Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Li et al. performed a study to explore the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) and determine which intervention is most suitable for such patients.

They searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 13.0 and RevMan 5.3.

Endoscopic surgery (ES), minimally invasive surgery combined with urokinase (MIS + UK), minimally invasive surgery combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (MIS + rt-PA), and craniotomy were associated with higher survival rates and a lower risk of intracranial rebleeding than standard medical care (SMC) in patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. The order from highest to lowest survival rate was ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from lowest to highest intracranial rebleeding risk was ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, MIS + rt-PA, and SMC. Additionally, compared with SMC, all four surgical interventions (ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, and craniotomy) improved the prognosis and reduced the proportion of patients with serious disability. The order from most to least favorable prognosis was MIS + rt-PA, ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from highest to lowest proportion of patients with serious disability was ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC.

This study revealed that the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions (ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy) were superior to those of SMC in the patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. Among them, ES was the most reasonable and effective intervention. ES was found not only to improve the survival rate and prognosis but also to have the lowest risk of intracranial rebleeding and the lowest proportion of patients with serious disability 1).


Some studies indicated that the endoscope-assisted keyhole approach might be an efficiency, safety, and minimal invasiveness surgical intervention for intracerebral hemorrhage 2) 3)

Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the full potential and limitations of this promising technique 4).

The residual hematoma cannot be measured intraoperatively from the endoscopic view, and it is difficult to determine the precise location of the endoscope within the hematoma cavity.

Use of ultrasound guidance minimized the occurrence of brain injury due to hematoma evacuation 5).

Case series

Among 35 patients with putaminal or subcortical hemorrhage that was evacuated endoscopically, 14 cases (40%) presented both findings of neurological grade IV for severity and hematoma volume exceeding 70 mL in the recent 3 years (endoscope group), whereas 8 cases with the same conditions were treated by conventional craniotomy for the preceding 3-year period (craniotomy group). Between these two groups, mean age was higher and duration of surgery was shorter in the endoscope group, but no significant differences in hematoma size or evacuation rate were recognized. In the 10 cases that presented with signs of cerebral herniation (neurological grade IVb) and required emergent decompression, the preparation time for surgery tended to be shorter in the endoscope group, although the difference was not significant. Additional ventricular drainage was performed in 7 cases and showed a supplemental effect of reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). Consequently, all patients in the endoscope group were rescued without decompressive large craniectomy, even with symptoms of cerebral herniation. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery has the potential to offer an effective therapeutic option for comatose patients with large supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhages, matching conventional craniotomy for emergent treatment in terms of mortality and management of ICP 6).

Case reports

A 47-year-old man was admitted sustaining 13 points in Glasgow coma scale with brain computed tomography (CT) scan showing a temporal contusion. Guided by a 3D reconstructed CT, using the program OsiriX®, the posterior limit of the hematoma was identified. A burr hole was placed at the posterior temporal region, and we used the neuroendoscope to assist the hematoma evacuation. The postoperative tomography showed adequate hematoma removal. He was discharged from hospital 48 h after surgery. Two weeks later, he was conscious and oriented temporally. This endoscopic-assisted technique can provide safe removal of traumatic hematomas of the temporal lobe 7).

References

1)

Li M, Mu F, Su D, Han Q, Guo Z, Chen T. Different surgical interventions for patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage: A network meta-analysis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2019 Nov 20;188:105617. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105617. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31775069.
2)

Nagasaka T, Tsugeno M, Ikeda H, Okamoto T, Inao S, Wakabayashi T. Early recovery and better evacuation rate in neuroendoscopic surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage using a multifunctional cannula: preliminary study in comparison with craniotomy. Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2011;20(3):208–213.
3)

Cho D-Y, Chen C-C, Chang C-S, Lee W-Y, Tso M. Endoscopic surgery for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage: comparing endoscopic surgery, stereotactic aspiration, and craniotomy in noncomatose patients. Surgical Neurology. 2006;65(6):547–555.
4)

Beynon C, Schiebel P, Bösel J, Unterberg AW, Orakcioglu B. Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery for treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haematomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2015 Jul;38(3):421-8; discussion 428. doi: 10.1007/s10143-015-0606-6. Epub 2015 Feb 17. PubMed PMID: 25687253.
5)

Sadahiro H, Nomura S, Goto H, Sugimoto K, Inamura A, Fujiyama Y, Yamane A, Oku T, Shinoyama M, Suzuki M. Real-time ultrasound-guided endoscopic surgery for putaminal hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jun 5:1-5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26047414.
6)

Yamashiro S, Hitoshi Y, Yoshida A, Kuratsu JI. Effectiveness of Endoscopic Surgery for Comatose Patients with Large Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhages. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2015 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26369719.
7)

Nascimento CN, Amorim RL, Mandel M, do Espírito Santo MP, Paiva WS, Andrade AF, Teixeira MJ. Endoscopic-assisted removal of traumatic brain hemorrhage: case report and technical note. J Surg Case Rep. 2015 Nov 3;2015(11). pii: rjv132. doi: 10.1093/jscr/rjv132. PubMed PMID: 26537390.

Pediatric Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery

Pediatric Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery

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List Price: $129.99

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The definitive state-of-the-art resource on pediatric endoscopic endonasal approaches

Today, expanded endonasal approaches (EEA) have revolutionized the surgical treatment paradigm for pediatric central skull base lesions. Specially adapted micro-instruments have been developed to permit passage through the narrow sinonasal pathways in children, enabling access to the entire midline skull base, from the crista galli to the cervico-medullary junction.

Pediatric Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery by Harminder Singh, Jeffrey Greenfield, Vijay Anand, and Theodore Schwartz is the first textbook focused solely on endoscopic endonasal management of cranial base pathologies in children. The book reflects in-depth expertise from an extraordinary group of international contributors from five continents, who share extensive knowledge on this emerging field. Thirty chapters are presented in three comprehensive sections.

Key Features

Core topics including anatomy, rhinological and anesthetic considerations, patient positioning and OR set-up, instrumentation, and endonasal corridors and approaches

Fifteen chapters detail endoscopic treatment of a full spectrum of pediatric pathologies, such as craniopharyngioma, meningoencephalocele, basilar invagination, and benign and malignant tumors, among others

Discussion of multiple skull-base closure techniques, managing complications, and neurosurgical and otolaryngological postoperative care

Visually rich, the succinct text is enhanced with 500 high-quality surgical illustrations and intraoperative photographs, as well as procedural videos

This unique reference is essential reading for neurosurgical and otolaryngology residents and fellows, as well as veteran surgeons, nurse-practitioners, and physician-assistants who treat and care for pediatric patients with skull-base conditions.

This book includes complimentary access to a digital copy on https://medone.thieme.com.

Endoscopic Endonasal Odontoidectomy

Endoscopic Endonasal Odontoidectomy

Supported by preliminary anatomical and clinical studies exploring the feasibility and usefulness of approaching many ventral pathologies of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) using the endoscopic endonasal approach, four European centers joined forces to accumulate and share their growing surgical experience of this advanced technique. By describing the steps that led to the development and continuous refinement of this approach to the CCJ, a article delves deeply into an analysis of the cases operated on since 2010 at these four institutions, and discusses in detail the operative nuances that so far have allowed achievement of successful outcomes with excellent perioperative patient comfort and satisfactory long-term quality of life 1).


The gold-standard surgical approach to the odontoid process is via a transoral approach. This approach necessitates opening of the oropharynx and is associated with risks of infection, and swallowing and breathing complications. The endoscopic endonasal approach has the potential to reduce these complications as the oral cavity is avoided.

Transoral microscopic odontoidectomy followed by posterior fixation has been accepted as a standard procedure to treat nonreducible basilar invagination during the half past century. In recent years, the development of endoscopic techniques has raised challenges regarding the traditional treatment algorithm. The endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy is a feasible and effective method in the treatment of irreducible ventral cervicomedullary junction compression, which has several advantages over the transoral approach. The endoscopic odontoidectomy includes transnasal, transoral, and transcervical approaches. The 3 different approaches for endoscopic odontoidectomy present complementary advantages and limitations. The necessity of posterior fixation after odontoidectomy should be considered in every single case on the basis of the peculiar anatomic and clinical conditions 2).

Neuroanatomy and Technique

Case series

Case reports

Videos

References

1)

Chibbaro S, Ganau M, Cebula H, Nannavecchia B, Todeschi J, Romano A, Debry C, Proust F, Olivi A, Gaillard S, Visocchi M. The Endonasal Endoscopic Approach to Pathologies of the Anterior Craniocervical Junction: Analytical Review of Cases Treated at Four European Neurosurgical Centres. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2019;125:187-195. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_28. PubMed PMID: 30610322.
2)

Yu Y, Hu F, Zhang X, Sun C. Endoscopic Transnasal Odontoidectomy. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2016 Mar;24(1):2-6. doi: 10.1097/JSA.0000000000000081. PubMed PMID: 26752771.
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