Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)
The ODI is a 10-item score from 0 to 100 that encompasses limitations in activity, sleeping, social life, work, and personal care resulting from low back pain. Higher scores indicate more severe disability.
The current version was published in the journal Spine in 2000 2).
The completion of this 10-question survey can be cumbersome. Tools from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) are an alternative, and potentially more efficient, means of assessing physical, mental, and social outcomes in spine surgery 3).
The patient questionnaire contains topics concerning the intensity of pain, lifting, ability to care for oneself, ability to walk, ability to sit, sexual function, ability to stand, social life, sleep quality, and ability to travel.
Each topic category is followed by 6 statements describing different potential scenarios in the patient’s life relating to the topic. The patient then checks the statement which most closely resembles their situation. Each question is scored on a scale of 0-5 with the first statement being zero and indicating the least amount of disability and the last statement is scored 5 indicating a most severe disability. The index is scored from 0 to 100. Zero is equated with no disability and 100 being a maximum disability.
0% to 20%: Minimal disability
21%-40%: Moderate Disability
41%-60%: Severe Disability
61%-80%: Crippling back pain
81%-100%: These patients are either bed-bound or have an exaggeration of their symptoms.
The Dutch ODI version 2.1a is a valid and valuable tool for the measurement of functional status and disability among Dutch patients with chronic low back pain. This translated condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure version is recommended for use in future back pain research and to evaluate outcome of back care in the Netherlands 4).