Cervical spinal schwannoma

Cervical spinal schwannoma

Spinal schwannoma are most frequently seen in the cervical and lumbar regions, far more frequently than in the thoracic spine.

Classification

Asazuma Classification

1).


Eden’s classification for dumbbell tumors of the spine, long considered a “gold standard,”

no longer is sufficient to determine surgical strategy in view of recent advances in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment

Cervical dumbbell spinal schwannomas with an extraspinal extension through the intervertebral foramina pose significant challenges for complete resection while avoiding injury to the vertebral artery and preserving the integrity of the cervical spine. Posterior approaches may require an extensive soft-tissue dissection and bone removal with potential spinal instability. Moreover, they offer only a limited access to an extraspinal tumor component that entails an additional anterior approach for complete resection of a dumbbell-shaped lesion.

Goga et al., used an anterolateral transforaminal approach that preserves the bony elements of the intervertebral foramen and offers a comprehensive access to the extraspinal, foraminal and intraspinal/intradural components of a cervical dumbbell tumor 2).

Outcome

Cervical spinal schwannoma is benign, and outcomes after surgical resection are generally excellent. A surgical dilemma sometimes arises as to whether to perform total tumor removal, which carries a risk of sacrificing the nerve root, or subtotal removal, where the risk can be tumor recurrence.

Case series

Chowdhury et al. reported schwannomas arising from C1, C2 and C3 spinal nerve roots were regarded as high cervical spinal schwannoma. All patients with high cervical spinal schwannomas that were consecutively operated microneurosurgically from 2006-2010 were included in the study. Postoperatively all patients were followed up regularly both clinically and neuro-radiologically (MRI of cervical spine).

Average follow up was 31.5 months. The mean age of the series was 35.8 years (range 10-61 years). There were 8 male and 7 female patients. The mean duration of symptoms at the time of presentation was 32 months (range 06 months-5 years). Two schwannomas were completely extradural, seven were intradural and rest six were interdural or hourglass type (both extra and intradural) as identified during surgery. The standard midline posterior approach was used in all patients. A C2 hemilaminectomyor C2 laminectomy with or without cutting of posterior arch of atlas was used for most intradural and large interdural C2 schwannomas. Tumor removal was complete in all cases. Preservation of the nerve root fibers was not possible in 9 cases and was possible only in 3 cases. In two patients CSF leak developed after operation. One patient who had severe myelopathic features with bed sore failed toimprove and expired 5 months after operation. Rest of the patients showed postoperative improvement in their preoperative symptoms and returned to their normal life by the end of sixth month. There was no tumor recurrence in any patient till last follow up.

Proper 3-D anatomical orientation & physiological knowledge, deep neuro-radiological observation,pathological appreciations and micro-neurosurgical skill and expertization can make the surgical management of these tumors ( in a surgically complex site) simple with gratifying result (i.e.neurological outcome) without extensive bone removal or soft tissue manipulation through a standard midline posterior approach 3).


Thirty cases of cervical schwannomas treated by Yamane et al. were retrospectively reviewed;initial symptoms, tumor location, Eden classification, surgical method, functional outcome, and tumor recurrence were investigated. All permanent motor deficits were the result of resecting functionally relevant nerve roots (i.e., C5-8). The rate of permanent sensory deficit was 11% after C1-4 nerve root resection, and 67% after C5-8 nerve root resection. Permanent neurological deficits occurred in 14% of patients younger than 40 years and 38% of those older than 40. Dumbbell tumors were associated with the need for total or ventral nerve root transection, as well as with a high incidence of tumor recurrence. The incidence of permanent neurological deficit was significantly higher in patients undergoing C5-8 nerve root resection, and tended to be higher in those over 40 4).


Forty-two patients with cervical dumbbell tumors were analyzed retrospectively using a new three-dimensional classification.

To establish optimal surgical strategies, we considered shapes and three-dimensional locations of cervical dumbbell tumors based on diagnostic images and intraoperative findings.

Forty-two cervical dumbbell tumors were characterized according to transverse-section images (Toyama classification; nine types) and craniocaudal extent of intervertebral and transverse foraminal involvement (IF and TF staging; three stages each).

Type IIIa tumors, involving dura plus an intervertebral foramen, accounted for 50% of cases. A posterior approach was used in 35 patients; 7 others underwent a combined anterior and posterior approach. A posterior approach was used for all type IIa and IIIa tumors, and for some type IIIb (upper cervical), IV, and VI tumors; a combined posterior and anterior approach was used for type IIb and the remainder of type IV and VI. Reconstruction was performed using spinal instrumentation in 4 patients (9.5%). Resection was subtotal in 6 patients (14.3%) and total in 36 (85.7%).

Systematic, imaging-based three-dimensional characterization of shape and location of cervical dumbbell tumors is essential for planning optimal surgery. The classification used here fulfills this need 5).


Case reports

Pokharel et al. reported a case of extradural cervical schwannoma in a 14-year-old boy with swelling in the posterior triangle of his neck. The radiological features suggested solitary extradural cervical schwannoma which was confirmed later by histopathological findings. There were no postoperative neurological complications 6)


Perry et al. reported in 2019 the third case of synchronously presenting primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal schwannoma. A 65-year-old man presented with six months of progressive weakness and pain of the right shoulderforearm, and handMRI demonstrated a contrast-enhancing transforaminal lesion at C7, most consistent with a benign nerve sheath tumor. Additional history disclosed several years of worsening fatigue, accompanied by bilateral weakness and lancinating leg pain. MRI of the neuraxis demonstrated abnormalities consistent with chronic demyelinating disease intracranially and within the spinal cordcerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed nine oligoclonal bands and an elevated IgG index, resulting in the diagnosis of MS. Given the symptomatic C7 lesion, the patient subsequently underwent right C6-C7 facetectomygross total resection of the tumor, and C6-T1 posterior instrumented fusion. Postoperatively, the patient rapidly recovered normal right upper extremity function, and pathology confirmed benign schwannoma. Synchronously presenting co-morbid neurologic diagnoses are exceedingly rare. Nonetheless, the high incidence and protean nature of MS make it particularly susceptible to such confounding clinical cases. Correspondingly, MS should be considered when neurologic abnormalities are not compatible with a focal radiographic lesion, and the present report emphasizes the value of a good history and exam in unraveling similarly challenging cases 7).

References

1) , 5)

Asazuma T, Toyama Y, Maruiwa H, Fujimura Y, Hirabayashi K. Surgical strategy for cervical dumbbell tumors based on a three-dimensional classification. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Jan 1;29(1):E10-4. PubMed PMID: 14699292.
2)

Goga C, Türe U. The Anterolateral Transforaminal Approach to a Dumbbell Schwannoma of the C3 Nerve Root. A 3-Dimensional Operative Video. Neurosurgery. 2014 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25255264.
3)

Chowdhury FH, Haque MR, Sarker MH. High cervical spinal schwannoma; microneurosurgical management: an experience of 15 cases. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2013 Jun;22(2):59-66. PubMed PMID: 24030037.
4)

Yamane K, Takigawa T, Tanaka M, Osaki S, Sugimoto Y, Ozaki T. Factors predicting clinical impairment after surgery for cervical spinal schwannoma. Acta Med Okayama. 2013;67(6):343-9. PubMed PMID: 24356718.
6)

Pokharel A, Rao TS, Basnet P, Pandey B, Mayya NJ, Jaiswal S. Extradural cervical spinal schwannoma in a child: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep. 2019 Jul 17;13(1):230. doi: 10.1186/s13256-019-2108-6. PubMed PMID: 31311599; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6636037.
7)

Perry A, Peters P, Graffeo CS, Carlstrom LP, Krauss WE. Synchronous Presentation of a Cervical Spinal Schwannoma and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis in a 65-year-old Man. Cureus. 2019 Mar 4;11(3):e4176. doi: 10.7759/cureus.4176. PubMed PMID: 31093475; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6502288.

Spinal intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia

Spinal intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia

In the literature, only nine cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia involving the vertebral canal with spinal cord compression has been reported 1).

This rare pathology should be in the differential diagnosiswhen spinal cord compressive myelopathy is encountered 2)

This rare benign vascular lesion may be clinically and histopathologically mistaken for an angiosarcoma. Because the intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia can be cured by complete surgical resection, it is important to distinguish between these two lesions to avoid inappropriate aggressive treatment. 3).

Case reports

Oktar et al from Izmir presented a 37-year-old man with thoracic location mimicking schwannoma 4).

A 32-year-old man presented with paraplegia secondary to extradural compression at the T4-5 level 5)


A 17-year-old boy was admitted with pain, numbness, paresis of the left lower extremity, and bladder dysfunction of approximately 1 month’s duration. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a tumor within the spinal canal at the T12-L1 level.

The patient underwent a T12-L1 laminectomy. An epidural red nodular tumor was visualized and totally resected. The findings of the pathological examination were compatible with intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia. At follow-up examination 1 month after the operation, the patient had complete resolution of the pain, and the motor deficit and bladder dysfunction had improved significantly 6).

References

1) , 4)

Oktar N, M Ozer H, Demirtas E. Spinal intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia. Case report and review of the literature. Br J Neurosurg. 2019 Apr 9:1-3. doi: 10.1080/02688697.2019.1597832. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30964346.
2) , 5)

Behera BR, Panda RN, Mishra S, Dhir MK. Masson Hemangioma-An Unusual Cause of Thoracic Compressive Myelopathy. World Neurosurg. 2017 Feb;98:876.e9-876.e13. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.201

Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma

Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma

Spontaneous spinal subdural hematomas are extremely rare.

Surgical intervention is recommended in patients presenting with severe neurologic deficits. Conservative treatment is a reasonable option for asymptomatic patients 1).

Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma after anticoagulation therapy

In the majority of cases, spontaneous hematomas are idiopathic. However, when attributed to anticoagulation therapy coumarins are more common than direct factor Xa inhibitors such as apixaban. Previous reports have linked direct factor Xa inhibitors with intracranial subdural hematomas much more frequently than spinal subdural hematomas. The manifestation of severe neurological deficits, such as sensorimotor disturbances and loss of sphinctercontrol, is common and is considered a surgical emergency 2).


An 82-year-old patient with a history of ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation under acenocoumarol was admitted to emergency department with sudden onset of paraplegia and intense back pain associated with urinary incontinence and anal sphincter disorder. On examination his lower limb power was MRC grade 0 out of 5 in all ranges of movement bilaterally and a complete bilateral anesthesia reaching the T12 dermatome was noted. Biological test results showed an International Normalized Ratio at 10. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posteriorly located spinal hematoma at T12 level, measuring 36 mm with spinal cord compression. After correction of hemostasis disorders the patient was admitted to the operating room for a T11-L1 laminectomy with evacuation of the subdural hematoma. Muscle power showed a gradual improvement in the lower limbs estimated at 3/5 with regression of sphincter disorders but unfortunately a sequellar sensory impairment persisted.

SSH is a rare situation of acenocoumarol bleeding incident, it should be evoked in any patient treated by this molecule with signs of spinal cord compression 3).


A case of a patient with a spontaneous spinal thoracic subdural hematoma secondary to apixaban use with loss of sphincter control and paraplegia. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient recovered completely 4).

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Spinal Subdural Hematoma

Spinal subdural hematoma (S-SDH) rarely occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Little information is known regarding the management and prognosis of patients with both S-SDH and SAH. Here, we present an illustrative Case and provide a systematic review of S-SDH in the setting of SAH. METHODS:

A systematic literature review using PRISMA guidelines revealed 11 previous cases of concurrent intracranial SAH and spinal SDH, which are presented with our new reported Case. RESULTS:

Intracranial sources of spontaneous SAH included 8 aneurysms, 1 pseudoaneurysm, and 3 angiogram negative cases. Hunt Hess grade ranged from 1-4, mean time between SAH and S-SDH was 5.8 days, and S-SDH presented most frequently in the lumbar spine. 8 patients showed significant to complete clinical recovery, 2 had continued plegia of the lower extremities, and 2 expired. Modified Rankin score ranged from 0-6, with mRS > 2 for 4 out of 12 patients. Patients with a poor clinical outcome (mRS > 2) had an initially negative cerebral angiogram, earlier presentation with less time between SAH and S-SDH (0.8 vs 7.6 days), use of antithrombotic medication, no diversion of CSF, and cervical or thoracic S-SDH. CONCLUSION:

S-SDH is an uncommon occurrence in the setting of aneurysmal SAH with better outcomes associated with lumbar location, delayed presentation, CSF diversion, and lack of antithrombotic use. Conservative treatment may be sufficient in cases with delayed S-SDH and lack of significant neurological deficits. More reported cases will allow greater understanding of this clinical entity 5).

Case reports

A 55-year-old woman without malignancy or coagulopathy history presented with progressive low back pain for the past 2 weeks. Progressive bilateral leg weakness happened 1 week ago. On the day she called for help, she presented with bilateral leg grade 2 muscle power and generalized back pain. There was no headache or meningeal sign. An absent bilateral knee reflex was found. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a space-occupying lesion at the T2-T6 and T12-L1 levels in the ventral and dorsal spinal canal, leading to cord compression. Due to rapid neurologic function deterioration, emergent T12-L1 laminectomy was performed. We found a T12-L1 tense dura sac with subdural hematoma ventral to the cord. Removal of the SDH was performed. T2-T6 levels were treated conservatively. She returned ambulant 1 week after operation. Magnetic resonance images at 3 months and 1 year later showed the SDH being absorbed and replaced by adhesive arachnoid cysts along the whole T and L spine. However, these lesions are asymptomatic for at least 2 years 6).


Sanchez et al. reported a case of Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in an otherwise healthy 23-year-old man presenting with back pain, urinary retention, bradycardia, and hypertension. Troponin levels and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were elevated, and echocardiogram revealed an ejection fraction (EF) of less than 20%. In addition, MRI demonstrated a spinal subdural hematoma from T1-S1 with no cord compression. Repeated echocardiogram demonstrated an EF of 20-25% with a reverse Takotsubo pattern of cardiomyopathy. With supportive care, his clinical picture improved with normalization of cardiac enzyme and BNP values. This case represents a r-TTC presenting as heart failure in a young, apparently healthy male likely incited by a spinal subdural hematoma. To our knowledge, it is the first of its kind reported 7).


A 7-yr old girl presented to Neurology Department, Mofid Hospital, ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran with limping and pain in lower extremities and acute paraplegia without history of direct trauma. The patient had muscle weakness in lower limbs and was unable to bear weight. Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTR) in lower extremities had increased. Her MRI showed spinal subdural hematoma we reextended from T2 to T6. We performed laminectomy from T2 to T5 and about 70 cc of subdural hematoma was evacuated. One month after the surgery, the patient’s neurological deficit resolved completely. The results showed the pivotal role of attention to clinical manifestation in acute spinal subdural hematoma and early diagnosis to prevent irreversible neurologic complication 8)


Spinal subdural hematoma in pediatric nonaccidental trauma 9)


A case of spontaneous, atraumatic subdural hematoma involving the thoracic region in an 80-year-old woman on warfarin is reported. The patient presented with gross motor and sensory loss, delayed onset of incontinence, and no other symptoms. An MRI suggested an epidural hematoma concentrated around the T4-T9 levels. She was taken emergently to the OR approximately 30 hours after the initial onset of symptoms for a T3-T11 laminectomy. No epidural hematoma was noted. However, discoloration and bulging of the thecal sac were noted, and the dura was incised longitudinally from T2 to T10 revealing an expansive jelly-like blood clot which was evacuated. Postoperatively, the patient had regained 1/2 sensory function in the bilateral lower extremities. At the 2-week mark, the patient was still incontinent and showed 2/2 sensory and 2/5 motor functions in select muscle groups in her bilateral lower extremities. Completely nontraumatic, spontaneous subdural hematomas of the spine are very rare, and early surgical decompression within 24 hours from symptom onset may allow neurological recovery. Large extensive laminectomies up to 10 thoracic levels have been shown to be safe and effective in a few cases, including our case 10).


Acute lumbar spinal subdural hematoma inducing paraplegia after lumbar spinal manipulation 11).


Cases of non-traumatic spinal subdural hematoma accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage are even more rare. There are a few reports of spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma with concomitant intracranial subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage, but not with intracerebral hemorrhage. Especially in a case of Lee et al., the evaluation and diagnosis were delayed because the spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage accompanying the unilateral spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages caused hemiplegia. They reported a case of spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, for the first time, with a relevant literature review 12).


A 76-year-old woman with a spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) was presented with severe back pain without headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 4 days after onset showed SDH extending from Th2 to L3. She was diagnosed with spontaneous SDH without neurological manifestation, and conservative treatment was selected. Transient disturbance of orientation appeared 7 days after onset. Small subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected on head CT, and strict antihypertensive therapy was started. Symptoms changed for the better. Back pain disappeared 4 weeks after onset. On follow-up MRI at 6 months after onset, the SDH had been resolved spontaneously. Although adhesive arachnoiditis was observed at Th4-6, the recurrence of clinical symptoms was not observed at one year and a half after onset. Spinal subdural space is almost avascular; a hematoma in a subdural space is considered to come from a subarachnoid space when it is a lot. A hemorrhage in subarachnoid space was flushed by cerebral spinal fluid; hematoma or arachnoiditis was not formed in general. In this case, hemorrhage was a lot and expansion of SDH was large enough to cause cranial SAH and arachnoiditis. But longitudinally expanded SDH did not show neurological manifestation and resolved spontaneously 13).


A 38-year-old male patient presented with sudden lower back and bilateral leg pain.

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan on the third day after the onset of symptoms revealed a subdural hematoma from L1 to S1, presenting as hyperintensities on T1 weighted sequences and hypointensities to isointensities on T2 weighted sequences.

Laminectomy and subdural evacuation were performed immediately.

An abnormal ligamentum flavum was observed intraoperatively. A histological examination revealed extravasation of blood in the degenerated ligamentum flavum. Postoperatively, the lower limb pain improved immediately. At the 6-month follow-up, the pain and numbness of the lower limb disappeared, and the muscle strength of both legs recovered completely with normal gait.

Spontaneous SSDH with ligamentum flavum hematoma was caused by a sudden increase of intravenous pressure, resulting from a marked surge in the intra-abdominal or intrathoracic pressure. Consecutive MRI scans provided valuable information, leading to a diagnosis of spontaneous SSDH 14).


Oh et al. presented a case of acute nontraumatic SSDH presenting with transient left hemiplegia for 4 hours. A magnetic resonance imaging study of cervical spine confirmed SSDH with C3-6 cervical cord compression at the left side. The patient had conservative management without recurrence. Although hemiplegia is an unusual clinical manifestation of SSDH, it should be differentiated from that of cerebrovascular origin promptly. Conservative management may be an alternative therapeutic option for selective cases with transient neurological deficits 15).

References

1) , 6)

Gan CW, Chen SY, Chang CS, Liu JD. Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma: Case Report of 2 Years’ Clinical and Radiologic Findings. World Neurosurg. 2019 Jul;127:275-278. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.063. Epub 2019 Apr 13. PubMed PMID: 30986583.
2) , 4)

Ardebol J, Cahueque M, Lopez W, Azmitia E. Spontaneous thoracic spinal subdural hematoma associated with apixaban therapy. J Surg Case Rep. 2019 Apr 27;2019(4):rjz115. doi: 10.1093/jscr/rjz115. eCollection 2019 Apr. PubMed PMID: 31044059; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6486654.
3)

Aissa I, Elkoundi A, Andalousi R, Benakrout A, Chlouchi A, Moutaoukil M, Laaguili J, Bensghir M, Balkhi H, Lalaoui SJ. Unusual localization of bleeding under acenocoumarol: Spinal subdural hematoma. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2019;59:15-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.04.053. Epub 2019 May 10. PubMed PMID: 31100481; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6522769.
5)

Rothrock RJ, Li AY, Rumsey J, Fifi JT, Kellner CP, Roonprapunt C. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Spinal Subdural Hematoma: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature. World Neurosurg. 2019 May 16. pii: S1878-8750(19)31343-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.069. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31103768.
7)

Sanchez K, Glener S, Esplin NE, Okorie ON, Parikh A. A Case of Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Incited by a Spinal Subdural Hematoma. Case Rep Neurol Med. 2019 Jul 22;2019:9285460. doi: 10.1155/2019/9285460. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31428488; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6679891.
8)

Farzan A, Pourbakhtyaran E, Moosavian T, Moosavian H. Spinal Subdural Hematomas in a Normal Child without Trauma History: A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. 2019 Summer;13(3):121-124. PubMed PMID: 31327977; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6586447.
9)

Hong CS, Camara-Quintana J, Kundishora AJ, Diluna ML, Kahle KT. Teaching NeuroImages: Spinal subdural hematoma in pediatric nonaccidental trauma. Neurology. 2019 Jul 30;93(5):e522-e523. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007869. PubMed PMID: 31358679.
10)

Arain AR, Moral M, Shams S, Desai K, Kalsa K. Atypical Presentation of Atraumatic Spinal Subdural Hematoma Associated with Warfarin: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Rep Orthop. 2019 May 20;2019:4037916. doi: 10.1155/2019/4037916. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31236299; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6545747.
11)

Benyaich Z, Laghmari M, Lmejjati M, Aniba K, Ghannane H, Benali SA. Acute lumbar spinal subdural hematoma inducing paraplegia after lumbar spinal manipulation: A case report and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2019 May 9. pii: S1878-8750(19)31275-6. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.002. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31078801.
12)

Lee Y, Lim J, Han S, Choi SW, Youm JY, Koh HS. Spontaneous Spinal Subdural and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Concomitant Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Case Report. Korean J Neurotrauma. 2019 Apr 19;15(1):34-37. doi: 10.13004/kjnt.2019.15.e7. eCollection 2019 Apr. PubMed PMID: 31098347; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6495584.
13)

Go T, Tsutsui T, Iida Y, Fukutake K, Fukano R, Ishigaki K, Tsuchiya K, Takahashi H. A Case of Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma Complicated by Cranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Spinal Adhesive Arachnoiditis. Case Rep Orthop. 2019 Mar 13;2019:7384701. doi: 10.1155/2019/7384701. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31001442; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6436331.
14)

Li X, Yang G, Wen Z, Lou X, Lin X. Surgical treatment of progressive cauda equina compression caused by spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Mar;98(12):e14598. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014598. PubMed PMID: 30896615.
15)

Oh SH, Han IB, Koo YH, Kim OJ. Acute spinal subdural hematoma presenting with spontaneously resolving hemiplegia. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2009 Jun;45(6):390-3. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2009.45.6.390. Epub 2009 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 19609426; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2711240.
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