
3)

Hofmeijer J, Kappelle LJ, Algra A, Amelink GJ, van Gijn J, van der Worp HB, et al. Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial [HAMLET]): a multicentre, open, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Apr;8(4):326–333.
4)

Jüttler E, Schwab S, Schmiedek P, Unterberg A, Hennerici M, Woitzik J, et al. Decompressive Surgery for the Treatment of Malignant Infarction of the Middle Cerebral Artery (DESTINY): a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke. 2007 Sep;38(9):2518–2525.
5)

Vahedi K, Vicaut E, Mateo J, Kurtz A, Orabi M, Guichard JP, et al. Sequential-design, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of early decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (DECIMAL Trial) Stroke. 2007 Sep;38(9):2506–2517.
6)

Yu JW, Choi JH, Kim DH, Cha JK, Huh JT. Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in patients older than 70 years old. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg. 2012 Jun;14(2):65-74. doi: 10.7461/jcen.2012.14.2.65. Epub 2012 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 23210030; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3471258.
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