Intracranial cavernous malformation surgery

Intracranial cavernous malformation surgery

Indications

Indications for surgery for intracranial cavernous malformation:

1. accessible lesions with

a) Focal neurologic signs

b) or symptomatic hemorrhage

c) or seizures:

● new onset seizures: there is a suggestion that removing CMs before “kindling” occurs may have a better chance of preventing future seizures.

● difficult to manage seizures

2. less accessible lesions that repeatedly bleed with progressive neurologic deterioration may be considered for excision, even in delicate regions such as the brainstem 1) 2) 3).

Surgical technique

Goal of surgery: complete removal of the malformation. Since CMs are not particularly bloody, piecemeal excision is an option; especially important in brainstem lesions.

Stereotactic localization or intraoperative ultrasound may be particularly helpful in localizing. When operating on CMs that have bled, one usually encounters a cavity containing the CM and blood degradation products 4).

Initial dissection is directed at separating the lesion from the adjacent brain. Although bleeding is usually not a problem, it occasionally may be brisk if the CM is entered before the dissection and devascularization is complete. Once the dissection is complete, the contents of the CM capsule may be removed piecemeal to minimize the parenchymal opening (especially important in the brainstem). For supratentorial CMs presenting with seizures, it is desirable to also remove the hemosiderin-stained brain immediately surrounding the CM. Keep in mind the relatively common association of CMs with venous angiomas, which if encountered should not be removed as they represent the venous drainage of the area.


Eichberg et al., reviewed a single institution’s transcortical-transtubular intracranial cavernous malformation resections using either BrainPath endoport system (NICO, Indianapolis, Indiana) or ViewSite Brain Access System (Vycor Medical, Boca Raton, Florida) tubular retractors performed from 2013 to 2018 (n = 20).

Gross total resection was achieved in all patients. When a developmental venous anomaly (DVA) was present, avoidance of DVA resection was achieved in all cases (n = 4). All patients had a supratentorial cavernoma with mean depth below cortical surface of 44.1 mm. Average postoperative clinical follow-up was 20.4 wk. Early neurologic deficit rate was 10% (n = 2); permanent neurologic deficit rate was 0%. One patient (5%) experienced early postoperative seizures (< 1 wk postop). No patients experienced late seizures (> 1 wk follow-up). Engel class 1 seizure control at final clinical follow-up was achieved in 87.5% of patients presenting with preoperative epilepsy.

Tubular retractors provide a low-profile, minimally invasive operative corridor for resection of subcortical cavernomas. There were no permanent neurologic complications in the series of 20 cases, and long-term seizure control was achieved in all patients. Thus, tubular retractors appear to be a safe and efficacious tool for resection of subcortical cavernomas 5).

Controversies

An online survey composed of 61 items was sent to 26 centers to establish a multicenter international retrospective cohort of adult patients who underwent a surgical resection as the first-line treatment of a supratentorial cavernous angioma located within or close to eloquent brain area.

272 patients from 19 centers (mean 13.6 ± 16.7 per center) from eight countries were included. The pre-operative management varied significantly between centers and countries regarding the pre-operative functional assessment, the pre-operative epileptological assessment, the first given antiepileptic drug, and the time to surgery. The intra-operative environment varied significantly between centers and countries regarding the use of imaging systems, the use of functional mapping with direct electrostimulations, the extent of resection of the hemosiderin rim, the realization of a post-operative functional assessment, and the time to post-operative functional assessment. The present survey found a post-operative improvement, as compared to pre-operative evaluations, of the functional status, the ability to work, and the seizure control.

They observed a variety of practice between centers and countries regarding the management of cavernous angioma located within eloquentregions. Multicentric prospective studies are required to solve relevant questions regarding the management of cavernous angioma-related seizures, the timing of surgery, and the optimal extent of hemosiderin rim resection 6).


Meta-analysis and subgroup analyses were conducted to compare extended lesionectomy with lesionectomy. Pooled analysis demonstrated that seizure outcome was not statistically significantly improved in patients who underwent extended lesionectomy compared with lesionectomy (OR 0.77; 95% CI [0.39-1.51]; P=0.44; I2=15%).

Extended lesionectomy cannot contribute to better seizure control for CCMs with epilepsy. Resection of lesion and surrounding hemosiderin is sufficient for CCMs presenting with epilepsy 7).

References

1)

Bicknell JM. Familial Cavernous Angioma of the Brain Stem Dominantly Inherited in Hispanics. Neurosurgery. 1989; 24:102–105
2)

Ondra SL, Doty JR, Mahla ME, et al. Surgical Excision of a Cavernous Hemangioma of the Rostral Brain Stem: Case Report. Neurosurgery. 1988; 23:490–493
3)

Zimmerman RS, Spetzler RF, Lee KS, Zabramski JM, et al. Cavernous Malformations of the Brain Stem. J Neurosurg. 1991; 75:32–39
4)

Wascher TM, Spetzler RF, Carter LP, Spetzler RF, Hamilton MG. In: Cavernous malformations of the brain stem. Neurovascular Surgery. New York: McGraw -Hill; 1995:541–555
5)

Eichberg DG, Di L, Shah AH, Ivan ME, Komotar RJ, Starke RM. Use of Tubular Retractors for Minimally Invasive Resection of Deep-Seated Cavernomas. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Jul 13. pii: opz184. doi: 10.1093/ons/opz184. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31301143.
6)

Zanello M, Meyer B, Still M, Goodden JR, Colle H, Schichor C, Bello L, Wager M, Smits A, Rydenhag B, Tate M, Metellus P, Hamer PW, Spena G, Capelle L, Mandonnet E, Robles SG, Sarubbo S, Martino González J, Fontaine D, Reyns N, Krieg SM, Huberfeld G, Wostrack M, Colle D, Robert E, Noens B, Muller P, Yusupov N, Rossi M, Conti Nibali M, Papagno C, Visser V, Baaijen H, Galbarritu L, Chioffi F, Bucheli C, Roux A, Dezamis E, Duffau H, Pallud J. Surgical resection of cavernous angioma located within eloquent brain areas: International survey of the practical management among 19 specialized centers. Seizure. 2019 Mar 28;69:31-40. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2019.03.022. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30959423.
7)

Shang-Guan HC, Wu ZY, Yao PS, Chen GR, Zheng SF, Kang DZ. Does extended lesionectomy need to cerebral cavernous malformations presenting with epilepsy? A meta-analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018 Sep 6. pii: S1878-8750(18)31994-6. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.08.208. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30196170.

Pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma outcome

Pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma outcome

Regardless of the intracranial epidural hematoma size, the clinical status of the patients, the abnormal pupillary findings, or the cause of injury, the outcome and prognosis of the pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma are excellent 1).

Mortality can be significantly reduced with gratifying results if operated early. Best motor response at presentation, pupillary abnormalities, time between injury to surgery, and location of hematoma have been identified as the important factors determining outcome in patients of EDH2) 3) 4) 5).

Binder et al., found that immediate as well as delayed surgical evacuation of EDH resulted in excellent outcomes in most cases. Conservative treatment was started in 76% of our cases – however needing in 35% delayed surgical intervention. Overall in all groups excellent final clinical and neurological outcomes could be reached 6).

Of all laboratory data obtained on admission, the blood potassiumpH and glucose test results correlated significantly with prognosis. Prognosis can be adequately and expeditiously estimated by selected markers within a comprehensive evaluation of children with AEH 7).

References

1)

Gerlach R, Dittrich S, Schneider W, Ackermann H, Seifert V, Kieslich M. Traumatic epidural hematomas in children and adolescents: outcome analysis in 39 consecutive unselected cases. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Mar;25(3):164-9. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31819a8966. PubMed PMID: 19262419.
2)

Faheem M, Jaiswal M, Ojha BK, Chandra A, Singh SK, Srivastava C. Traumatic Pediatric Extradural Hematoma: An Institutional Study of 228 Patients in Tertiary Care Center. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2019 Jul 9:1-8. doi: 10.1159/000501043. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31288223.
3)

Umerani MS, Abbas A, Aziz F, Shahid R, Ali F, Rizvi RK. Pediatric Extradural Hematoma: Clinical Assessment Using King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):681-684. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_164_16. PubMed PMID: 30283526; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6159040.
4)

Erşahin Y, Mutluer S, Güzelbag E. Extradural hematoma: analysis of 146 cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 1993 Apr;9(2):96-9. PubMed PMID: 8319240.
5)

Paşaoğlu A, Orhon C, Koç K, Selçuklu A, Akdemir H, Uzunoğlu H. Traumatic extradural haematomas in pediatric age group. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1990;106(3-4):136-9. PubMed PMID: 2284988.
6)

Binder H, Majdan M, Tiefenboeck TM, Fochtmann A, Michel M, Hajdu S, Mauritz W, Leitgeb J. Management and outcome of traumatic epidural hematoma in 41 infants and children from a single center. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2016 Oct;102(6):769-74. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2016.06.003. Epub 2016 Sep 9. PubMed PMID: 27622712.
7)

Ben Abraham R, Lahat E, Sheinman G, Feldman Z, Barzilai A, Harel R, Barzilay Z, Paret G. Metabolic and clinical markers of prognosis in the era of CT imaging in children with acute epidural hematomas. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000 Aug;33(2):70-5. PubMed PMID: 11070432.

Non small cell lung cancer intracranial metastases radiosurgery

Non small cell lung cancer intracranial metastases radiosurgery

Multisession radiosurgery (M-GKS) may be an effective alternative for large brain metastases from Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Specifically, severe radiation induced toxicity (≥ grade 3) did not occur in M-GKS for large-volume metastases. Although the long-term effects and results from larger samples remain unclear, M-GKS may be a suitable palliative treatment for preserving neurological function 1).

Traditionally, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the cornerstone of Non small cell lung cancer intracranial metastases treatment, but its indication is a matter of debate. A randomized trial has shown that for patients with a poor prognosis, WBRT does not add quality of life (QoL) nor survival over the best supportive care. In recent decades, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become an attractive non-invasive treatment for patients with BM. Only the BM is irradiated to an ablative dose, sparing healthy brain tissue. Intracranial recurrence rates decrease when WBRT is administered following SRS or resection but does not improve overall survival and comes at the expense of neurocognitive function and QoL. The downside of SRS compared with WBRT is a risk of radionecrosis (RN) and a higher risk of developing new BM during follow-up. Currently, SRS is an established treatment for patients with a maximum of four BM. Several promising strategies are currently being investigated to further improve the indication and outcome of SRS for patients with BM: the effectivity and safety of SRS in patients with more than four BM, combining SRS with systemic therapy such as targeted agents or immunotherapy, shared decision-making with SRS as a treatment option, and individualized isotoxic dose prescription to mitigate the risk of RN and further enhance local control probability of SRS.

The review of Hartgerink et al., discusses the current indications of SRS and future directions of treatment for patients with BM of NSCLC with focus on the value of SRS 2).


Radiosurgery for multiple BMs is controversial, yet patients with EGFR Non small cell lung cancer intracranial metastases and Anaplastic lymphoma kinase non small cell lung cancer may be uniquely suited to benefit from this approach. These results support single and multiple courses of radiosurgery without WBRT for patients with oncogene-addicted NSCLC with four or more BMs 3).

References

1)

Park K, Kim JW, Chung HT, Paek SH, Kim DG. Single-Session versus Multisession Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Large Brain Metastases from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2019 May 22:1-7. doi: 10.1159/000496154. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31117101.
2)

Hartgerink D, van der Heijden B, De Ruysscher D, Postma A, Ackermans L, Hoeben A, Anten M, Lambin P, Terhaag K, Jochems A, Dekker A, Schoenmaekers J, Hendriks L, Zindler J. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Management of Patients With Brain Metastases of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Indications, Decision Tools and Future Directions. Front Oncol. 2018 May 9;8:154. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2018.00154. eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 29868476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5954030.
3)

Robin TP, Camidge DR, Stuhr K, Nath SK, Breeze RE, Pacheco JM, Liu AK, Gaspar LE, Purcell WT, Doebele RC, Kavanagh BD, Rusthoven CG. Excellent Outcomes with Radiosurgery for Multiple Brain Metastases in ALK and EGFR Driven Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2018 May;13(5):715-720. doi: 10.1016/j.jtho.2017.12.006. Epub 2017 Dec 19. PubMed PMID: 29269007.
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