Chronic subdural hematoma recurrence

Chronic subdural hematoma recurrence

Epidemiology

In 2 large cohorts of US patients, approximately 5% to 10% of patients who underwent surgery for nontraumatic SDH were required to undergo repeated operation within 30 to 90 days. These results may inform the design of future prospective studies and trials and help practitioners calibrate their index of suspicion to ensure that patients are referred for timely surgical care 1).

Recurrence rates after chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) evacuation with any of actual techniques twist drillcraniostomy (TDC), burr hole craniostomy, craniotomy range from 5% to 30%. 2).

Risk factors

In the series of Santos et al. it was possible to demonstrate an age-related protective factor, analyzed as a continuous variable, regarding the recurrence of the chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), with a lower rate of recurrence the higher the age.

The results indicate that, among possible factors associated with recurrence, only age presented a protective factor with statistical significance. The fact that no significant difference between the patients submitted to trepanning or craniotomy was found favors the preferential use of burr-hole surgery as a procedure of choice due to its fast and less complex execution 3).

In the series of Han et al. independent risk factors for recurrence were as follows: age > 75 years (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03-2.88; p = 0.039), obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2), and a bilateral operation 4).

Chon et al. shown that postoperative midline shifting (≥5 mm), diabetes mellitus, preoperative seizure, preoperative width of hematoma (≥20 mm), and anticoagulant therapy were independent predictors of the recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma.

According to internal architecture of hematoma, the rate of recurrence was significantly lower in the homogeneous and the trabecular type than the laminar and separated type 5).


The recurrence rate of chronic subdural hematoma cSDH seems to be related to the excessive neoangiogenesis in the parietal membrane, which is mediated via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This is found to be elevated in the hematoma fluid and is dependent on eicosanoid/prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis via cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).

Anticoagulant therapy

Antiplatelet therapy

Antiplatelet therapy significantly influences the recurrence of CSDH 6).

Pneumocephalus

Remaining pneumocephalus is seen as an approved factor of recurrence 7) 8).

Septation

Jack et al.found a 12% reoperation rate. CSDH septation (seen on computed tomogram scan) was found to be an independent risk factor for recurrence requiring reoperation (p=0.04). Larger post-operative subdural haematoma volume was also significantly associated with requiring a second drainage procedure (p<0.001). Independent risk factors of larger post-operative haematoma volume included septations within a CSDH (p<0.01), increased pre-operative haematoma volume (p<0.01), and a greater amount of parenchymal atrophy (p=0.04). A simple scoring system for quantifying recurrence risk was created and validated based on patient age (< or ≥80 years), haematoma volume (< or ≥160cc), and presence of septations within the subdural collection (yes or no).

Septations within CSDHs are associated with larger post-operative residual haematoma collections requiring repeat drainage. When septations are clearly visible within a CSDH, craniotomy might be more suitable as a primary procedure as it allows greater access to a septated subdural collection. The proposed scoring system combining haematoma volume, age, and presence of septations might be useful in identifying patients at higher risk for recurrence 9).

Membranectomy

Opening the internal hematoma membrane does not alter the rate of patients requiring revision surgery and the number of patients showing a marked residual hematoma six weeks after evacuation of a CSDH 10).

In the study of Lee et al, an extended surgical approach with partial membranectomy has no advantages regarding the rate of reoperation and the outcome. As initial treatment, burr-hole drainage with irrigation of the hematoma cavity and closed-system drainage is recommended. Extended craniotomy with membranectomy is now reserved for instances of acute rebleeding with solid hematoma 11).

Diabetes

Surgeons should consider informing patients with diabetes mellitus that this comorbidity is associated with an increased likelihood of recurrence

12) 13) 14).


Balser et al. report 11% recurrence, which included individuals who recurred as late as 3 years after initial diagnosis 15).

Close imaging follow-up is important for CSDH patients for recurrence prediction. Using quantitative CT volumetric analysis, strong evidence was provided that changes in the residual fluid volume during the ‘self-resolution’ period can be used as significantly radiological predictors of recurrence 16).

A structural equation model showed a significant association between increased antiinflammatory activity in hematoma fluid samples and a lower risk of recurrence, but this relationship was not statistically significant in venous blood samples. Moreover, these findings indicate that anti-inflammatory activities in the hematoma may play a role in the risk of a recurrence of CSDH 17).

Irrigation with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACF) decreased the rate of CSDH recurrence 18).

Treatment

There is no definite operative procedure for patients with intractable chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).

Most recurrent hematomas are managed successfully with burr hole craniostomies with postoperative closed-system drainage. Refractory hematomas may be managed with a variety of techniques, including craniotomy or subdural-peritoneal shunt placement 19).

Although many studies have reported risk factors or treatments in efforts to prevent recurrence, those have focused on single recurrence, and little cumulative data is available to analyze refractory CSDH.

Matsumoto et al. defined refractory CSDH as ≥2 recurrences, then analyzed and compared clinical factors between patients with single recurrence and those with refractory CSDH in a cohort study, to clarify whether patients with refractory CSDH experience different or more risk factors than patients with single recurrence, and whether burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage reduces refractory CSDH.

Seventy-five patients had at least one recurrence, with single recurrence in 62 patients and ≥2 recurrences in 13 patients. In comparing clinical characteristics, patients with refractory CSDH were significantly younger (P=0.04) and showed shorter interval to first recurrence (P<0.001). Organized CSDH was also significantly associated with refractory CSDH (P=0.02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified first recurrence interval <1 month (OR 6.66, P<0.001) and age <71 years (OR 4.16, P<0.001) as independent risk factors for refractory CSDH. On the other hand, burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage did not reduce refractory CSDH.

When patients with risk factors for refractory CSDH experience recurrence, alternative surgical procedures may be considered as the second surgery, because burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage did not reduce refractory CSDH 20).

Implantation of a reservoir 21) 22) 23).

Subdural-peritoneal shunt 24).

Middle meningeal artery embolization

Embolization of the MMA is effective for refractory CSDH or CSDH patients with a risk of recurrence, and is considered an effective therapeutic method to stop hematoma enlargement and promote resolution 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30).

A pilot study indicated that perioperative middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization could be offered as the least invasive and most effectual means of treatment for resistant patients of CSDHs with 1 or more recurrences 31).

Chihara et al. have treated three cases of CSDH with MMA embolization to date, but there was a postoperative recurrence in one patient, which required a craniotomy for hematoma removal and capsulectomy. MMA embolization blocks the blood supply from the dura to the hematoma outer membrane in order to prevent recurrences of refractory CSDH. Histopathologic examination of the outer membrane of the hematoma excised during craniotomy showed foreign-body giant cells and neovascular proliferation associated with embolization. Because part of the hematoma was organized in this case, the CSDH did not resolve when the MMA was occluded, and the development of new collateral pathways in the hematoma outer membrane probably contributed to the recurrence. Therefore, in CSDH with some organized hematoma, MMA embolization may not be effective. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed in these patients before embolization 32).

Case series

Case reports

References

1)

Knopman J, Link TW, Navi BB, Murthy SB, Merkler AE, Kamel H. Rates of Repeated Operation for Isolated Subdural Hematoma Among Older Adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2018 Oct 5;1(6):e183737. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3737. PubMed PMID: 30646255.
2)

Escosa Baé M, Wessling H, Salca HC, de Las Heras Echeverría P. Use of twist-drill craniostomy with drain in evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas: independent predictors of recurrence. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 May;153(5):1097-103. doi: 10.1007/s00701-010-0903-3. Epub 2010 Dec 31. PubMed PMID: 21193935.
3)

Santos RGD, Xander PAW, Rodrigues LHDS, Costa GHFD, Veiga JCE, Aguiar GB. Analysis of predisposing factors for chronic subdural hematoma recurrence. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2019 Jul 22;65(6):834-838. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.65.6.834. PubMed PMID: 31340313.
4)

Han MH, Ryu JI, Kim CH, Kim JM, Cheong JH, Yi HJ. Predictive factors for recurrence and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg. 2017 Nov;127(5):1117-1125. doi: 10.3171/2016.8.JNS16867. Epub 2016 Dec 16. PubMed PMID: 27982768.
5)

Chon KH, Lee JM, Koh EJ, Choi HY. Independent predictors for recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012 Sep;154(9):1541-8. doi: 10.1007/s00701-012-1399-9. Epub 2012 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 22653496.
6)

Wada M, Yamakami I, Higuchi Y, Tanaka M, Suda S, Ono J, Saeki N. Influence of antiplatelet therapy on postoperative recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma: a multicenter retrospective study in 719 patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014 May;120:49-54. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.02.007. Epub 2014 Feb 24. PubMed PMID: 24731576.
7)

Mori K, Maeda M (2001) Surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma in 500 consecutive cases: clinical characteristics, surgical outcome, complications, and recurrence rate. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 41:371–381
8)

Stanišić M, Hald J, Rasmussen IA, Pripp AH, Ivanović J, Kolstad F, Sundseth J, Züchner M, Lindegaard KF (2013) Volume and densities of chronic subdural haematoma obtained from CT imaging as predictors of postoperative recurrence: a prospective study of 107 operated patients. Acta Neurochir 155:323–333
9)

Jack A, O’Kelly C, McDougall C, Max Findlay J. Predicting Recurrence after Chronic Subdural Haematoma Drainage. Can J Neurol Sci. 2015 Jan 5:1-6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25557536.
10)

Unterhofer C, Freyschlag CF, Thomé C, Ortler M. Opening the Internal Hematoma Membrane does not Alter the Recurrence Rate of Chronic Subdural Hematomas – A Prospective Randomized Trial. World Neurosurg. 2016 May 2. pii: S1878-8750(16)30210-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.04.081. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27150644.
11)

Lee JY, Ebel H, Ernestus RI, Klug N. Various surgical treatments of chronic subdural hematoma and outcome in 172 patients: is membranectomy necessary? Surg Neurol. 2004 Jun;61(6):523-7; discussion 527-8. PubMed PMID: 15165784.
12)

Matsumoto K, Akagi K, Abekura M, Ryujin H, Ohkawa M, Iwasa N, Akiyama C. Recurrence factors for chronic subdural hematomas after burr-hole craniostomy and closed system drainage. Neurol Res. 1999 Apr;21(3):277-80. PubMed PMID: 10319336.
13)

Yamamoto H, Hirashima Y, Hamada H, Hayashi N, Origasa H, Endo S. Independent predictors of recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma: results of multivariate analysis performed using a logistic regression model. J Neurosurg. 2003 Jun;98(6):1217-21. PubMed PMID: 12816267.
14)

Pang CH, Lee SE, Kim CH, Kim JE, Kang HS, Park CK, Paek SH, Kim CH, Jahng TA, Kim JW, Kim YH, Kim DG, Chung CK, Jung HW, Yoo H. Acute intracranial bleeding and recurrence after bur hole craniostomy for chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jul;123(1):65-74. doi: 10.3171/2014.12.JNS141189. Epub 2015 Feb 13. PubMed PMID: 25679282.
15)

Balser D, Rodgers SD, Johnson B, Shi C, Tabak E, Samadani U. Evolving management of symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma: experience of a single institution and review of the literature. Neurol Res. 2013 Apr;35(3):233-42. doi: 10.1179/1743132813Y.0000000166. Review. PubMed PMID: 23485050.
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Xu FF, Chen JH, Leung GK, Hao SY, Xu L, Hou ZG, Mao X, Shi GZ, Li JS, Liu BY. Quantitative computer tomography analysis of post-operative subdural fluid volume predicts recurrence of chronic subdural haematoma. Brain Inj. 2014;28(8):1121-6. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2014.910702. Epub 2014 May 6. PubMed PMID: 24801643.
17)

Pripp AH, Stanišić M. The Correlation between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in Chronic Subdural Hematoma Patients Assessed with Factor Analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 27;9(2):e90149. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090149. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24587250.
18)

Adachi A, Higuchi Y, Fujikawa A, Machida T, Sueyoshi S, Harigaya K, Ono J, Saeki N. Risk factors in chronic subdural hematoma: comparison of irrigation with artificial cerebrospinal fluid and normal saline in a cohort analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 4;9(8):e103703. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103703. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25089621; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4121178.
19)

Desai VR, Scranton RA, Britz GW. Management of Recurrent Subdural Hematomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2017 Apr;28(2):279-286. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2016.11.010. Epub 2017 Jan 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 28325462.
20)

Matsumoto H, Hanayama H, Okada T, Sakurai Y, Minami H, Masuda A, Tominaga S, Miyaji K, Yamaura I, Yoshida Y, Yoshida K. Clinical investigation of refractory chronic subdural hematoma: a comparison of clinical factors between single and repeated recurrences. World Neurosurg. 2017 Aug 24. pii: S1878-8750(17)31402-X. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.08.101. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28844917.
21)

Sato M, Iwatsuki K, Akiyama C, Masana Y, Yoshimine T, Hayakawa T. [Use of Ommaya CSF reservoir for refractory chronic subdural hematoma]. No Shinkei Geka. 1999 Apr;27(4):323-8. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 10347846.
22)

Sato M, Iwatsuki K, Akiyama C, Kumura E, Yoshimine T. Implantation of a reservoir for refractory chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurgery. 2001 Jun;48(6):1297-301. PubMed PMID: 11383733.
23)

Laumer R. Implantation of a reservoir for refractory chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurgery. 2002 Mar;50(3):672. PubMed PMID: 11841742.
24)

Misra M, Salazar JL, Bloom DM. Subdural-peritoneal shunt: treatment for bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. Surg Neurol. 1996 Oct;46(4):378-83. PubMed PMID: 8876720.
25)

Mandai S, Sakurai M, Matsumoto Y. Middle meningeal artery embolization for refractory chronic subdural hematoma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2000 Oct;93(4):686-8. PubMed PMID: 11014549.
26)

Takahashi K, Muraoka K, Sugiura T, Maeda Y, Mandai S, Gohda Y, Kawauchi M, Matsumoto Y. [Middle meningeal artery embolization for refractory chronic subdural hematoma: 3 case reports]. No Shinkei Geka. 2002 May;30(5):535-9. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 11993178.
27)

Hirai S, Ono J, Odaki M, Serizawa T, Nagano O. Embolization of the Middle Meningeal Artery for Refractory Chronic Subdural Haematoma. Usefulness for Patients under Anticoagulant Therapy. Interv Neuroradiol. 2004 Dec 24;10 Suppl 2:101-4. Epub 2008 May 15. PubMed PMID: 20587257; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3522210.
28)

Tsukamoto Y, Oishi M, Shinbo J, Fujii Y. Transarterial embolisation for refractory bilateral chronic subdural hematomas in a case with dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 May;153(5):1145-7. doi: 10.1007/s00701-010-0891-3. Epub 2010 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 21125409.
29)

Mino M, Nishimura S, Hori E, Kohama M, Yonezawa S, Midorikawa H, Kaimori M, Tanaka T, Nishijima M. Efficacy of middle meningeal artery embolization in the treatment of refractory chronic subdural hematoma. Surg Neurol Int. 2010 Dec 13;1:78. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.73801. PubMed PMID: 21206540; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3011107.
30)

Hashimoto T, Ohashi T, Watanabe D, Koyama S, Namatame H, Izawa H, Haraoka R, Okada H, Ichimasu N, Akimoto J, Haraoka J. Usefulness of embolization of the middle meningeal artery for refractory chronic subdural hematomas. Surg Neurol Int. 2013 Aug 19;4:104. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.116679. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24032079; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3766342.
31)

Kim E. Embolization Therapy for Refractory Hemorrhage in Patients with Chronic Subdural Hematomas. World Neurosurg. 2017 May;101:520-527. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.02.070. Epub 2017 Feb 27. PubMed PMID: 28249828.
32)

Chihara H, Imamura H, Ogura T, Adachi H, Imai Y, Sakai N. Recurrence of a Refractory Chronic Subdural Hematoma after Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization That Required Craniotomy. NMC Case Rep J. 2014 May 9;1(1):1-5. doi: 10.2176/nmccrj.2013-0343. eCollection 2014 Oct. PubMed PMID: 28663942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5364934.

Pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma outcome

Pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma outcome

Regardless of the intracranial epidural hematoma size, the clinical status of the patients, the abnormal pupillary findings, or the cause of injury, the outcome and prognosis of the pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma are excellent 1).

Mortality can be significantly reduced with gratifying results if operated early. Best motor response at presentation, pupillary abnormalities, time between injury to surgery, and location of hematoma have been identified as the important factors determining outcome in patients of EDH2) 3) 4) 5).

Binder et al., found that immediate as well as delayed surgical evacuation of EDH resulted in excellent outcomes in most cases. Conservative treatment was started in 76% of our cases – however needing in 35% delayed surgical intervention. Overall in all groups excellent final clinical and neurological outcomes could be reached 6).

Of all laboratory data obtained on admission, the blood potassiumpH and glucose test results correlated significantly with prognosis. Prognosis can be adequately and expeditiously estimated by selected markers within a comprehensive evaluation of children with AEH 7).

References

1)

Gerlach R, Dittrich S, Schneider W, Ackermann H, Seifert V, Kieslich M. Traumatic epidural hematomas in children and adolescents: outcome analysis in 39 consecutive unselected cases. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Mar;25(3):164-9. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31819a8966. PubMed PMID: 19262419.
2)

Faheem M, Jaiswal M, Ojha BK, Chandra A, Singh SK, Srivastava C. Traumatic Pediatric Extradural Hematoma: An Institutional Study of 228 Patients in Tertiary Care Center. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2019 Jul 9:1-8. doi: 10.1159/000501043. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31288223.
3)

Umerani MS, Abbas A, Aziz F, Shahid R, Ali F, Rizvi RK. Pediatric Extradural Hematoma: Clinical Assessment Using King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):681-684. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_164_16. PubMed PMID: 30283526; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6159040.
4)

Erşahin Y, Mutluer S, Güzelbag E. Extradural hematoma: analysis of 146 cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 1993 Apr;9(2):96-9. PubMed PMID: 8319240.
5)

Paşaoğlu A, Orhon C, Koç K, Selçuklu A, Akdemir H, Uzunoğlu H. Traumatic extradural haematomas in pediatric age group. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1990;106(3-4):136-9. PubMed PMID: 2284988.
6)

Binder H, Majdan M, Tiefenboeck TM, Fochtmann A, Michel M, Hajdu S, Mauritz W, Leitgeb J. Management and outcome of traumatic epidural hematoma in 41 infants and children from a single center. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2016 Oct;102(6):769-74. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2016.06.003. Epub 2016 Sep 9. PubMed PMID: 27622712.
7)

Ben Abraham R, Lahat E, Sheinman G, Feldman Z, Barzilai A, Harel R, Barzilay Z, Paret G. Metabolic and clinical markers of prognosis in the era of CT imaging in children with acute epidural hematomas. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000 Aug;33(2):70-5. PubMed PMID: 11070432.

Subgaleal drain for chronic subdural hematoma

Subgaleal drain for chronic subdural hematoma

Subgaleal drainage system is relatively less invasive, safe, and technically easy. So it is applicable for aged and higher risk patients 1).

Subgaleal suction drain was found to be an effective and safe method in the study of Yadav et al., for chronic subdural hematoma surgery 2).

It significantly reduced the incidence of recurrence. Similar observations were made in the study of Gazzeri et al. 3)

They placed the tip of suction drain on burr hole which can assist in continuous evacuation of hematoma or collected air.

Yadav et al., placed suction tip away from burr hole site which could avoid accidental slippage of tip in subdural space. Subgaleal drainage could avoid the risk of an acute hemorrhage from neo membrane injury which may occur during introduction and the removal of a subdural drain. It also reduces chances of brain parenchymal injury especially after suction drain 4).

A major complication of intracerebral hemorrhage could be due to a blind placement of the subdural drain.

There is a report of one acute SDH after subgaleal drain 5).

The subgaleal drain reduced the chances of significant pneumocephalus in the study of Yadav et al. 6).

The placement of subgaleal suction catheter could prevent the collection of subdural air, thus minimizing the risk of recurrence 7).

Postoperative infection in the subgaleal space has also been reported after subgaleal drainage 8).


A total of 763 patients with surgically evacuated unilateral CSDH were included for analysis. The recurrence rate was 14% while 12% of patients died during follow-up (1 year). In a association model, hematoma size, drain type, drainage time, presence of complications, and Glasgow Coma Score were significantly associated to recurrence. Subdural drain was associated with a lower recurrence risk than subgaleal drain. The preoperative model included hematoma size, hematoma density, and history of hypertension. The postoperative model included further drain type, drainage time, and surgical complications.

The nomograms allow easy assessment of the recurrence risk for the individual patient, providing a better possibility for individual adjustment of treatment and follow-up. The predictive performance indicates that significant unaccounted or unknown factors still remain. The association test found passive subdural drain superior to passive subgaleal drain in minimizing the risk of CSDH recurrence 9).

References

1)

Oral S, Borklu RE, Kucuk A, Ulutabanca H, Selcuklu A. Comparison of subgaleal and subdural closed drainage system in the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. North Clin Istanb. 2015 Sep 26;2(2):115-121. doi: 10.14744/nci.2015.06977. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 28058351; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5175088.
2) , 6)

Yadav YR, Parihar V, Chourasia ID, Bajaj J, Namdev H. The role of subgaleal suction drain placement in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Asian J Neurosurg. 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):214-8. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.145096. PubMed PMID: 27366247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4849289.
3) , 5) , 7) , 8)

Gazzeri R, Galarza M, Neroni M, Canova A, Refice GM, Esposito S. Continuous subgaleal suction drainage for the treatment of chronic subdural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149(5):487-93; discussion 493. Epub 2007 Mar 28. PubMed PMID: 17387427.
4)

Choudhury AR. Avoidable factors that contribute to complications in the surgical treatment of chronic subdural haematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1994;129(1-2):15-9. PubMed PMID: 7998490.
9)

Andersen-Ranberg NC, Debrabant B, Poulsen FR, Bergholt B, Hundsholt T, Fugleholm K. The Danish chronic subdural hematoma study-predicting recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 May;161(5):885-894. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03858-9. Epub 2019 Mar 26. PubMed PMID: 30915574.
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