Pneumocephalus clinical features

Pneumocephalus clinical features

Pneumocephalus may be a causative factor for post-craniotomy pain and headache with surgical injuries 1).


Clinical presentation includes headaches in 38 %, nausea and vomitingseizures, hemiparesisdizzinessobtundation and depressed neurological status 2).


An intracranial succussion splash is a rare (occurring in ≈ 7%) but pathognomonic finding. Tension pneumocephalus may additionally cause signs and symptoms just as any mass (may cause focal deficit or increased ICP).

A minority of patients describe ‘bruit hydro-aerique’ (a splashing noise on head movement, equivalent to the succussion splash of pyloric stenosis) 3).

This noise may also be audible to the examiner with the aid of a stethoscope.


Patients often report sounds in the head after craniotomy.

In a prospective observational study of patients undergoing craniotomy with dural opening. Eligible patients completed a questionnaire preoperatively and daily after surgery until discharge. Subjects were followed up at 14 days with a telephone consultation.

One hundred fifty-one patients with various pathologies were included. Of these, 47 (31 %) reported hearing sounds in their head, lasting an average 4-6 days (median, 4 days, mean, 6 days, range, 1-14 days). The peak onset was the first postoperative day and the most commonly used descriptors were ‘clicking’ [20/47 (43 %)] and ‘fluid moving’ in the head [9/47 (19 %)]. A significant proportion (42 %, 32/77) without a wound drainage experienced intracranial sounds compared to those with a drain (20 %, 15/74, p < 0.01); there was no difference between suction and gravity drains. Approximately a third of the patients in both groups (post-craniotomy sounds group: 36 %, 17/47; group not reporting sounds: 31 %, 32/104), had postoperative CT scans for unrelated reasons: 73 % (8/11) of those with pneumocephalus experienced intracranial sounds, compared to 24 % (9/38) of those without pneumocephalus (p < 0.01). There was no significant association with craniotomy site or size, temporal bone drilling, bone flap replacement, or filling of the surgical cavity with fluid.

Sounds in the head after cranial surgery are common, affecting 31 % of patients. This is the first study into this subject, and provides valuable information useful for consenting patients. The data suggest pneumocephalus as a plausible explanation with which to reassure patients, rather than relying on anecdotal evidence, as has been the case to date 4).


Rapid neurologic deterioration following craniofacial resection may be caused by the development of tension pneumocephalus 5).


1)

Kim TK, Yoon JR, Kim YS, Choi Y, Han S, Jung J, Park IS. Pneumocephalus and headache following craniotomy during the immediate postoperative period. BMC Surg. 2022 Jun 29;22(1):252. doi: 10.1186/s12893-022-01701-0. PMID: 35768812.
2)

Markham JW. The clinical features of pneumocephalus based upon a survey of 284 cases with report of 11 additional cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1967;16(1):1-78. PubMed PMID: 6032371.
3)

Zasler ND, Katz DI, Zafonte RD. Brain Injury Medicine, Principles And Practice. Demos Medical Publishing. (2007) ISBN:1888799935.
4)

Sivasubramaniam V, Alg VS, Frantzias J, Acharya SY, Papadopoulos MC, Martin AJ. ‘Noises in the head’: a prospective study to characterize intracranial sounds after cranial surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2016 Aug;158(8):1429-35. doi: 10.1007/s00701-016-2872-7. Epub 2016 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 27328839.
5)

Yates H, Hamill M, Borel CO, Toung TJ. Incidence and perioperative management of tension pneumocephalus following craniofacial resection. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1994 Jan;6(1):15-20. PubMed PMID: 8298259.

Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula clinical features

Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula clinical features

Clinical features of DAVF vary depending on their location, arterial supply, degree of arteriovenousshunting, and most importantly, their venous drainage pattern 1) 2) 3) 4)

DAVF lacking cortical vein drainage (CVD) may be asymptomatic, or present with symptoms related to increased dural sinus blood flow, such as pulsatile tinnitus, the latter particularly common for transverse sinus and sigmoid sinuses lesions.

Generalized central nervous system symptoms that may be related to venous hypertension or cerebrospinal fluid malabsorption, while resulting cranial nerve palsy, are often because of an arterial steal phenomenon or occasionally mass effect from an enlarged arterial feeder.

In addition, cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula may present with orbital symptoms, including chemosisproptosisophthalmoplegia, and decreased visual acuity.

DAVF with CVD typically have more aggressive clinical presentations, including the sudden onset of severe headacheseizures, nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND), and intracranial hemorrhage, including intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, and subdural hematoma.

In a meta-analysis, Lasjaunias et al 5) reviewed 195 cases of DAVF and found that focal neurological deficits were related to the presence of associated cortical venous drainage (CVD) and venous congestion in the affected vascular territory. Less common aggressive presentations include brain stem or cerebellar dysfunction secondary to venous congestion, parkinsonism-like symptoms, extra-axial hemorrhage in the cervical spine, as well as cervical and upper thoracic myelopathy.

DAVF with extensive arteriovenous shunting, particularly in the setting of dural sinus thrombosis, can result in impaired venous drainage from the brain and the global venous hypertension. This can lead to cerebral edema, encephalopathy, and cognitive decline 6).


Pulsatile tinnitus is the most common presenting symptom of a DAVF. Cortical venous drainage with resultant venous hypertension can produce intracranial hypertension, and this is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality and thus the strongest indication for Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula treatment.

DAVFs may also cause global cerebral edema or hydrocephalus due to poor cerebral venous drainage or by impairing the function of the arachnoid granulations, respectively. Other DAVF symptoms/signs include headaches, seizures, cranial nerve palsies, and orbital venous congestion.


Leptomeningeal venous drainage can lead to venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage.

The majority of patients presented with non-aggressive symptoms. 18% presented with intracranial hemorrhage: all the hemorrhages occurred in high-grade DAVFs 7).

see Dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as an acute subdural hemorrhage.


Only 4 cases of DAVF causing syncope have been reported, all in combination with other neurological symptoms. In comparison, they report a unique case of DAVF presenting solely with recurrent syncope, a previously undocumented finding in the literature. The case adds to other reports of nonspecific DAVF presentations and highlights the importance of considering this etiology 8).


1)

Gandhi D, Chen J, Pearl M, Huang J, Gemmete JJ, Kathuria S.Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: classification, imaging findings, and treatment.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012; 33:1007–1013. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A2798.
2)

Sarma D, ter Brugge K.Management of intracranial dural arteriovenous shunts in adults.Eur J Radiol. 2003; 46:206–220.
3)

Houser OW, Campbell JK, Campbell RJ, Sundt TMArteriovenous malformation affecting the transverse dural venous sinus–an acquired lesion.Mayo Clin Proc. 1979; 54:651–661.
4) , 5)

Lasjaunias P, Chiu M, ter Brugge K, Tolia A, Hurth M, Bernstein M.Neurological manifestations of intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations.J Neurosurg. 1986; 64:724–730. doi: 10.3171/jns.1986.64.5.0724.
6)

Miller TR, Gandhi D. Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae: Clinical Presentation and Management Strategies. Stroke. 2015 Jul;46(7):2017-25. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.008228. Epub 2015 May 21. PMID: 25999384.
7)

Signorelli, F. et al. Diagnosis and management of dural arteriovenous fistulas: A 10 years single-center experience Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery , Volume 128 , 123 – 129
8)

Sheinberg DL, Luther E, Chen S, McCarthy D, Starke RM. Recurrent Syncope Caused by a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Neurologist. 2021 Mar 4;26(2):62-65. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0000000000000322. PMID: 33646991.

Intracranial arachnoid cyst clinical features

Intracranial arachnoid cyst clinical features

Most of the intracranial arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic and are detected as incidental findings on Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the head carried out for other reasons.

Those that become symptomatic usually do so in early childhood 1).

The presentation varies with the location of the cyst, and oftentimes appear mild considering the large size of some.

Typical presentations include:

1. symptoms of intracranial hypertension (elevated ICP): H/A, nausea/vomitinglethargy

2. seizures

3. sudden deterioration:

a) due to hemorrhage (into a cyst or subdural compartment): middle fossa cysts are notorious for hemorrhage due to tearing of bridging veins. Some sports organizations do not allow participation in contact sports for these patients

b) due to rupture of the cyst

4. as a focal protrusion of the skull

5. with focal signs/symptoms of a space-occupying lesion

6. incidental finding discovered during evaluation for an unrelated condition

7. suprasellar arachnoid cysts may additionally present with:

a) hydrocephalus (probably due to compression of the third ventricle)

b) endocrine symptoms: occurs in up to 60%. Includes precocious puberty

c) head bobbing (the so-called “bobble-head doll syndrome”): considered suggestive of suprasellar cysts, but occurs in as few as 10%

d) visual impairment.

Cognitive dysfunction

The patients with arachnoid cysts presented with cognitive dysfunction compared to the normal population which improved after surgical decompression. Arachnoid cysts should not be considered asymptomatic unless thoroughly evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological workup 2).

Epilepsy

Sudden deterioration

Due to hemorrhage into cyst or subdural hematoma.see Subdural hematoma and arachnoid cyst

Due to cyst rupture.

There are multiple case reports of arachnoid cysts becoming symptomatic with hemorrhagic complications following head trauma. In such cases, the bleeding is often confined to the side ipsilateral to the arachnoid cyst. Occurrence of contralateral subdural hematomas in patients with temporal fossa arachnoid cysts has rarely been observed and is reported less frequently in the medical literature 3).


Usually they remain stable in size and are asymptomatic, however, a few cysts contain remnants of the choroid plexus or arachnoid granulations leading to secretion of CSF resulting in an increase in size with time. These cases may present with features of compression of adjacent structures (Kallmann syndrome, precocious puberty, bitemporal hemianopia in suprasellar lesions, cranial nerve palsies etc.) and/or raised intracranial pressure due to their large size or hemorrhage. Spontaneous hemorrhage is supposed to be due to a minor trauma with rupture of intracystic or bridging vessels 4) 5).

References

1)

Harsh GR 4th, Edwards MS, Wilson CB. Intracranial arachnoid cysts in children. J Neurosurg. 1986 Jun;64(6):835-42. PubMed PMID: 3701434.
2)

Agopian-Dahlenmark L, Mathiesen T, Bergendal Å. Cognitive dysfunction and subjective symptoms in patients with arachnoid cyst before and after surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2020 Jan 20. doi: 10.1007/s00701-020-04225-9. [Epub ahead of print] Erratum in: Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2020 Jan 29;:. PubMed PMID: 31960141.
3)

Pillai P, Menon SK, Manjooran RP, Kariyattil R, Pillai AB, Panikar D. Temporal fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with bilateral subdural hematoma following trauma: two case reports. J Med Case Rep. 2009 Feb 9;3:53. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-3-53. PubMed PMID: 19203370; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2646743.
4)

Ide C, Coene BD, Gilliard C, et al. Hemorrhagic arachnoid cyst with third nerve paresis: CT and MR findings. Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18:1407–10.
5)

Gunduz B, Yassa MIK, Ofluoglu E, et al. Two cases of arachnoid cyst complicated by spontaneous intracystic hemorrhage. Neurology India. 2010;58:312–15.
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