Chronic subdural hematoma surgery complications

Chronic subdural hematoma surgery complications

The most frequent complication after chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is chronic subdural hematoma recurrence requiring reoperation. Although several definitions of recurrence have been proposed 1) one of the most consensual definitions of recurrence is the association between new clinical symptoms and hematoma revealed by CT scans. Thus, one can wonder whether a systematic CT scan is necessary after CSDH evacuation for a patient without symptoms.

Common postoperative complications include acute epidural and/or subdural bleeding, tension pneumocephalusintracranial hematomas and ischemic cerebral infarction.

Failure of the brain to re-expand, pneumocephalus, incomplete evacuation, and recurrence of the fluid collection are the most frequently.

Recurrence

see Chronic subdural hematoma recurrence.

Seizures

Seizures (including intractable status epilepticus).

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH): occurs in 0.7–5%. Very devastating in this setting: one–third of these patients die and one third are severely disabled

Brain herniation

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with brain herniation signs is rarely seen in the emergent department. As such, there are few cumulative data to analyze such cases.

Failure of postoperative cerebral reexpansion

A wide variation in postoperative drainage volumes is observed during treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with twist-drill or burr-hole craniostomy and closed-system drainage.

The postoperative drainage volumes varied greatly because of differences in the outer membrane permeability of CSDH, and such variation seems to be related to the findings on the CT scans obtained preoperatively. Patients with CSDH in whom there is less postoperative drainage than expected should be carefully observed, with special attention paid to the possibility of recurrence 2).

Patients with high subdural pressure showed the most rapid brain expansion and clinical improvement during the first 2 days. Nevertheless, a computerized tomography (CT) scan performed on the 10th day after surgery demonstrated persisting subdural fluid in 78% of cases. After 40 days, the CT scan was normal in 27 of the 32 patients. There was no mortality and no significant morbidity. A study suggests that well developed subdural neomembranes are the crucial factors for cerebral reexpansion, a phenomenon that takes at least 10 to 20 days. However, blood vessel dysfunction and impairment of cerebral blood flow may participate in delay of brain reexpansion. It may be argued that additional surgical procedures, such as repeated tapping of the subdural fluid, craniotomy, and membranectomy or even craniectomy, should not be evaluated earlier than 20 days after the initial surgical procedure unless the patient has deteriorated markedly 3).

Postoperative pneumocephalus

see Tension pneumocephalus after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation.

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH)

see Remote cerebellar hemorrhage.

Epidural hematoma

After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation surgery, the development of epidural hematoma is a very rare entity.

Akpinar et al. report the case of a 41-year-old man with an epidural hematoma complication after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Under general anesthesia, the patient underwent a large craniotomy with closed system drainage performed to treat the chronic subdural hematoma. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation, there was epidural leakage on the following day.

Although trauma is the most common risk factor in young CSDH patients, some other predisposing factors may exist. Intracranial hypotension can cause EDH. Craniotomy and drainage surgery can usually resolve the problem. Because of rapid dynamic intracranial changes, epidural leakages can occur. A large craniotomy flap and silicone drainage in the operation area are key safety points for neurosurgeons and hydration is essential 4).

Intracranial subdural empyema

A case of intracranial subdural empyema following chronic subdural hematoma drainage 5).

Skin depression

see Skin depression after chronic subdural hematoma surgery.

Oculomotor nerve palsy

see Oculomotor nerve palsy in chronic subdural hematoma.

Pseudohypoxic brain swelling

Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) is a rare and potentially fatal complication that may occur in patients following uneventful brain surgery. Fan presented a case of PHBS after chronic subdural hematoma surgery that developed after drilling and drainage. Neuroimaging findings, pathogenic factors, and therapy are also discussed 6).

References

1)

A. Chiari, K. Hocking, E. Broughton, C. Turner, T. Santarius, P. Hutchinson, A. Kolias, Core outcomes and common data elements in chronic subdural hematoma: a systematic review of the literature focused on reported outcomes, J.Neurotrauma 33 (2016) 1212–1219, https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2015.3983.
2)

Kwon TH, Park YK, Lim DJ, Cho TH, Chung YG, Chung HS, Suh JK. Chronic subdural hematoma: evaluation of the clinical significance of postoperative drainage volume. J Neurosurg. 2000 Nov;93(5):796-9. PubMed PMID: 11059660.
3)

Markwalder TM, Steinsiepe KF, Rohner M, Reichenbach W, Markwalder H. The course of chronic subdural hematomas after burr-hole craniostomy and closed-system drainage. J Neurosurg. 1981 Sep;55(3):390-6. PubMed PMID: 7264730.
4)

Akpinar A, Ucler N, Erdogan U, Yucetas CS. Epidural Hematoma Complication after Rapid Chronic Subdural Hematoma Evacuation: A Case Report. Am J Case Rep. 2015 Jul 6;16:430-433. PubMed PMID: 26147957.
5)

Ovalioglu AO, Aydin OA. A case of subdural empyema following chronic subdural hematoma drainage. Neurol India. 2013 Mar-Apr;61(2):207-9. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.111165. PubMed PMID: 23644343.
6)

Fan Q. Pseudohypoxic Brain Swelling after Drilling and Drainage for Chronic Subdural Hematoma. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2020 Oct 13. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712500. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33049793.

Middle meningeal artery embolization for chronic subdural hematoma case series

Middle meningeal artery embolization for chronic subdural hematoma case series

In a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database across 15 US academic centers, Joyce et al. identified patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent Middle meningeal artery embolization for chronic subdural hematoma between November 2017 and February 2020. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and radiographic factors, treatment factors, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing elderly (age 65-79 years) and advanced elderly (age > 80 years) patients.

MMA embolization was successfully performed in 98% of NASHs (in 148 of 151 cases) in 121 patients. Seventy elderly patients underwent 87 embolization procedures, and 51 advanced elderly patients underwent 64 embolization procedures. Elderly and advanced elderly patients had similar rates of embolization for upfront (46% vs 61%), recurrent (39% vs 33%), and prophylactic (i.e., with concomitant surgical intervention; 15% vs 6%) NASH treatment. Transfemoral access was used in most patients, and the procedure time was approximately 1 hour in both groups. Particle embolization with supplemental coils was most common, used in 51% (44/87) and 44% (28/64) of attempts for the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively. NASH thickness decreased significantly from initial thickness to 6 weeks, with additional decrease in thickness observed in both groups at 90 days. At longest follow-up, the treated NASHs had stabilized or improved in 91% and 98% of the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively, with > 50% improvement seen in > 60% of patients for each group. Surgical rescue was necessary in 4.6% and 7.8% of cases, and the overall mortality was 8.6% and 3.9% for elderly and advanced elderly patients, respectively.

MMA embolization can be used safely and effectively as an alternative or adjunctive minimally invasive treatment for NASHs in elderly and advanced elderly patients 1).


A review was registered with the International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Public/Publisher Medline (PubMed), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) and the Cochrane Library were searched using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms for MMA embolization and CSDH from January 2000 through November 2018. All articles in the English language literature describing MMA embolization for CSDH were included, irrespective of study design. Consecutive patients who underwent MMA embolization at our hospital from January 2017 through June 2018 comprised our clinical experience.

Fifteen studies with 193 procedures were included in the review. Ninety-five (49.2%) cases involved primary MMA embolization; 88(45.6%) embolization for recurrent CSDH, and 10(5.2%) were performed for prophylaxis after surgical evacuation. Recurrence after MMA embolization requiring further treatment occurred in 7(3.6%) cases. All other patients had symptomatic relief with no further recurrence. No procedure-related complications were reported. Polyvinyl alcohol was the most commonly used material. Our series included 8 patients treated with Onyx (Medtronic). All had symptom relief and significant reduction in hematoma size; no recurrences or procedure-related complications were observed 2).


Nakagawa et al., retrospectively assessed data from 381 consecutive patients who underwent burr hole irrigation for CSDH between 2009 and 2017. Recurrent symptomatic ipsilateral CSDH in 71 (18%) patients was treated by a second burr-hole irrigation and 20 of them had a further symptomatic CSDH recurrence thereafter. Those with persistent ipsilateral CSDH recurrence were treated by MMA embolization. Before the MMA embolization procedures, the amount of hematoma membrane enhancement determined using superselective MMA angiography-DynaCT imaging was classified into three stages.

Embolization of the MMA proceeded without perioperative complications or further CSDH recurrence. The interval between recurrence and the amount of hematoma membrane enhancement significantly correlated (first to second and second to third treatments: p = 0.012 and p = 0.017, respectively). The frequency of bilateral CSDH was significantly higher and the recurrence interval between the first and second treatments was significantly shorter in repeated recurrences group compared with recurrence group (p = 0.023 and p = 0.006, respectively).

Repeatedly recurrent CSDH can be safely treated and cured by MMA embolization. Hematoma membrane enhancement pattern using DynaCT images can predict repeated recurrences CSDH. 3)


Five patients with symptomatic chronic SDHs underwent MMA embolization using PVA microparticles. Size of SDH was recorded in maximum diameter and total volume.

Four patients underwent unilateral and 1 underwent bilateral MMA embolization successfully. All cases had significant reduction in total volume of SDH at longest follow-up scan: 81.4 to 13.8 cc (7 wk), 48.5 to 8.7 cc (3 wk), 31.7 and 88 to 0 and 17 cc (14 wk, bilateral), 79.3 to 24.2 cc (8 wk), and 53.5 to 0 cc (6 wk). All patients had symptomatic relief with no complications. Histologic analysis of the chronic SDH membrane in a separate patient that required surgery revealed rich neovascularization with many capillaries and few small arterioles.

MMA embolization could present a minimally invasive and low-risk initial treatment alternative to surgery for symptomatic chronic SDH when clinically appropriate 4).


MMA embolization was performed using angiography, selective microcatheterization of the MMA, and infusion of polyvinyl alcohol particles. Outcomes were assessed clinically and with interval imaging studies at 1 d, 2 wk, and 6 wk postprocedure, and additional intervals as indicated.

MMA embolization was performed successfully on 60 total SDHs in 49 patients. This includes upfront treatment for new (not previously treated) SDH in 42, for recurrence in 8, and prophylaxis (soon after surgical evacuation) in 10. There were 3 mortalities (unrelated to the procedure), and no procedural complications. Of the 50 nonprophylactic cases, there were 4 (8.9%) cases of recurrence requiring surgical evacuation, and 31 (68.9%) that had resolution or reduction in size >50% of SDH at longest follow-up. Overall, 41 (91.1%) were stable or decreased in size and able to avoid surgery.

MMA embolization may represent a minimally-invasive alternative to surgery for new or recurrent chronic SDH, or as prophylaxis to reduce the risk of recurrence after surgery. Given our encouraging results with a 91% long-term success rate, a large scale clinical trial is warranted 5).


Link TW, Schwarz JT, Paine SM, Kamel H, Knopman J. Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization for Recurrent Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Case Series. World Neurosurg. 2018 Oct;118:e570-e574. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.06.241. Epub 2018 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 30257310.


Five patients with symptomatic chronic SDHs underwent MMA embolization using PVA microparticles at our institution. Size of SDH was recorded in maximum diameter and total volume.

Four patients underwent unilateral and 1 underwent bilateral MMA embolization successfully. All cases had significant reduction in total volume of SDH at longest follow-up scan: 81.4 to 13.8 cc (7 wk), 48.5 to 8.7 cc (3 wk), 31.7 and 88 to 0 and 17 cc (14 wk, bilateral), 79.3 to 24.2 cc (8 wk), and 53.5 to 0 cc (6 wk). All patients had symptomatic relief with no complications. Histologic analysis of the chronic SDH membrane in a separate patient that required surgery revealed rich neovascularization with many capillaries and few small arterioles.

MMA embolization could present a minimally invasive and low-risk initial treatment alternative to surgery for symptomatic chronic SDH when clinically appropriate 6).


Seventy-two prospectively enrolled patients with CSDH underwent MMA embolization (embolization group; as the sole treatment in 27 [37.5%] asymptomatic patients and with additional hematoma removal for symptom relief in 45 [62.5%] symptomatic patients). For comparison, 469 patients who underwent conventional treatment were included as a historical control group (conventional treatment group; close, nonsurgical follow-up in 67 [14.3%] and hematoma removal in 402 [85.7%] patients). Primary outcome was treatment failure defined as a composite of incomplete hematoma resolution (remaining or reaccumulated hematoma with thickness > 10 mm) or surgical rescue (hematoma removal for relief of symptoms that developed with continuous growth of initial or reaccumulated hematoma). Secondary outcomes included surgical rescue as a component of the primary outcome and treatment-related complication for safety measure. Six-month outcomes were compared between the study groups with logistic regression analysis. Results Spontaneous hematoma resolution was achieved in all of 27 asymptomatic patients undergoing embolization without direct hematoma removal. Hematoma reaccumulation occurred in one (2.2%) of 45 symptomatic patients receiving embolization with additional hematoma removal. Treatment failure rate in the embolization group was lower than in the conventional treatment group (one of 72 patients [1.4%] vs 129 of 469 patients [27.5%], respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.056; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.011, 0.286; P = .001). Surgical rescue was less frequent in the embolization group (one of 72 patients [1.4%] vs 88 of 469 patients [18.8%]; adjusted OR, 0.094; 95% CI: 0.018, 0.488; P = .005). Treatment-related complication rate was not different between the two groups (0 of 72 patients vs 20 of 469 patients [4.3%]; adjusted OR, 0.145; 95% CI: 0.009, 2.469; P = .182). Conclusion MMA embolization has a positive therapeutic effect on CSDH and is more effective than conventional treatment 7).


Gobran Taha Alfotih reported 14 cases http://www.roneurosurgery.eu/atdoc/AlfotihGobran_Embolization.pdf

References

1)

Joyce E, Bounajem MT, Scoville J, Thomas AJ, Ogilvy CS, Riina HA, Tanweer O, Levy EI, Spiotta AM, Gross BA, Jankowitz BT, Cawley CM, Khalessi AA, Pandey AS, Ringer AJ, Hanel R, Ortiz RA, Langer D, Levitt MR, Binning M, Taussky P, Kan P, Grandhi R. Middle meningeal artery embolization treatment of nonacute subdural hematomas in the elderly: a multiinstitutional experience of 151 cases. Neurosurg Focus. 2020 Oct;49(4):E5. doi: 10.3171/2020.7.FOCUS20518. PMID: 33002874.
2)

Waqas M, Vakharia K, Weimer PV, Hashmi E, Davies JM, Siddiqui AH. Safety and Effectiveness of Embolization for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Systematic Review and Case Series. World Neurosurg. 2019 Mar 13. pii: S1878-8750(19)30678-3. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.208. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 30878752.
3)

Nakagawa I, Park HS, Kotsugi M, Wada T, Takeshima Y, Matsuda R, Nishimura F, Yamada S, Motoyama Y, Park YS, Kichikawa K, Nakase H. Enhanced hematoma membrane on DynaCT images during middle meningeal artery embolization for persistently recurrent chronic subdural hematoma. World Neurosurg. 2019 Feb 27. pii: S1878-8750(19)30485-1. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.074. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30825631.
4) , 6)

Link TW, Boddu S, Marcus J, Rapoport BI, Lavi E, Knopman J. Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization as Treatment for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Case Series. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 May 1;14(5):556-562. doi: 10.1093/ons/opx154. PubMed PMID: 28973653.
5)

Link TW, Boddu S, Paine SM, Kamel H, Knopman J. Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Series of 60 Cases. Neurosurgery. 2018 Nov 9. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyy521. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30418606.
7)

Ban SP, Hwang G, Byoun HS, Kim T, Lee SU, Bang JS, Han JH, Kim CY, Kwon OK, Oh CW. Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization for Chronic Subdural Hematoma. Radiology. 2018 Mar;286(3):992-999. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2017170053. Epub 2017 Oct 10. PubMed PMID: 29019449.

COVID-19 in chronic subdural hematoma

COVID-19 in chronic subdural hematoma

see also chronic subdural hematoma outcome.


Panciani et al. compared a cohort of COVID-19 chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) patients with historical series. Between May 2018 and September 2019, they operated 142 patients for CSDH and observed 5 deaths.

The mortality rate was 3.7% according to the literature 1).

They observed 4 death in 5 COVID-19 patients suffering from CSDH. Therefore, they observed a mortality rate of 80% about 21,6 times greater than the control data 2).

References

1)

Camel M, Grubb RL. Treatment of chronic subdural hematoma by twistdrill craniostomy with continuous catheter drainage. J Neurosurg. 1986;65(2): 183-187
2)

Panciani PP, Saraceno G, Zanin L, Renisi G, Signorini L, Fontanella MM. Letter: COVID-19 Infection Affects Surgical Outcome of Chronic Subdural Hematoma. Neurosurgery. 2020 Apr 18. pii: nyaa140. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyaa140. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 32304213.
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