Subgaleal drain for chronic subdural hematoma

Subgaleal drain for chronic subdural hematoma

Subgaleal drainage system is relatively less invasive, safe, and technically easy. So it is applicable for aged and higher risk patients 1).

Subgaleal suction drain was found to be an effective and safe method in the study of Yadav et al., for chronic subdural hematoma surgery 2).

It significantly reduced the incidence of recurrence. Similar observations were made in the study of Gazzeri et al. 3)

They placed the tip of suction drain on burr hole which can assist in continuous evacuation of hematoma or collected air.

Yadav et al., placed suction tip away from burr hole site which could avoid accidental slippage of tip in subdural space. Subgaleal drainage could avoid the risk of an acute hemorrhage from neo membrane injury which may occur during introduction and the removal of a subdural drain. It also reduces chances of brain parenchymal injury especially after suction drain 4).

A major complication of intracerebral hemorrhage could be due to a blind placement of the subdural drain.

There is a report of one acute SDH after subgaleal drain 5).

The subgaleal drain reduced the chances of significant pneumocephalus in the study of Yadav et al. 6).

The placement of subgaleal suction catheter could prevent the collection of subdural air, thus minimizing the risk of recurrence 7).

Postoperative infection in the subgaleal space has also been reported after subgaleal drainage 8).


A total of 763 patients with surgically evacuated unilateral CSDH were included for analysis. The recurrence rate was 14% while 12% of patients died during follow-up (1 year). In a association model, hematoma size, drain type, drainage time, presence of complications, and Glasgow Coma Score were significantly associated to recurrence. Subdural drain was associated with a lower recurrence risk than subgaleal drain. The preoperative model included hematoma size, hematoma density, and history of hypertension. The postoperative model included further drain type, drainage time, and surgical complications.

The nomograms allow easy assessment of the recurrence risk for the individual patient, providing a better possibility for individual adjustment of treatment and follow-up. The predictive performance indicates that significant unaccounted or unknown factors still remain. The association test found passive subdural drain superior to passive subgaleal drain in minimizing the risk of CSDH recurrence 9).

References

1)

Oral S, Borklu RE, Kucuk A, Ulutabanca H, Selcuklu A. Comparison of subgaleal and subdural closed drainage system in the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. North Clin Istanb. 2015 Sep 26;2(2):115-121. doi: 10.14744/nci.2015.06977. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 28058351; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5175088.
2) , 6)

Yadav YR, Parihar V, Chourasia ID, Bajaj J, Namdev H. The role of subgaleal suction drain placement in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Asian J Neurosurg. 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):214-8. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.145096. PubMed PMID: 27366247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4849289.
3) , 5) , 7) , 8)

Gazzeri R, Galarza M, Neroni M, Canova A, Refice GM, Esposito S. Continuous subgaleal suction drainage for the treatment of chronic subdural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149(5):487-93; discussion 493. Epub 2007 Mar 28. PubMed PMID: 17387427.
4)

Choudhury AR. Avoidable factors that contribute to complications in the surgical treatment of chronic subdural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1994;129(1-2):15-9. PubMed PMID: 7998490.
9)

Andersen-Ranberg NC, Debrabant B, Poulsen FR, Bergholt B, Hundsholt T, Fugleholm K. The Danish chronic subdural hematoma study-predicting recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 May;161(5):885-894. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03858-9. Epub 2019 Mar 26. PubMed PMID: 30915574.

Supratentorial Epidural Hematoma after Posterior Fossa Surgery

Supratentorial Epidural Hematoma after Posterior Fossa Surgery

Non-traumatic, non-arterial origin delayed Epidural Hematoma after posterior fossa surgery is extremely rare. Moreover, the pathogenesis of its supratentorial extension is obscure.

The possible causes include sudden decompression of ventricular pressure in the supratentorial compartment, rupture of cortical veins in the sitting positioncoagulopathy, hemodynamic fluctuations during surgery, and position-related ischemia 1).

The lowering of the ventricular pressure by the ventricular tapduring the operation may play significant role in the formation of the extradural hematoma.

The younger age of the cases and the long history of increased intracranial pressure were stressed in the literature2).

Wolfsberger et al., stressed the importance of early postoperative CT scan and optimal management of ventricular pressure and coagulation status to detect and prevent this possibly life-threatening complication 3).

Avci et al., from Mersin, reported a case during removal of a huge Posterior fossa dermoid cyst 4).

Pandey et al., from Bangalore reported in 2008 a large bifrontal extradural hematoma following posterior fossa surgery for a vermian medulloblastoma5).

Tsugane et al., reported five cases of the supratentorial extradural hematomas secondary to the posterior fossa craniectomy.

The site of the hematoma was far from the operative field and two cases showed acute course and three were rather mild. The symptoms of this complication were the unsuspected sensorium disturbance, anisocoria and the non-functioning ventricular drainage. Two cases died of this complication and two were severely disabled 6).

Multiple Supratentorial Epidural Hematomas

Tyagi et al., from Bangalore published Multiple Remote Sequential Supratentorial Epidural Hematoma7).

Wolfsberger et al., from Vienna published a 31-year-old female who presented with a history of chronic hydrocephalus due to fourth-ventricular plexus papilloma. Following resection of the posterior fossa tumor with intraoperative placement of a ventricular drainage, she consecutively developed four supratentorial epidural haematomas at different locations, all necessitating evacuation. The clinical manifestations ranged from subtle neurological deficits to signs of tentorial herniation; the ultimate outcome was complete recovery. Rapid tapering of CSF pressure after long-standing hydrocephalus and clotting disorders could be implicated as causative factors. They stressed the importance of early postoperative CT scan and optimal management of ventricular pressure and coagulation status to detect and prevent this possibly life-threatening complication 8).

References

1) , 5)

Pandey P, Madhugiri VS, Sattur MG, Devi B I. Remote supratentorial extradural hematoma following posterior fossa surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008 Jul;24(7):851-4. doi: 10.1007/s00381-007-0573-5. Epub 2008 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 18236051.
2) , 6)

Tsugane R, Sugita K, Sato O. [Supratentorial extradural hematomas following posterior fossa craniectomy (author’s transl)]. No Shinkei Geka. 1976 Apr;4(4):401-3. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 944882.
3) , 8)

Wolfsberger S, Gruber A, Czech T. Multiple supratentorial epidural haematomas after posterior fossa surgery. Neurosurg Rev. 2004 Apr;27(2):128-32. Epub 2003 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 14652780.
4)

Avci E, Dagtekin A, Baysal Z, Karabag H. Intraoperative supratentorial epidural haematoma during removal of a huge posterior fossa dermoid cyst. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2010 Nov-Dec;44(6):609-13. PubMed PMID: 21225525.
7)

Tyagi G, Bhat DI, Indira Devi B, Shukla D. “Multiple Remote Sequential Supratentorial Epidural Hematomas – An Unusual and Rare Complication Following Posterior Fossa Surgery”. World Neurosurg. 2019 May 6. pii: S1878-8750(19)31225-2. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.228. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31071445.

Temporal epidural hematoma surgical technique

Temporal epidural hematoma surgical technique

Surgical safety checklist

Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis

Skin Preparation

Positioning

The supine position is used with the patient‘s head rotated for temporal access. Extremes of head rotation can obstruct the jugular venous drainage, and a shoulder roll can combat this problem or lateral positioning (park bench position).

Skin incision

Craniotomy

Technical issues

1. clot removal: lowers ICP and eliminates focal mass effect. Blood is usually thick coagulum, thus exposure must provide access to most of clot. Craniotomy permits more complete evacuation of hematoma than e.g. burr holes.

2. hemostasis:coagulate bleeding soft tissue (dural veins & arteries). Apply bone wax to intradiploic bleeders (e.g. middle meningeal artery). Also requires large exposure

3. prevent reaccumulation: (some bleeding may recur, and dura is now detached from inner table) place dural tack-up sutures to edges of craniotomy and use central “tenting” suture.

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