Trigeminal nerve-related pathology

Trigeminal nerve-related pathology

The trigeminal nerve (TGN) is the largest cranial nerve and can be involved in multiple inflammatory, compressive, ischemic, or other pathologies.

see Trigeminal neuralgia.

Postherpetic neuralgia in 20% of cases involves the trigeminal nerve (with a predilection for the ophthalmic division, called herpes zoster ophthalmicus).

Trigeminal trophic syndrome

see Trigeminal neuropathy.

Lesions in the cavernous sinus involve cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1 & V2 (ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve), and spare II and V3.

Superior orbital fissure syndrome: dysfunction of nerves III, IV, VI and V1.

Orbital apex syndrome: involves II, III, IV, VI and partial V1.

Raeder’s paratrigeminal neuralgia.

In Sturge-Weber syndrome: Ipsilateral port-wine facial nevus (nevus flammeus) usually in the distribution of 1st division of trigeminal nerve (forehead and/or eyelid) (rarely bilateral): not always present, alternatively sometimes in V2 or V3 regions 1).

Postoperative trigeminal nerve symptoms occur transiently in 22% and permanently in 11% following microsurgery, similar to the results of SRS 2).

Basilar impression: trigeminal nerve anesthesia.

In vestibular schwannoma or cerebellopontine angle meningioma, trigeminal nerve involvement may occur with tumors > 3 cm (check corneal reflex), with tic douloureux-like symptoms being unusual.


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Product Details

  • Published on: 2016-05-06
  • Original language: English
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About the Author
John H. Sampson is the Robert H. and Gloria Wilkins Professor of Neurosurgery, Chair of the Department of Neurosurgery, and Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Immunology, Pathology, and Radiation Oncology at Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, North Carolina.
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