2nd Erlangen Interdisciplinary Course for Microscopic and Endoscopic Surgery of the Anterior and Lateral Skull Base

2nd Erlangen Interdisciplinary Course for Microscopic and Endoscopic Surgery of the Anterior and Lateral Skull Base

Program

International course designed for residents in ENT and Neurosurgery as well as more advanced surgeons looking for recent developments in their field of expertise

Topics:

-> Anterior skull base: Endoscopic/open transfacial approaches to the anterior skull base; Endoscopic/open surgery of the orbita; Cavernous sinus surgery; Pituitary surgery
-> Lateral skull base: Mastoidectomy; Petrosectomy; Translabyrinthine/retrosigmoid/middle fossa approach;
-> Management of complications; Skull base reconstruction, Oncologic therapy concepts

Course Organisation:

Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Klinik,
Kopf- und Halschirurgie
Director: Prof. Dr. med. Heinrich Iro

Neurochirurgische Klinik
Director: Prof. Dr. med. Michael Buchfelder

Institut für Funktionelle und Klinische Anatomie
Associate Director: Prof. Dr. Lars Bräuer

Anterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy

Anterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy

Since the early 2000s, increasingly practical PECD techniques have been introduced because of advancements in working channel endoscope and surgical instrument technology 1) 2) 3) 4).

Anterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) is an effective minimally invasive surgery for soft cervical disc herniation in properly selected cases 5) 6).

The PECD prototype is fluoroscopically guided percutaneous cervical disc decompression without endoscopic visualization, such as automated nucleotomy 7) 8).

Randomized controlled trials

Ahn et al. compared the surgical results of PECD and ACDF. Data from patients treated with single-level PECD (n = 51) or ACDF (n = 64) were analyzed. Patients were prospectively entered into the clinical database and their records were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative data and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and modified Macnab criteriaVAS and NDI results significantly improved in both groups. The rates of excellent or good results were 88.24% and 90.63% in the PECD and ACDF group, respectively. The revision rates were 3.92% and 1.56% in the PECD and ACDF group, respectively. Operative time, hospital stay, and time to return to work were reduced in the PECD group compared to the ACDF group (p < 0.001). The five-year outcomes of PECD were comparable to those of conventional ACDF. PECD provided the typical benefits of minimally invasive surgery and may be an effective alternative for treating soft cervical disc herniation 9).


A total of 103 patients with ACDF or FACD were followed up for two years. In addition to general parameters specific measuring instruments were used. Postoperatively 85.9% of the patients no longer had arm pain, and 10.1% had occasional pain. There were no significant clinical differences between the decompression with or without fusion. The full-endoscopic technique afforded advantages in operation technique, rehabilitation and soft tissue injury. The recorded results show that FACD is a sufficient and safe alternative to conventional procedures when the indication criteria are fulfilled. At the same time, it offers the advantages of a minimally invasive intervention 10).

References

1)

Chiu, J.C.; Clifford, T.J.; Greenspan, M.; Richley, R.C.; Lohman, G.; Sison, R.B. Percutaneous microdecompressive endoscopic cervical discectomy with laser thermodiskoplasty. Mt. Sinai. J. Med. 2000, 67, 278–282.
2)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, S.C.; Shin, S.W.; Chung, S.E. Factors predicting excellent outcome of percutaneous cervical discectomy: analysis of 111 consecutive cases. Neuroradiology 2004, 46, 378–384.
3)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, S.W. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy: clinical outcome and radiographic changes. Photomed. Laser Surg. 2005, 23, 362–368.
4)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, S.H.; Chung, S.E.; Park, H.S.; Shin, S.W. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for discogenic cervical headache due to soft disc herniation. Neuroradiology 2005, 47, 924–930
5)

Lee, J.H.; Lee, S.H. Clinical and radiographic changes after percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy: a long‐term follow‐up. Photomed. Laser. Surg. 2014, 32, 663–668.
6)

Ahn, Y. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy using working channel endoscopes. Expert. Rev. Med. Devices 2016, 13, 601–610.
7)

Courtheoux, F.; Theron, J. Automated percutaneous nucleotomy in the treatment of cervicobrachial neuralgia due to disc herniation. J. Neuroradiol. 1992, 19, 211–216.
8)

Bonaldi, G.; Minonzio, G.; Belloni, G.; Dorizzi, A.; Fachinetti, P.; Marra, A.; Goddi, A. Percutaneous cervical diskectomy: preliminary experience. Neuroradiology 1994, 36, 483–486.
9)

Ahn Y, Keum HJ, Shin SH. Percutaneous Endoscopic Cervical Discectomy Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Comparative Cohort Study with a Five-Year Follow-Up. J Clin Med. 2020 Jan 29;9(2). pii: E371. doi: 10.3390/jcm9020371. PubMed PMID: 32013206.
10)

Ruetten S, Komp M, Merk H, Godolias G. Full-endoscopic anterior decompression versus conventional anterior decompression and fusion in cervical disc herniations. Int Orthop. 2009 Dec;33(6):1677-82. doi: 10.1007/s00264-008-0684-y. Epub 2008 Nov 18. PubMed PMID: 19015851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2899164.

Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Li et al. performed a study to explore the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) and determine which intervention is most suitable for such patients.

They searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 13.0 and RevMan 5.3.

Endoscopic surgery (ES), minimally invasive surgery combined with urokinase (MIS + UK), minimally invasive surgery combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (MIS + rt-PA), and craniotomy were associated with higher survival rates and a lower risk of intracranial rebleeding than standard medical care (SMC) in patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. The order from highest to lowest survival rate was ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from lowest to highest intracranial rebleeding risk was ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, MIS + rt-PA, and SMC. Additionally, compared with SMC, all four surgical interventions (ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, and craniotomy) improved the prognosis and reduced the proportion of patients with serious disability. The order from most to least favorable prognosis was MIS + rt-PA, ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from highest to lowest proportion of patients with serious disability was ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC.

This study revealed that the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions (ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy) were superior to those of SMC in the patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. Among them, ES was the most reasonable and effective intervention. ES was found not only to improve the survival rate and prognosis but also to have the lowest risk of intracranial rebleeding and the lowest proportion of patients with serious disability 1).


Some studies indicated that the endoscope-assisted keyhole approach might be an efficiency, safety, and minimal invasiveness surgical intervention for intracerebral hemorrhage 2) 3)

Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the full potential and limitations of this promising technique 4).

The residual hematoma cannot be measured intraoperatively from the endoscopic view, and it is difficult to determine the precise location of the endoscope within the hematoma cavity.

Use of ultrasound guidance minimized the occurrence of brain injury due to hematoma evacuation 5).

Case series

Among 35 patients with putaminal or subcortical hemorrhage that was evacuated endoscopically, 14 cases (40%) presented both findings of neurological grade IV for severity and hematoma volume exceeding 70 mL in the recent 3 years (endoscope group), whereas 8 cases with the same conditions were treated by conventional craniotomy for the preceding 3-year period (craniotomy group). Between these two groups, mean age was higher and duration of surgery was shorter in the endoscope group, but no significant differences in hematoma size or evacuation rate were recognized. In the 10 cases that presented with signs of cerebral herniation (neurological grade IVb) and required emergent decompression, the preparation time for surgery tended to be shorter in the endoscope group, although the difference was not significant. Additional ventricular drainage was performed in 7 cases and showed a supplemental effect of reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). Consequently, all patients in the endoscope group were rescued without decompressive large craniectomy, even with symptoms of cerebral herniation. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery has the potential to offer an effective therapeutic option for comatose patients with large supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhages, matching conventional craniotomy for emergent treatment in terms of mortality and management of ICP 6).

Case reports

A 47-year-old man was admitted sustaining 13 points in Glasgow coma scale with brain computed tomography (CT) scan showing a temporal contusion. Guided by a 3D reconstructed CT, using the program OsiriX®, the posterior limit of the hematoma was identified. A burr hole was placed at the posterior temporal region, and we used the neuroendoscope to assist the hematoma evacuation. The postoperative tomography showed adequate hematoma removal. He was discharged from hospital 48 h after surgery. Two weeks later, he was conscious and oriented temporally. This endoscopic-assisted technique can provide safe removal of traumatic hematomas of the temporal lobe 7).

References

1)

Li M, Mu F, Su D, Han Q, Guo Z, Chen T. Different surgical interventions for patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage: A network meta-analysis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2019 Nov 20;188:105617. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105617. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31775069.
2)

Nagasaka T, Tsugeno M, Ikeda H, Okamoto T, Inao S, Wakabayashi T. Early recovery and better evacuation rate in neuroendoscopic surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage using a multifunctional cannula: preliminary study in comparison with craniotomy. Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2011;20(3):208–213.
3)

Cho D-Y, Chen C-C, Chang C-S, Lee W-Y, Tso M. Endoscopic surgery for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage: comparing endoscopic surgery, stereotactic aspiration, and craniotomy in noncomatose patients. Surgical Neurology. 2006;65(6):547–555.
4)

Beynon C, Schiebel P, Bösel J, Unterberg AW, Orakcioglu B. Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery for treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haematomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2015 Jul;38(3):421-8; discussion 428. doi: 10.1007/s10143-015-0606-6. Epub 2015 Feb 17. PubMed PMID: 25687253.
5)

Sadahiro H, Nomura S, Goto H, Sugimoto K, Inamura A, Fujiyama Y, Yamane A, Oku T, Shinoyama M, Suzuki M. Real-time ultrasound-guided endoscopic surgery for putaminal hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jun 5:1-5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26047414.
6)

Yamashiro S, Hitoshi Y, Yoshida A, Kuratsu JI. Effectiveness of Endoscopic Surgery for Comatose Patients with Large Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhages. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2015 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26369719.
7)

Nascimento CN, Amorim RL, Mandel M, do Espírito Santo MP, Paiva WS, Andrade AF, Teixeira MJ. Endoscopic-assisted removal of traumatic brain hemorrhage: case report and technical note. J Surg Case Rep. 2015 Nov 3;2015(11). pii: rjv132. doi: 10.1093/jscr/rjv132. PubMed PMID: 26537390.

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