Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM DBS) has been proposed as a treatment option for Parkinson disease dementia.

Low-frequency NBM DBS was safely conducted in patients with Parkinson disease dementia; however, no improvements were observed in the primary cognitive outcomes. Further studies may be warranted to explore its potential to improve troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms 1).

Nombela et al., from Hospital Clínico San CarlosToronto Western Hospital, reported a Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment who underwent DBS surgery targeting the Globus pallidus internus (GPi; to treat motor symptoms) and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM; to treat cognitive symptoms) using a single electrode per hemisphere.

Compared to baseline, 2-month follow-up after GPi stimulation was associated with motor improvements, whereas partial improvements in cognitive functions were observed 3 months after the addition of NBM stimulation to GPi stimulation.

This case explores an available alternative for complete DBS treatment in PD, stimulating 2 targets at different frequencies with a single electrode lead 2).

A global experience is emerging for the use of DBS for these conditions, targeting key nodes in the memory circuit, including the fornix and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Such work holds promise as a novel therapeutic approach for one of medicine’s most urgent priorities 3).

A unique feature in the course of both Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson’s dementia (PDD) is basal forebrain degeneration including the latter’s cholinergic projections to the cortex. Neurostimulation of ascending basal forebrain projections of the Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) may, therefore, represent a new strategy for enhancing the residual nucleus basalis output. The relevance of the cholinergic forebrain for brain plasticity has, for instance, been illustrated by the reshaping of auditory receptive fields during and after stimulation of the NBM in the adult brain 4).

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert is thought to positively affect cognition and might counteract the deterioration of nutritional status and progressive weight loss observed in Alzheimer disease (AD).

A study aims to assess the nutritional status of patients with AD before receiving DBS of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and after 1 year, and to analyze potential associations between changes in cognition and nutritional status.

Nutritional status was assessed using a modified Mini Nutritional Assessment, bioelectrical impedance analysis, a completed 3-day food diary, and analysis of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate.

With a normal body mass index (BMI) at baseline (mean 23.75 kg/m²) and after 1 year (mean 24.59 kg/m²), all but one patient gained body weight during the period of the pilot study (mean 2.38 kg, 3.81% of body weight). This was reflected in a mainly stable or improved body composition, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, in five of the six patients. Mean energy intake increased from 1534 kcal/day (min 1037, max 2370) at baseline to 1736 kcal/day (min 1010, max 2663) after 1 year, leading to the improved fulfillment of energy needs in four patients. The only nutritional factors that were associated with changes in cognition were vitamin B12 level at baseline (Spearman’s rho = 0.943, p = 0.005) and changes in vitamin B12 level (Spearman’s rho = -0.829, p = 0.042).

Patients with AD that received DBS of the nucleus basalis of Meynert demonstrated a mainly stable nutritional status within a 1-year period. Whether DBS is causative regarding these observations must be investigated in additional studies 5).

Case series

Case reports



Gratwicke J, Zrinzo L, Kahan J, Peters A, Beigi M, Akram H, Hyam J, Oswal A, Day B, Mancini L, Thornton J, Yousry T, Limousin P, Hariz M, Jahanshahi M, Foltynie T. Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert for Parkinson Disease Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2018 Feb 1;75(2):169-178. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3762. PubMed PMID: 29255885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5838617.

Nombela C, Lozano A, Villanueva C, Barcia JA. Simultaneous Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Interna and the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in the Parkinson-Dementia Syndrome. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2019 Jan 10;47(1-2):19-28. doi: 10.1159/000493094. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30630160.

Sankar T, Lipsman N, Lozano AM. Deep brain stimulation for disorders of memory and cognition. Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jul;11(3):527-34. doi: 10.1007/s13311-014-0275-0. Review. PubMed PMID: 24777384; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4121440.

Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science (1998) 279(5357):1714–810.1126/science.279.5357.1714

Noreik M, Kuhn J, Hardenacke K, Lenartz D, Bauer A, Bührle CP, Häussermann P, Hellmich M, Klosterkötter J, Wiltfang J, Maarouf M, Freund HJ, Visser-Vandewalle V, Sturm V, Schulz RJ. Changes in Nutritional Status after Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer’s Disease – Results of a Phase I Study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(8):812-8. doi: 10.1007/s12603-015-0496-x. PubMed PMID: 26412285.

Dorsal root ganglion stimulation

Neuromodulation of distal targets such as dorsal root ganglion may permit greater anatomic specificity of the therapy, whereas subthreshold stimulation with high-frequency or burst energy delivery may eliminate noxious and off-target paresthesiae. Such new technologies should be subject to rigorous evaluation as their mechanisms of action and long-term outcomes remain hitherto undefined 1).


Case series

Piedade et al., from University Hospital of Düsseldorf, reported a consecutive series of 20 patients treated with DRG stimulation in the upper thoracic and cervical region. All patients suffered from chronic neuropathic pain unresponsive to best medical treatment. Main pain etiologies were traumaspine surgerypostherpetic neuralgia, and peripheral nerve surgery. All patients were trialed with externalized electrodes prior to permanent pulse generator implantation. Routine clinical follow-up was performed during reprogramming sessions.

Out of all 20 patients trialed, 18 were successfully trialed and implanted with a permanent stimulation system. The average pain relief after three months compared to the baseline was of 60.9% (mean VAS 8.5 to VAS 3.2). 77.8% of the patients reported a pain relief of at least 50% after three months. One patient developed a transient paresis of the arm caused by the procedure. She completely recovered within three months.

Cervical and upper thoracic DRG stimulation resulted in good overall response rates to trialing and similar pain relief when compared to DRG stimulation for groin and lower limb pain. A modified surgical approach has to be used when compared with lumbar DRG electrode placement. Surgery itself in this region is more complication prone and challenging 2).

Morgalla et al., prospectively enrolled 12 adult patients with unilateral localized neuropathic pain in the lower limbs or inguinal region and followed them up for six months Laser evoked potentials (LEP) were assessed at baseline, after one month of DRGS, and after six months of DRGS. Clinical assessment included the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). For each patient, LEP amplitudes and latencies of the N2 and P2 components on the deafferented side were measured and compared to those of the healthy side and correlated with pain intensity, as measured with the NRS.

At the one- and six-month follow-ups, N2-P2 amplitudes were significantly greater and NRS scores were significantly lower compared with baseline (all p’s < 0.01). There was a negative correlation between LEP amplitudes and NRS scores (rs = -0.31, p < 0.10).

DRGS is able to restore LEPs to normal values in patients with localized neuropathic pain, and LEP alterations are correlated with clinical response in terms of pain intensity 3).

Case reports

van Velsen et al. used a single-incision approach to tunnel and implant the leads and pulse generator for DRG stimulation treatment in a patient suffering from intractable foot pain. At long-term follow-up, the patient experienced a decrease in pain intensity and improvement in function, without any complications. A single-incision implantation technique for DRG stimulator implantation may simplify implantation and decrease the risk of complications 4).



Shamji MF, De Vos C, Sharan A. The Advancing Role of Neuromodulation for the Management of Chronic Treatment-Refractory Pain. Neurosurgery. 2017 Mar 1;80(3S):S108-S113. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyw047. PubMed PMID: 28350939.

Piedade GS, Vesper J, Chatzikalfas A, Slotty PJ. Cervical and High-Thoracic Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation in Chronic Neuropathic Pain. Neuromodulation. 2019 Jan 8. doi: 10.1111/ner.12916. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30620789.

Morgalla MH, de Barros Filho MF, Chander BS, Soekadar SR, Tatagiba M, Lepski G. Neurophysiological Effects of Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation (DRGS) in Pain Processing at the Cortical Level. Neuromodulation. 2018 Dec 18. doi: 10.1111/ner.12900. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30561852.

van Velsen V, van Helmond N, Levine ME, Chapman KB. Single-Incision Approach to Implantation of the Pulse Generator and Leads for Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation: A Case Report. A A Case Rep. 2017 Aug 14. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000625. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28816708.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for stroke

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with treadmill training has been suggested to modulate corticomotor activity and improve gait performance in people with Parkinson’s disease.

It is unclear whether this combination therapy has a similar effect in people with stroke.


Studies included in a review were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science. The search terms were (rTMS OR “repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation”) AND (stroke OR “cerebrovascular accident” OR CVA) AND (rehab OR rehabilitation OR recover*). The retrieved records were assessed for eligibility and the most relevant features extracted to a summary table.

Seventy out of 691 records were deemed eligible, according to the selection criteria. The majority of the articles report rTMS showing potential in improving motor function, although some negative reports, all from randomized controlled trials, contradict this claim. Future studies are needed because there is a possibility that a bias for non-publication of negative results may be present.

rTMS has been shown to be a promising tool for stroke rehabilitation, in spite of the lack of standard operational procedures and harmonization. Efforts should be devoted to provide a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms and protocol standardization 1).

Case series

A study of Wang et al., from the Taipei Veterans General Hospital aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS enhances the effects of subsequent treadmill training in individuals with chronic stroke.

Fourteen participants meeting the selection criteria were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 8) or control (n = 6) group. The experimental group received 5 Hz rTMS prior to treadmill training three times per week for 3 weeks. The control group received sham rTMS before treadmill training. Walking speed, gait symmetry, corticomotor excitability, motor function of the lower extremities, and muscle activity during walking were measured before intervention, after intervention, and at 1-month follow-up.

The walking speed, spatial asymmetry of gait, and motor function of the lower extremities improved significantly in the experimental group, and these improvements exhibited significant differences in between-group comparisons. However, there was no significant difference in corticomotor excitability or brain asymmetry ratio after the intervention in each group.

The current results revealed that applying 5 Hz high-frequency rTMS over the leg motor cortex in the affected hemisphere enhanced the effects of subsequent treadmill training on gait speed and spatial asymmetry in individuals with chronic stroke. Improvement in gait speed persisted for at least 1 month in individuals with chronic stroke 2).

Bates and Rodger, used it in motor functional recovery from cerebral ischemic stroke to illustrate the difficulties in interpreting and assessing the therapeutic potential of rTMS for neurotrauma in terms of the presumed mechanisms of action of rTMS 3).



Dionísio A, Duarte IC, Patrício M, Castelo-Branco M. The Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Jan;27(1):1-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.09.008. Epub 2017 Oct 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 29111342.

Wang RY, Wang FY, Huang SF, Yang YR. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhanced treadmill training effects on gait performance in individuals with chronic stroke: A double-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial. Gait Posture. 2018 Dec 18;68:382-387. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.12.023. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30586670.

Bates KA, Rodger J. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for stroke rehabilitation-potential therapy or misplaced hope? Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015;33(4):557-69. doi: 10.3233/RNN-130359. Review. PubMed PMID: 24595227

Sedatives and opioids used during deep brain stimulation (DBS)

Sedatives and opioids used during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery interfere with optimal target localization and add to side effects and risks, and thus should be minimized.

To retrospectively test the actual need for sedatives and opioids when cranial nerve blocks and specific therapeutic communication are applied.

In a case series, 64 consecutive patients Zech et al. from University Hospital Regensburg, treated with a strong rapport, constant contact, non-verbal communication and hypnotic suggestions, such as dissociation to a “safe place,” reframing of disturbing noises and self-confirmation, and compared to 22 preceding patients under standard general anesthesia or conscious sedation.

With introduction of the protocol the need for sedation dropped from 100% in the control group to 5%, and from a mean dose of 444 mg to 40 mg in 3 patients. Remifentanil originally used in 100% of the patients in an average dose of 813 µg was reduced in the study group to 104 µg in 31% of patients. There were no haemodynamic reactions indicative of stress during incision, trepanationelectrode insertion and closure.

With adequate therapeutic communication, patients do not require sedation and no or only low-dose opioid treatment during DBS surgery, leaving patients fully awake and competent during surgery and testing 1)1) Zech N, Seemann M, Seyfried TF, Lange M, Schlaier J, Hansen E. Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery without Sedation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2018 Dec 5:1-9. doi: 10.1159/000494803. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30517938.

Update: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for language mapping

In respect to language mapping with repetitive nTMS, literature reports have yielded variable results, and it is currently not routinely performed for presurgical language localization.
The expert panel recommends nTMS motor mapping in routine neurosurgical practice, as it has a sufficient level of evidence supporting its reliability. The panel recommends that nTMS language mapping be used in the framework of clinical studies to continue refinement of its protocol and increase reliability 1).
Although language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) gains importance in neuropsychological research and clinical utility, neuroscientists still use different mapping protocols including different stimulation frequencies.
The stimulation frequency has to be adapted to the aim of the rTMS language investigation 2).


Ille et al. performed multimodal language mapping in 35 patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions by using rTMS, fMRI, and DCS. The rTMS mappings were conducted with a picture-to-trigger interval (PTI, time between stimulus presentation and stimulation onset) of either 0 or 300 msec. The error rates (ERs; that is, the number of errors per number of stimulations) were calculated for each region of the cortical parcellation system (CPS). Subsequently, the rTMS mappings were analyzed through different error rate thresholds (ERT; that is, the ER at which a CPS region was defined as language positive in terms of rTMS), and the 2-out-of-3 rule (a stimulation site was defined as language positive in terms of rTMS if at least 2 out of 3 stimulations caused an error). As a second step, the authors combined the results of fMRI and rTMS in a predefined protocol of combined noninvasive mapping. To validate this noninvasive protocol, they correlated its results to DCS during awake surgery.
The analysis by different rTMS ERTs obtained the highest correlation regarding sensitivity and a low rate of false positives for the ERTs of 15%, 20%, 25%, and the 2-out-of-3 rule. However, when comparing the combined fMRI and rTMS results with DCS, the authors observed an overall specificity of 83%, a positive predictive value of 51%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a negative predictive value of 95%.
In comparison with fMRI, rTMS is a more sensitive but less specific tool for preoperative language mapping than DCS. Moreover, rTMS is most reliable when using ERTs of 15%, 20%, 25%, or the 2-out-of-3 rule and a PTI of 0 msec. Furthermore, the combination of fMRI and rTMS leads to a higher correlation to DCS than both techniques alone, and the presented protocols for combined noninvasive language mapping might play a supportive role in the language-mapping assessment prior to the gold-standard intraoperative DCS 3).


nTMS and MEGI were performed on 12 subjects. nTMS yielded 21 positive language disruption sites (11 speech arrest, 5 anomia, and 5 other) while DCS yielded 10 positive sites (2 speech arrest, 5 anomia, and 3 other). MEGI isolated 32 sites of peak activation with language tasks. Positive language sites were most commonly found in the pars opercularis for all three modalities. In 9 instances the positive DCS site corresponded to a positive nTMS site, while in 1 instance it did not. In 4 instances, a positive nTMS site corresponded to a negative DCS site, while 169 instances of negative nTMS and DCS were recorded. The sensitivity of nTMS was therefore 90%, specificity was 98%, the positive predictive value was 69% and the negative predictive value was 99% as compared with intraoperative DCS. MEGI language sites for verb generation and object naming correlated with nTMS sites in 5 subjects, and with DCS sites in 2 subjects. CONCLUSION: Maps of language function generated with nTMS correlate well with those generated by DCS. Negative nTMS mapping also correlates with negative DCS mapping. In our study, MEGI lacks the same level of correlation with intraoperative mapping; nevertheless it provides useful adjunct information in some cases. nTMS may offer a lesion-based method for noninvasively interrogating language pathways and be valuable in managing patients with peri-eloquent lesions 4).

Twenty patients with tumors in or close to left-sided language eloquent regions were examined by repetitive nTMS before surgery. During awake surgery, language-eloquent cortex was identified by DCS. nTMS results were compared for accuracy and reliability with regard to DCS by projecting both results into the cortical parcellation system.
Presurgical nTMS maps showed an overall sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 23.8%, positive predictive value of 35.6%, and negative predictive value of 83.9% compared with DCS. For the anatomic Broca’s area, the corresponding values were a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 13.0%, positive predictive value of 56.5%, and negative predictive value of 100%, respectively.
Good overall correlation between repetitive nTMS and DCS was observed, particularly with regard to negatively mapped regions. Noninvasive inhibition mapping with nTMS is evolving as a valuable tool for preoperative mapping of language areas. Yet its low specificity in posterior language areas in the current study necessitates further research to refine the methodology 5).

Krieg SM, Lioumis P, Mäkelä JP, Wilenius J, Karhu J, Hannula H, Savolainen P, Lucas CW, Seidel K, Laakso A, Islam M, Vaalto S, Lehtinen H, Vitikainen AM, Tarapore PE, Picht T. Protocol for motor and language mapping by navigated TMS in patients and healthy volunteers; workshop report. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017 Jul;159(7):1187-1195. doi: 10.1007/s00701-017-3187-z. Epub 2017 Apr 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 28456870.

Hauck T, Tanigawa N, Probst M, Wohlschlaeger A, Ille S, Sollmann N, Maurer S, Zimmer C, Ringel F, Meyer B, Krieg SM. Stimulation frequency determines the distribution of language positive cortical regions during navigated transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. BMC Neurosci. 2015 Feb 18;16(1):5. PubMed PMID: 25880838.

Ille S, Sollmann N, Hauck T, Maurer S, Tanigawa N, Obermueller T, Negwer C, Droese D, Zimmer C, Meyer B, Ringel F, Krieg SM. Combined noninvasive language mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI and its comparison with direct cortical stimulation. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jul;123(1):212-25. doi: 10.3171/2014.9.JNS14929. Epub 2015 Mar 6. PubMed PMID: 25748306.

Tarapore PE, Findlay AM, Honma SM, Mizuiri D, Houde JF, Berger MS, Nagarajan SS. Language mapping with navigated repetitive TMS: proof of technique and validation. Neuroimage. 2013 Nov 15;82:260-72. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.018. Epub 2013 May 20. PubMed PMID: 23702420; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3759608.

Picht T, Krieg SM, Sollmann N, Rösler J, Niraula B, Neuvonen T, Savolainen P, Lioumis P, Mäkelä JP, Deletis V, Meyer B, Vajkoczy P, Ringel F. A comparison of language mapping by preoperative navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and direct cortical stimulation during awake surgery. Neurosurgery. 2013 May;72(5):808-19. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182889e01. PubMed PMID: 23385773.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Perspectives for the Use of Deep Brain Stimulation

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, warfare, serious injury, or threats of imminent death.
The diagnosis may be given when a group of symptoms, such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal, continue for more than a month after the occurrence of a traumatic event.
Most people having experienced a traumatizing event will not develop PTSD. People who experience assault-based trauma are more likely to develop PTSD, as opposed to people who experience non-assault based trauma such as witnessing trauma, accidents, and fire events.
Children are less likely to experience PTSD after trauma than adults, especially if they are under ten years of age.
War veterans are commonly at risk for PTSD.

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) contributes to development of affective disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Psychiatric symptoms typically emerge in a tardive fashion post-TBI, with negative effects on recovery. Patients with PTSD, as well as rodent models of PTSD, demonstrate structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating fear learning, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HC). These changes may reflect loss of top-down control by which PFC normally exhibits inhibitory influence over AMYG reactivity to fearful stimuli, with HC contribution. Considering the susceptibility of these regions to injury, Schneider et al., examined fear conditioning (FC) in the delayed post-injury period, using a mouse model of mTBI. Mice with mTBI displayed enhanced acquisition and delayed extinction of FC. Using Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ex vivo, they examined PFC, AMYG, and HC levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate as surrogate measures of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission, respectively. Eight days post-injury, GABA was increased in PFC, with no significant changes in AMYG. In animals receiving FC and mTBI, glutamate trended toward an increase and the GABA/glutamate ratio decreased in ventral HC at 25 days post-injury, whereas GABA decreased and GABA/glutamate decreased in dorsal HC. These neurochemical changes are consistent with early TBI-induced PFC hypoactivation facilitating the fear learning circuit and exacerbating behavioral fear responses. The latent emergence of overall increased excitatory tone in the HC, despite distinct plasticity in dorsal and ventral HC fields, may be associated with disordered memory function, manifested as incomplete extinction and enhanced FC recall 1).


Although most patients often improve with medications and/or psychotherapy, approximately 20-30% are considered to be refractory to conventional treatments. In other psychiatric disorders, DBS has been investigated in treatment-refractory patients. To date, preclinical work suggests that stimulation at high frequency delivered at particular timeframes to different targets, including the amygdala, ventral striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex may improve fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the only clinical report published so far, a patient implanted with electrodes in the amygdala has shown striking improvements in PTSD symptoms.
Neuroimaging, preclinical, and preliminary clinical data suggest that the use of DBS for the treatment of PTSD may be practical but the field requires further investigation 2).
1) Schneider BL, Ghoddoussi F, Charlton JL, Kohler RJ, Galloway MP, Perrine SA, Conti AC. Increased Cortical Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Precedes Incomplete Extinction of Conditioned Fear and Increased Hippocampal Excitatory Tone in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Sep 1;33(17):1614-24. doi: 10.1089/neu.2015.4190. Epub 2016 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 26529240.
2) Reznikov R, Hamani C. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Perspectives for the Use of Deep Brain Stimulation. Neuromodulation. 2016 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/ner.12551. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 27992092.

Deep Brain Stimulation: Indications and Applications

Deep Brain Stimulation: Indications and Applications

From Pan Stanford

Deep Brain Stimulation: Indications and Applications

List Price: $179.95
Drawing on the extensive clinical and research expertise of the Mayo Clinic Neural Engineering Laboratory, USA, led by Kendall H. Lee, MD, PhD, this book addresses the history of therapeutic electrical stimulation of the brain, its current application and outcomes, as well as theories about its underlying mechanisms. It reviews cutting-edge research on measures of local stimulation–evoked neurochemical release, latest imaging research on stimulation-induced neural circuitry activation, and the state of the art on closed-loop feedback devices for stimulation delivery.

Product Details

  • Published on: 2016-11-30
  • Original language: English
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • 600 pages

Book: Deep Brain Stimulation Programming: Mechanisms, Principles and Practice

Deep Brain Stimulation Programming: Mechanisms, Principles and Practice
By Erwin B Montgomery Jr

Deep Brain Stimulation Programming: Mechanisms, Principles and Practice

List Price:$79.95
Deep brain stimulation programming (DBS) continues to grow as an effective therapy for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, helping patients reach optimal control of their disorder. With the technique finding so much success, the next question is how to make the complexities of post-operative programming cost-effective, especially when traditional medications and treatments can no longer do the job.
The second edition of Deep Brain Stimulation Programming is fully revised and up-to-date with the latest technologies and focuses on post-operative programing, which no other text does. This book provides programmers with a foundation of the brain as an electrical device, focusing on the mechanisms by which neurons respond to electrical stimulation, how to control the stimulation and the regional anatomy, and the many variations that influence a patient’s response to DBS. Dr. Montgomery explores new techniques of programming; including those based on stimulation frequency, closed-loop DBS, and the roles of oscillators in DBS; and new technological advances that make pre-existing theories of pathophysiology obsolete.
Key Features of the Second Edition Include
· Highlights post-operative deep brain stimulation;
· Includes the most recent discoveries in deep brain stimulation programming;
· Highly illustrated with figures for absorption of key programming and techniques;
· Provides an appendix of additional resources available through the Greenville Neuromodulation Center.

Product Details

  • Published on: 2016-11-04
  • Original language: English
  • Dimensions: 7.10″ h x .60″ w x 10.10″ l, .0 pounds
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • 248 pages

Editorial Reviews

“This work is a comprehensive treatise of many of the theoretical and practical aspects of the application of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). It spans the fundamental principles of electrical stimulation, electrophysiology and neuroanatomical considerations and outlines an approach to programming DBS at the most commonly utilized targets for Parkinson’s disease. The book will be of value to practitioners who treat patients with DBS providing important key background knowledge and a practical path towards tackling the challenges of choosing optimal stimulation parameters for these patients.”
Andres M. Lozano, MD, PhD, FRCSC, FRSC, FCAHS, Dan Family Professor and Chairman in Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
“As we become a bionic generation there is a large knowledge gap in programming deep brain stimulation devices. Dr. Montgomery’s book addresses the principles of electrophysiology and the details of the pertinent brain regional anatomy. Dr. Montgomery helps the reader to identify and to utilize critical information to guide effective and efficient DBS programming. This is a must read, especially for new generation of health care professionals involved in the care of DBS patients.” —Michael S. Okun, MD, Adelaide Lackner Professor and Chairman of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
About the Author
Dr. Montgomery is a Movement Disorders Neurologist with a special interest in Parkinson’s disease. He has conducted research in motor neurophysiology, particularly the role of the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical system and the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease for over 40 years. For the last 20 years, he has focused on deep brain stimulation in its clinical use and its underlying physiological mechanisms.
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Psychosurgery: New Techniques for Brain Disorders Psychosurgery: New Techniques for Brain Disorders by Marc Lévêque
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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 34 Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 34
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Surgery for Parkinson's Disease Surgery for Parkinson’s Disease
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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery
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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery (Volume 25) Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery (Volume 25)
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Handbook of Neuroethics Handbook of Neuroethics
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Pathophysiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry of Dyskinesia: 98 (International Review of Neurobiology) Pathophysiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry of Dyskinesia: 98 (International Review of Neurobiology)
MRI Guided and MRI Verified Deep Brain Stimulation: Accuracy, Safety and Efficacy MRI Guided and MRI Verified Deep Brain Stimulation: Accuracy, Safety and Efficacy by L. Zrinzo
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