Vagal Nerve Schwannoma

Vagal Nerve Schwannoma

Epidemiology

Schwannoma arising from the vagus nerve is an uncommon (2–5%) benign nerve tumour.

Vagal Nerve Schwannomas are usually confined to the retrostyloid parapharyngeal space, although patients with schwannomas that extend into the posterior cranial fossa through the jugular foramen have been reported


Schwannomas arising from the vagus nerve are extremely rare in children, with only 16 cases reported in the world literature 1).

Clinical features

They usually presents as an asymptomatic slow growing mass 2).

Most cases of schwannomas manifest between the third and sixth decades of the patient’s life as a slow growing firm, painless mass in the lateral neck. Hoarseness, pain, or cough may be the presenting complaints. They displace the carotid arteries anteriorly and medially, jugular vein laterally and posteriorly. These swellings are mobile transversely but not vertically 3).

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and confirmation obtained by means of surgical pathology.

Differential diagnosis

Schwannomas of the vagus nerve must be differentiated from the carotid body and glomus vagale tumors because the distinction may influence treatment planning.

Treatment

Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for vagal schwannoma, with recurrence being rare.


Intermittent intraoperative neuromonitoring via selective stimulation of splayed motor fibers running on the schwannoma surface to elicit a compound muscle action potential has been previously reported as a method of preserving vagal motor fibers.

In a case report, vagal sensory fibers were mapped and continuously monitored intraoperatively during high vagus schwannoma resection using the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). Mapping of nerve fibers on the schwannoma surface enabled identification of sensory fibers. Continuous LAR monitoring during schwannoma subcapsular microsurgical dissection enabled sensory (and motor) vagal fibers to be monitored in real time with excellent postoperative functional outcomes 4).

Outcome

Nerve damage during surgical resection is associated with significant morbidity 5).

This tumour most often presents as a slow growing asymptomatic solitary neck mass, which rarely undergoes malignant transformation.

Literature review

In a comprehensive literature review on 197 articles reporting 235 cases of cervical vagal schwannomas. Presenting symptoms, treatment approach, and postoperative outcomes were recorded and analyzed.

Vagal schwannomas commonly present as asymptomatic neck masses. When they become symptomatic, surgical resection is the standard of care. Gross total resection is associated with higher postoperative morbidity compared to subtotal resection. Initial reports using intraoperative nerve monitoring have shown improved nerve preservation. Recurrence rates are low.

The combination of intermittent nerve mapping with novel continuous vagal nerve monitoring techniques may reduce postoperative morbidity and could represent the future standard of care for vagal schwannoma treatment 6).

Case series

Case series of three patients who underwent vagal schwannoma excision utilizing a IONM technique. The recurrent laryngeal and vagus nerves were monitored via the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) using an electromyographic endotracheal tube.

Three patients with suspected vagal schwannomas were treated surgically using the intracapsular enucleation approach with a combination of intermittent IONM and continuous IONM of the LAR.

This combination of continuous and intermittent IONM can be used to preserve vagal laryngeal innervation and function and may represent the future standard of care for vagal schwannoma excision 7).


Green et al. reported 36 of these rare neoplasms in 35 patients. The majority of the tumors presented as a mass in the upper cervical or parapharyngeal region. Usually the mass was asymptomatic. The following types and frequencies of neoplasms of the vagus nerve were noted: paragangliomas, 50%; neurilemmomas, 31%; neurofibromas, 14%; and neurofibrosarcomas, 6%. Surgical resection, with preservation of the vagus nerve when possible, is the treatment of choice. The clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of the tumors are presented. Special problems that occur with vagal neoplasms include postoperative dysfunction, catecholamine secretion, and intracranial or skull-base extension 8).

Case reports

In a case report, vagal sensory fibers were mapped and continuously monitored intraoperatively during high vagus schwannoma resection using the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). Mapping of nerve fibers on the schwannoma surface enabled identification of sensory fibers. Continuous LAR monitoring during schwannoma subcapsular microsurgical dissection enabled sensory (and motor) vagal fibers to be monitored in real time with excellent postoperative functional outcomes 9).


Keshelava et al. operated one patient for cervical schwannoma causing internal carotid artery (ICA) compression.

The patient underwent en bloc excision via transcervical approach under general anesthesia. Pathological examination demonstrated the diagnosis of schwannoma.

This case shows that VNS can cause ICA compression and therefore brain ischemia 10).


Schwam et al. reported a purely intracranial vagal schwannoma 11).

2018

A 60-year-old female patient was seen at our service for a slow-growing, 9 × 6 cm left-sided cystic neck mass. Preoperative clinical and computed tomography evaluation suggested a diagnosis of a lateral neck cyst. The surgical exploration through the lateral cervicotomy revealed a large cystic mass and clearly identified that the tumor was originating from the left vagal nerve. The histopathologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Although uncommon, vagal schwannoma with pronounced cystic component should be included in the differential diagnosis of the cystic neck swellings 12).


A 55-year-old woman who presented to the clinic complaining of throat irritation and feeling of something stuck in her throat for the past three months. On examination, a bulging left parapharyngeal mass was noted, displacing the left tonsil and uvula medially. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck showed a large, hypervascular soft tissue mass with splaying of the left internal carotid artery. Intraoperatively, the tumor was found to be arising from the vagus nerve. Macroscopic surgical pathology examination showed a tan-red, ovoid, and firm mass. Histopathology showed a benign spindle cell tumor with Antoni A areas with palisading cell nuclei and some degenerative change, confirming the diagnosis of vagus nerve schwannoma. CONCLUSIONS Vagus nerve schwannomas should be distinguished from other tumors that arise in the neck before planning surgery, to minimize the risk of nerve injury. Physicians need to be aware of the differential diagnosis of a neck mass, investigations required, the surgical treatment and the potential postoperative complications 13).


Sreevatsa et al. described three cases of schwannoma involving the vagus who presented differently to our unit during past 5 years 14).


A large vagal neurilemmoma in a 33-year-old man is reported. He complained of slowly progressive palsy of the tongue on the left side. Weakness of soft palate movement was also noted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumour in the left parapharyngeal space with partial extension to the posterior cranial fossa through the jugular foramen. Carotid angiography revealed avascularity of the tumour and anterior shift of the left internal carotid artery. The venous phase showed no blood flow in the internal jugular vein. The tumour was successfully extirpated via a transmandibular transpterygoid approach. Although vagus nerve dysfunction was not observed pre-operatively, the tumour was identified as a neurilemmoma arising from the vagus nerve. The surgical approach should be selected according to the lesion in individual patients. Since neurilemmoma is benign in nature, minimal post-operative sequelae should be expected 15).

References

1)

Mierzwiński J, Wrukowska I, Tyra J, Paczkowski D, Szcześniak T, Haber K. Diagnosis and management of pediatric cervical vagal schwannoma. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 Nov;114:9-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.08.021. Epub 2018 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 30262374.
2) , 13)

Ramdass AA, Yao M, Natarajan S, Bakshi PK. A Rare Case of Vagus Nerve Schwannoma Presenting as a Neck Mass. Am J Case Rep. 2017 Aug 21;18:908-911. PubMed PMID: 28824161; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5574523.
4) , 9)

Sinclair CF, Téllez MJ, Sánchez Roldán MA, Urken M, Ulkatan S. Intraoperative mapping and monitoring of sensory vagal fibers during vagal schwannoma resection. Laryngoscope. 2019 Dec;129(12):E434-E436. doi: 10.1002/lary.28147. Epub 2019 Jun 18. PubMed PMID: 31211430.
5) , 7)

Sandler ML, Sims JR, Sinclair C, Ho R, Yue LE, Téllez MJ, Ulkatan S, Khorsandi AS, Brandwein-Weber M, Urken ML. A novel approach to neurologic function sparing surgical management of vagal schwannomas: Continuous intraoperative nerve monitoring of the laryngeal adductor reflex. Head Neck. 2019 Sep;41(9):E146-E152. doi: 10.1002/hed.25793. Epub 2019 May 6. PubMed PMID: 31058386.
6)

Sandler ML, Sims JR, Sinclair C, Sharif KF, Ho R, Yue LE, Téllez MJ, Ulkatan S, Khorsandi AS, Brandwein-Weber M, Urken ML. Vagal schwannomas of the head and neck: A comprehensive review and a novel approach to preserving vocal cord innervation and function. Head Neck. 2019 Jul;41(7):2450-2466. doi: 10.1002/hed.25758. Epub 2019 Apr 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 30957342.
8)

Green JD Jr, Olsen KD, DeSanto LW, Scheithauer BW. Neoplasms of the vagus nerve. Laryngoscope. 1988 Jun;98(6 Pt 1):648-54. PubMed PMID: 2836676.
10)

Keshelava G, Robakidze Z. Cervical Vagal Schwannoma Causing Asymptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Compression. Ann Vasc Surg. 2019 Oct 17. pii: S0890-5096(19)30859-3. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2019.09.021. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31629844.
11)

Schwam ZG, Kaul VZ, Shrivastava R, Wanna GB. Purely intracranial vagal schwannoma: A case report of a rare lesion. Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 May – Jun;40(3):443-444. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.02.011. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PubMed PMID: 30799212.
12)

Cukic O, Jovanovic MB. Vagus Nerve Schwannoma Mimicking a Lateral Neck Cyst. J Craniofac Surg. 2018 Nov;29(8):e827-e828. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005006. PubMed PMID: 30320693.
14)

Sreevatsa MR, Srinivasarao RV. Three cases of vagal nerve schwannoma and review of literature. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Oct;63(4):310-2. Epub 2011 Apr 8. PubMed PMID: 23024932; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3227827.
15)

Yumoto E, Nakamura K, Mori T, Yanagihara N. Parapharyngeal vagal neurilemmoma extending to the jugular foramen. J Laryngol Otol. 1996 May;110(5):485-9. PubMed PMID: 8762326.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation outcome

Vagus Nerve Stimulation outcome

Evidence for long-term efficacy is still limited.

The true outcome of long-term VNS is difficult to assess in real-world practice. The effect may be overestimated due to confounding factors, particularly the common introduction of novel AEDs and the natural course of the disorder. Patients without perceived benefit from long-term VNS should not routinely remain on treatment and be subject to undue generator re-implantations 1).


Kawai et al. report the overall outcome of a national, prospective registry that included all patients implanted in Japan. The registry included patients of all ages with all seizure types who underwent VNS implantation for drug-resistant epilepsy in the first three years after approval of VNS in 2010. The registry excluded patients who were expected to benefit from resective surgery. Efficacy analysis was assessed based on the change in frequency of all seizure types and the rate of responders. Changes in cognitive, behavioural and social status, quality of life (QOL), antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and overall AED burden were analysed as other efficacy indices. A total of 385 patients were initially registered. Efficacy analyses included data from 362 patients. Age range at the time of VNS implantation was 12 months to 72 years; 21.5% of patients were under 12 years of age and 49.7% had prior epilepsy surgery. Follow-up rate was >90%, even at 36 months. Seizure control improved over time with median seizure reduction of 25.0%, 40.9%, 53.3%, 60.0%, and 66.2%, and responder rates of 38.9%, 46.8%, 55.8%, 57.7%, and 58.8% at three, six, 12, 24, and 36 months of VNS therapy, respectively. There were no substantial changes in other indices throughout the three years of the study, except for self/family-accessed QOL which improved over time. No new safety issues were identified. Although this was not a controlled comparative study, this prospective national registry of Japanese patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, with >90% follow-up rate, indicates long-term efficacy of VNS therapy which increased over time, over a period of up to three years. The limits of such trials, in terms of AED modifications and during follow-up and difficulties in seizure counting are also discussed 2).


VNS can affect the voice and reduced vocal cord motion on the implantation side with secondary supraglottic muscle tension. Otolaryngologists are not only capable of performing VNS implantation, but can also manage surgical complications, assess laryngeal side effects and treat them as needed 3).


VNS implantation may render patients with some forms of cortical dysgenesis (parietooccipital polymicrogyriamacrogyria) seizure-free. Patients with unilateral IEDs and earlier implantation achieved the most benefit from VNS 4).

References

1)

Brodtkorb E, Samsonsen C, Jørgensen JV, Helde G. Epilepsy patients with and without perceived benefit from vagus nerve stimulation: A long-term observational single center study. Seizure. 2019 Sep 19;72:28-32. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2019.09.004. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31563121.
2)

Kawai K, Tanaka T, Baba H, Bunker M, Ikeda A, Inoue Y, Kameyama S, Kaneko S, Kato A, Nozawa T, Maruoka E, Osawa M, Otsuki T, Tsuji S, Watanabe E, Yamamoto T. Outcome of vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy: the first three years of a prospective Japanese registry. Epileptic Disord. 2017 Sep 1;19(3):327-338. doi: 10.1684/epd.2017.0929. PubMed PMID: 28832004.
3)

Al Omari AI, Alzoubi FQ, Alsalem MM, Aburahma SK, Mardini DT, Castellanos PF. The vagal nerve stimulation outcome, and laryngeal effect: Otolaryngologists roles and perspective. Am J Otolaryngol. 2017 Jul – Aug;38(4):408-413. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2017.03.011. Epub 2017 Apr 4. PubMed PMID: 28390806.
4)

Ghaemi K, Elsharkawy AE, Schulz R, Hoppe M, Polster T, Pannek H, Ebner A. Vagus nerve stimulation: outcome and predictors of seizure freedom in long-term follow-up. Seizure. 2010 Jun;19(5):264-8. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.03.002. Epub 2010 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 20362466.

Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography

Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography

Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography is strongly correlated with invasive ICPmeasurements and may serve as a sensitive and noninvasive method for detecting elevated ICP in TBI patients after decompressive craniectomy 1).

Optic nerve sheath diameter measured by transorbital ultrasound imaging is an accurate method for detecting intracranial hypertension that can be applied in a broad range of settings. It has the advantages of being a non-invasive, bedside test, which can be repeated multiple times for re-evaluation 2).

Evolution of ultrasound technology and the development of high frequency (> 7.5 MHz) linear probes with improved spatial resolution have enabled excellent views of the optic nerve sheath.

The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), measured at a fixed distance behind the retina has been evaluated to diagnose and measure intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage 3) 4).

The optic nerve sheath is fairly easy to visualize by ultrasonography by insonation across the orbit in the axial plane. A-mode ultrasonography was used to view the optic nerve sheath more than four decades ago; B-mode scanning was performed subsequently to assess intraocular lesions 5).

Shirodkar et al., studied the efficacy of ONSD measurement by ultrasonography to predict intracranial hypertension. The case mix studied included meningoencephalitis, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage and metabolic encephalopathy. Using cut-off values of 4.6 mm for females, and 4.8 mm for males, they found a high level of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of intracranial hypertension as evident on CT or MRI imaging 6).

There is wide variation reported in the optimal cut-off values, when ONSD was compared with invasive ICP monitoring, ranging from 4.8 to 5.9 mm7) 8).


Padayachy et al present a method for assessment of optic nerve sheath ONS pulsatile dynamics using transorbital ultrasound imaging. A significant difference was noted between the patient groups, indicating that deformability of the ONS may be relevant as a noninvasive marker of raised ICP 9).


Of the studied ultrasound noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoringoptic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), is the best estimator of ICP. The novel combination of optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography and venous transcranial Doppler (vTCD) of the straight sinus is a promising and easily available technique for identifying critically ill patients with intracranial hypertension 10).

The optic nerve sheath diameter has been verified by various clinical studies as a non-invasive indicator of intracranial hypertension 11).

Correlations between ICP and Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) using CT and MRI have been observed in adult populations.

Ultrasound methods has been proposed as an alternative safe technique for invasive ICP measuring methods 12).

Admission ONSD in decompressive craniectomy (DC) patients is high but does not predict mortality and unfavorable outcomes 13).

Intracranial pressure (ICP) can be noninvasively estimated from the sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and from the transcranial Doppler analysis of the pulsatility (ICPPI) and the diastolic component (ICPFVd) of the velocity waveform 14).

Where pediatric patients present with an ONSD of over 6.1mm following a TBI, ICP monitoring should be implemented 15).

Padayachy et al present a method for assessment of ONS pulsatile dynamics using transorbital ultrasound imaging. A significant difference was noted between the patient groups, indicating that deformability of the ONS may be relevant as a noninvasive marker of raised ICP 16).

While the ultrasonographic mean binocular ONSD (>4.53 mm) was completely accurate in detecting elevated ICP, color Doppler indices of the ophthalmic arteries were of limited value 17).

Bedside ultrasound may be useful in the diagnosis of midline intracranial shift by measurement of ONSD 18).


In patients with SAH and acute hydrocephalus after aneurysm rupture, the ONSD remains expanded after normalization of ICP. This is most likely due to an impaired retraction capability of the optic nerve sheath. This finding should be considered when using transorbital sonography in the neuromonitoring of aneurysmal SAH 19).


ONSD >5.5 mm yielded a sensitivity of 98.77% (95% CI: 93.3%-100%) and a specificity of 85.19% (95% CI: 66.3%-95.8%).In conclusion, the optimal cut-off point of ONSD for identifying IICP was 5.5 mm. ONSD seen on ocular US can be a feasible method for detection and serial monitoring of ICP in Korean adult patients 20).

Systematic review

The aim of a systematic review and meta-analysis will be to examine the accuracy of ONSD sonography for increased ICP diagnosis.

Koziarz et al. will include published and unpublished randomised controlled trials, observational studies, and abstracts, with no publication type or language restrictions. Search strategies will be designed to peruse the MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, WHO Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases. We will also implement strategies to search grey literature. Two reviewers will independently complete data abstraction and conduct quality assessment. Included studies will be assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. We will construct the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve for included studies and pool sensitivity and specificity using the bivariate model. We also plan to conduct prespecified subgroup analyses to explore heterogeneity. The overall quality of evidence will be rated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE).

Research ethics board approval is not required for this study as it draws from published data and raises no concerns related to patient privacy. This review will provide a comprehensive assessment of the evidence on ONSD sonography diagnostic accuracy and is directed to a wide audience. Results from the review will be disseminated extensively through conferences and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication 21).

Case series

References

1)

Wang J, Li K, Li H, Ji C, Wu Z, Chen H, Chen B. Ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter correlation with ICP and accuracy as a tool for noninvasive surrogate ICP measurement in patients with decompressive craniotomy. J Neurosurg. 2019 Jul 19:1-7. doi: 10.3171/2019.4.JNS183297. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31323632.
2)

Beare NA, Kampondeni S, Glover SJ, Molyneux E, Taylor TE, Harding SP, Molyneux ME. Detection of raised intracranial pressure by ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter in African children. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Nov;13(11):1400-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02153.x. Epub 2008 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 18983275; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3776606.
3)

Geeraerts T, Merceron S, Benhamou D, Vigué B, Duranteau J. Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure using ocular sonography in neurocritical care patients. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:2062–7.
4)

Moretti R, Pizzi B. Optic nerve ultrasound for detection of intracranial hypertension in intracranial hemorrhage patients: Confirmation of previous findings in a different patient population. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2009;21:16–20.
5)

Gangemi M, Cennamo G, Maiuri F, D’Andrea F. Echographic measurement of the optic nerve in patients with intracranial hypertension. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 1987;30:53–5.
6)

Shirodkar CG, Rao SM, Mutkule DP, Harde YR, Venkategowda PM, Mahesh MU. Optic nerve sheath diameter as a marker for evaluation and prognostication of intracranial pressure in Indian patients: An observational study. Ind J Crit Care Med. 2014;18:728–734
7)

Rajajee V, Vanaman M, Fletcher JJ, Jacobs TL. Optic nerve ultrasound for the detection of raised intracranial pressure. Neurocrit Care. 2011;15:506–15.
8)

Geeraerts T, Launey Y, Martin L, Pottecher J, Vigué B, Duranteau J, et al. Ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath may be useful for detecting raised intracranial pressure after severe brain injury. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:1704–11.
9) , 16)

Padayachy L, Brekken R, Fieggen G, Selbekk T. Pulsatile Dynamics of the Optic Nerve Sheath and Intracranial Pressure: An Exploratory In Vivo Investigation. Neurosurgery. 2016 Jul;79(1):100-7. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000001200. PubMed PMID: 26813857; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4900421.
10)

Robba C, Cardim D, Tajsic T, Pietersen J, Bulman M, Donnelly J, Lavinio A, Gupta A, Menon DK, Hutchinson PJA, Czosnyka M. Ultrasound non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure in neurointensive care: A prospective observational study. PLoS Med. 2017 Jul 25;14(7):e1002356. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002356. eCollection 2017 Jul. PubMed PMID: 28742869.
11)

Choi SH, Min KT, Park EK, Kim MS, Jung JH, Kim H. Ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath to assess intracranial pressure changes after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery in children with hydrocephalus: a prospective observational study. Anaesthesia. 2015 Nov;70(11):1268-73. doi: 10.1111/anae.13180. Epub 2015 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 26299256.
12)

Karami M, Shirazinejad S, Shaygannejad V, Shirazinejad Z. Transocular Doppler and optic nerve sheath diameter monitoring to detect intracranial hypertension. Adv Biomed Res. 2015 Oct 22;4:231. doi: 10.4103/2277-9175.167900. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26645016; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4647120.
13)

Waqas M, Bakhshi SK, Shamim MS, Anwar S. Radiological prognostication in patients with head trauma requiring decompressive craniectomy: Analysis of optic nerve sheath diameter and Rotterdam CT Scoring System. J Neuroradiol. 2016 Feb;43(1):25-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2015.07.003. Epub 2015 Oct 20. PubMed PMID: 26492980.
14)

Robba C, Bragazzi NL, Bertuccio A, Cardim D, Donnelly J, Sekhon M, Lavinio A, Duane D, Burnstein R, Matta B, Bacigaluppi S, Lattuada M, Czosnyka M. Effects of Prone Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Noninvasive Estimators of ICP: A Pilot Study. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2016 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26998650.
15)

Young AM, Guilfoyle MR, Donnelly J, Scoffings D, Fernandes H, Garnett MR, Agrawal S, Hutchinson PJ. Correlating optic nerve sheath diameter with opening intracranial pressure in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2016 Aug 11. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.165. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27513519.
17)

Tarzamni MK, Derakhshan B, Meshkini A, Merat H, Fouladi DF, Mostafazadeh S, Rezakhah A. The diagnostic performance of ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter and color Doppler indices of the ophthalmic arteries in detecting elevated intracranial pressure. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2016 Feb;141:82-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2015.12.007. Epub 2015 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 26771156.
18)

Kazdal H, Kanat A, Findik H, Sen A, Ozdemir B, Batcik OE, Yavasi O, Inecikli MF. Transorbital Ultrasonographic Measurement of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter for Intracranial Midline Shift in Patients with Head Trauma. World Neurosurg. 2016 Jan;85:292-7. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.10.015. Epub 2015 Oct 17. PubMed PMID: 26485420.
19)

Bäuerle J, Niesen WD, Egger K, Buttler KJ, Reinhard M. Enlarged Optic Nerve Sheath in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage despite Normal Intracranial Pressure. J Neuroimaging. 2016 Mar-Apr;26(2):194-6. doi: 10.1111/jon.12287. Epub 2015 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 26278326.
20)

Lee SU, Jeon JP, Lee H, Han JH, Seo M, Byoun HS, Cho WS, Ryu HG, Kang HS, Kim JE, Kim HC, Jang KS. Optic nerve sheath diameter threshold by ocular ultrasonography for detection of increased intracranial pressure in Korean adult patients with brain lesions. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct;95(41):e5061. PubMed PMID: 27741121; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5072948.
21)

Koziarz A, Sne N, Kegel F, Alhazzani W, Nath S, Badhiwala JH, Rice T, Engels P, Samir F, Healey A, Kahnamoui K, Banfield L, Sharma S, Reddy K, Hawryluk GWJ, Kirkpatrick AW, Almenawer SA. Optic nerve sheath diameter sonography for the diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. BMJ Open. 2017 Aug 11;7(8):e016194. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016194. PubMed PMID: 28801417.
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