Cervical traumatic spinal cord injury outcome

Cervical traumatic spinal cord injury outcome

Injury to the spine and spinal cord is one of the common cause of disability and death. Several factors affect the outcome; but which are these factors (alone and in combination), are determining the outcomes are still unknown.

Based on parameters from the International Standards, physicians are able to inform patients about the predicted long-term outcomes, including the ability to walk, with high accuracy. In those patients who cannot participate in a reliable physical neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological examinations may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information. As clinical research on this topic continues, the prognostic value of the reviewed diagnostic assessments will become more accurate in the near future. These advances will provide useful information for physicians to counsel tSCI patients and their families during the catastrophic initial phase after the injury 1).

In cervical traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), the therapeutic effect of timing of surgery on neurological recovery remains uncertain. Additionally, the relationship between the extent of decompression, imaging biomarker evidence of injury severity, and the outcome are incompletely understood.

Aarabi et al., investigated the effect of timing of decompression on long-term neurological outcome in patients with complete spinal cord decompression confirmed on postoperative MRI. AIS grade conversion was determined in 72 AIS grades A, B, and C patients 6 months after confirmed decompression. Thirty-two patients underwent decompressive surgery ultra-early (<12 hours), 25 early (12-24 hours), and 15 late (>24-138.5 hours) after injury. Age, gender, injury mechanism, intramedullary lesion length (IMLL) on MRI, admission ASIA motor score, and surgical technique were not statistically different between groups. Motor complete patients (p=0.009) and those with fracture-dislocations (p=0.01) tended to be operated earlier. Improvement of one grade or more was present in 55.6% in AIS grade A, 60.9% in AIS grade B, and 86.4% in AIS grade C patients. Admission AIS motor score (p=0.0004) and pre-operative IMLL (p=0.00001) were the strongest predictors of neurological outcome. AIS grade improvement occurred in 65.6%, 60%, and 80% of patients who underwent decompression ultra-early, early, and late, respectively (p=0.424). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IMLL was the only significant variable predictive of AIS grade conversion to a better grade (odds ratio, 0.908; CI, 0.862-0.957; p<0.001).

They conclude that in patients with postoperative MRI confirmation of complete decompression following cervical TSCI, pre-operative IMLL, not the timing of surgery, determine the long-term neurological outcome 2).


Preclinical and class III clinical data suggest improved outcomes by maintaining the mean arterial pressure > 85 mm Hg and avoiding hypoxemia at least for 7 days following cervical SCI, and this level of monitoring and support should occur in the ICU 3).


100 cases of patients under 18 years at accident with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury admitted to spinal cord injury SCI centers participating in the European Multi-center study about SCI (EMSCI) between January 2005 and April 2016 were reviewed. According to their age at the accident, age 13 to 17, patients were selected for the adolescent group. After applying in- and exclusion criteria 32 adolescents were included. Each adolescent patient was matched with two adult SCI patients for analysis.

ASIA Impairment scale (AIS) grade, neurological, sensory, motor level, total motor score, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) total score.

Mean AIS conversion, neurological, motor and sensory levels, as well as total motor score, showed no significant statistical difference in adolescents compared to the adult control group after a follow up of 6 months. Significantly higher final SCIM scores (p < 0.05) in the adolescent group compared to adults as well as a strong trend for a higher gain in SCIM score (p < 0.061) between first and last follow up was found.

Neurological outcome after traumatic cervical SCI is not superior in adolescents compared to adults in this cohort. Significantly higher SCIM scores indicate more functional gain for adolescent patients after traumatic cervical SCI. Juvenile age appears to be an independent predictor for a better functional outcome. 4).


A prospective observational study at single-center with all patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), attending our hospital within a week of injury during a period of October 2011 to July 2013 was included for analysis. Demographic factors such as age, gender, etiology of injury, preoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade, upper (C2-C4) versus lower (C5-C7) cervical level of injury, image factors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and timing of intervention were studied. Change in neurological status by one or more ASIA grade from the date of admission to 6 months follow-up was taken as an improvement. Functional grading was assessed using the functional independence measure (FIM) scale at 6 months follow-up.

A total of 39 patients with an acute cervical spine injury, managed surgically were included in this study. Follow-up was available for 38 patients at 6 months. No improvement was noted in patients with ASIA Grade A. Maximum improvement was noted in ASIA Grade D group (83.3%). The improvement was more significant in lower cervical region injuries. Patients with cord contusion showed no improvement as opposed to those with just edema wherein; the improvement was seen in 62.5% of patients. The percentage of improvement in cord edema ≤3 segments (75%) was significantly higher than edema with >3 segments (42.9%). Maximum improvement in FIM score was noted in ASIA Grade C and patients who had edema (especially ≤3 segments) in MRI cervical spine.

Complete cervical SCI, upper-level cervical cord injury, patients showing MRI contusion, edema >3 segments group have a worst improvement in neurological status at 6 months follow-up 5).


A total of 66 patients diagnosed with traumatic cervical SCI were selected for neurological assessment (using the International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury [ISNCSCI]) and functional evaluation (based on the Korean version Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI] and Functional Independence Measure [FIM]) at admission and upon discharge. All of the subjects received a preliminary electrophysiological assessment, according to which they were divided into two groups as follows: those with cervical radiculopathy (the SCI/Rad group) and those without (the SCI group).

A total of 32 patients with cervical SCI (48.5%) had cervical radiculopathy. The initial ISNCSCI scores for sensory and motor, K-MBI, and total FIM did not significantly differ between the SCI group and the SCI/Rad group. However, at discharge, the ISNCSCI scores for motor, K-MBI, and FIM of the SCI/Rad group showed less improvement (5.44±8.08, 15.19±19.39 and 10.84±11.49, respectively) than those of the SCI group (10.76±9.86, 24.79±19.65 and 17.76±15.84, respectively) (p<0.05). In the SCI/Rad group, the number of involved levels of cervical radiculopathy was negatively correlated with the initial and follow-up motors score by ISNCSCI.

Cervical radiculopathy is not rare in patients with traumatic cervical SCI, and it can impede neurological and functional improvement. Therefore, detection of combined cervical radiculopathy by electrophysiological assessment is essential for the accurate prognosis of cervical SCI patients in the rehabilitation unit 6).

References

1)

van Middendorp JJ, Goss B, Urquhart S, Atresh S, Williams RP, Schuetz M. Diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic spinal cord injury. Global Spine J. 2011 Dec;1(1):1-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296049. PubMed PMID: 24353930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3864437.
2)

Aarabi B, Akhtar-Danesh N, Chryssikos T, Shanmuganathan K, Schwartzbauer G, Simard MJ, Olexa J, Sansur C, Crandall K, Mushlin H, Kole M, Le E, Wessell A, Pratt N, Cannarsa G, Diaz Lomangino C, Scarboro M, Aresco C, Oliver J, Caffes N, Carbine S, Kanami M. Efficacy of Ultra-Early (<12 hours), Early (12-24 hours), and Late (>24-138.5 hours) Surgery with MRI-Confirmed Decompression in AIS grades A, B, and C Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.1089/neu.2019.6606. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31310155.
3)

Schwartzbauer G, Stein D. Critical Care of Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries: Preventing Secondary Injury. Semin Neurol. 2016 Dec;36(6):577-585. Epub 2016 Dec 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 27907962.
4)

Geuther M, Grassner L, Mach O, Klein B, Högel F, Voth M, Bühren V, Maier D, Abel R, Weidner N, Rupp R, Fürstenberg CH; EMSCI study group, Schneidmueller D. Functional outcome after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury is superior in adolescents compared to adults. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2018 Dec 11. pii: S1090-3798(18)30247-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.12.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30579697.
5)

Srinivas BH, Rajesh A, Purohit AK. Factors affecting the outcome of acute cervical spine injury: A prospective study. Asian J Neurosurg. 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):416-423. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.180942. PubMed PMID: 28761518; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5532925.
6)

Kim SY, Kim TU, Lee SJ, Hyun JK. The prognosis for patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury combined with cervical radiculopathy. Ann Rehabil Med. 2014 Aug;38(4):443-9. doi: 10.5535/arm.2014.38.4.443. Epub 2014 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 25229022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4163583.

Pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma outcome

Pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma outcome

Regardless of the intracranial epidural hematoma size, the clinical status of the patients, the abnormal pupillary findings, or the cause of injury, the outcome and prognosis of the pediatric intracranial epidural hematoma are excellent 1).

Mortality can be significantly reduced with gratifying results if operated early. Best motor response at presentation, pupillary abnormalities, time between injury to surgery, and location of hematoma have been identified as the important factors determining outcome in patients of EDH2) 3) 4) 5).

Binder et al., found that immediate as well as delayed surgical evacuation of EDH resulted in excellent outcomes in most cases. Conservative treatment was started in 76% of our cases – however needing in 35% delayed surgical intervention. Overall in all groups excellent final clinical and neurological outcomes could be reached 6).

Of all laboratory data obtained on admission, the blood potassiumpH and glucose test results correlated significantly with prognosis. Prognosis can be adequately and expeditiously estimated by selected markers within a comprehensive evaluation of children with AEH 7).

References

1)

Gerlach R, Dittrich S, Schneider W, Ackermann H, Seifert V, Kieslich M. Traumatic epidural hematomas in children and adolescents: outcome analysis in 39 consecutive unselected cases. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Mar;25(3):164-9. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31819a8966. PubMed PMID: 19262419.
2)

Faheem M, Jaiswal M, Ojha BK, Chandra A, Singh SK, Srivastava C. Traumatic Pediatric Extradural Hematoma: An Institutional Study of 228 Patients in Tertiary Care Center. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2019 Jul 9:1-8. doi: 10.1159/000501043. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31288223.
3)

Umerani MS, Abbas A, Aziz F, Shahid R, Ali F, Rizvi RK. Pediatric Extradural Hematoma: Clinical Assessment Using King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):681-684. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_164_16. PubMed PMID: 30283526; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6159040.
4)

Erşahin Y, Mutluer S, Güzelbag E. Extradural hematoma: analysis of 146 cases. Childs Nerv Syst. 1993 Apr;9(2):96-9. PubMed PMID: 8319240.
5)

Paşaoğlu A, Orhon C, Koç K, Selçuklu A, Akdemir H, Uzunoğlu H. Traumatic extradural haematomas in pediatric age group. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1990;106(3-4):136-9. PubMed PMID: 2284988.
6)

Binder H, Majdan M, Tiefenboeck TM, Fochtmann A, Michel M, Hajdu S, Mauritz W, Leitgeb J. Management and outcome of traumatic epidural hematoma in 41 infants and children from a single center. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2016 Oct;102(6):769-74. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2016.06.003. Epub 2016 Sep 9. PubMed PMID: 27622712.
7)

Ben Abraham R, Lahat E, Sheinman G, Feldman Z, Barzilai A, Harel R, Barzilay Z, Paret G. Metabolic and clinical markers of prognosis in the era of CT imaging in children with acute epidural hematomas. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000 Aug;33(2):70-5. PubMed PMID: 11070432.

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage outcome

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage outcome

Currently, early prediction of outcome after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) lacks accuracy despite multiple studies addressing this issue.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage outcome

Kenya

Waveru et al., conducted a retrospective multicentre cross sectional studyinvolving patients admitted with SAH to three referral hospitals in Nairobi. All patients with a confirmed (primary) discharge diagnosis of first-time SAH between January 2009 and November 2017 were included (n = 158). Patients who had prior head trauma or cerebrovascular disease (n = 53) were excluded. Telephone interviews were conducted with surviving patients or their next of kin to assess out-of-hospital outcomes (including functional outcomes) based on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to assess associations between mortality and functional outcomes and sample characteristics.

Of the 158 patients sampled, 38 (24.1%) died in hospital and 42 (26.6%) died within 1 month. In total, 87 patients were discharged home and followed-up in this study, of which 72 reported favourable functional outcomes (mRS ≤2). This represented 45.6% of all patients who presented alive, pointing to high numbers of unfavourable outcomes post SAH in Kenya.

Mortality following SAH remains high in Kenya. Patients who survive the initial ictus tend to do well after treatment, despite resource constraints. : The study findings should be interpreted with caution because of unavoidable limitations in the primary data. These include its retrospective nature, the high number of patients lost to follow up, missing records and diagnoses, and/or possible miscoding of cases 1).

2014

In a multicenter, prospective and observational study. Including SAH admissions in ICU over 2014. Variables analized: epidemiological, cause of SAH, if aneurysmal SAH: aneurysm location and size, repair treatment; complications, ICU and hospital lenght of stay and morbidity (GOS scale).

Sample size: 127 patients. Epidemiology data: age 60,46 years (SD 12, 07), 54,33% women and risk factors: HBP 40,16%, dyslipidemia 22,05% and DM 6,30%. Severity scales: Hunt-Hess V: 23,62%, IV 13,39%; Fisher IV: 65,87 %, III 16,67 %; WFNS V: 22,83 %, IV 18,90%. Cause of SAH: 70,97% aneurysmal, 4,03% arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and 25% other. Aneurysm location: anterior comunicant 27,27%; posterior 21,21 %; middle cerebral artery 26,26 %. Aneurysmal sack diameter: small (< 15 mm) 67,05 %, large 22,73% and giant (>25 mm) 10,23%. Repair treatment: surgical 20,63%, endovascular (EVT) 39,68 % and conservative 39,68 %. Time admission-repairment: 3,5 days (SD 11,35), median 1 day (IQR 1). Complications: vasospasm 20,47 %, rebleeding 12,7%, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) 26,19%, hydrocephalus 31,75 %, seizures 7,14 %, ventriculitis 6,35% (22,86% with ventricular drainage), heart complications 15,87% and sodium disorders 20,47% (cerebral salt wasting 7,14%, SIADH 2,38% and diabetes insipidus 11,11%). Invasive monitoring: ICP 22,40% and PtiO2 6,60%. Median of length of stay: ICU 5 days (IQR 14) and hospital 15,5 days (IQR 22). Morbidity-GOS scale: 1 (death)= 23,39 % (51,72% donors); 2 = 3,23 %; 3 = 8,06 %; 4: 12,90%; 5: 52,42%.

The most common cause of SAH is cerebral aneurysm rupture with high Fisher. In this study the endovascular and conservative treatment are the same frequency greater than surgical. Maybe the severity of clinical presentation and high variability in the election of treatment among centers could influence. Time admission-repairment was near to recommendations. Results about complications and GOS scale are similar to the literature2).

References

1)

Waweru P, Gatimu SM. Mortality and functional outcomes after a spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage: A retrospective multicentre cross-sectional study in Kenya. PLoS One. 2019 Jun 12;14(6):e0217832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217832. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31188844.
2)

Iglesias Posadilla D, Gero Escapa M, González Robledo J, et al. Outcomes of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sah) in neurocritical care unit: a multicenter study. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2015;3(Suppl 1):A773. Published 2015 Oct 1. doi:10.1186/2197-425X-3-S1-A773
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