Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage surgery
Based on the MIMIC-III database, Yi et al. from the Guangzhou Overseas Chinese Hospital firstly described the dissimilarities in survival probability, mortality, and neurological recovery among mainstream treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage; secondly, patient classification was determined by important clinical features; and outcome variations among treatment groups were compared. The 28-day, 90-day, and in-hospital mortality in the craniotomy group were significantly lower than minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and non-surgical group patients; and, the medium/long-term mortality in the MIS group was significantly lower than the non-surgical group. The craniotomy group positively correlated with short-term GCS recovery compared with the MIS group; no difference existed between the non-surgical and MIS groups. The craniotomy group’s 90-day survival probability and short-term GCS recovery were superior to the other two treatments in the subgroups of first GCS 3-12; this tendency also presented in the MIS group over the non-surgical group. For milder patients (first GCS > 12), the three treatment regimens had a minimal effect on patient survival, but the non-surgical group showed an advantage in short-term GCS recovery. Craniotomy patients have lower mortality and a better short-term neurological recovery in an ICH population, especially in short-to-medium term mortality and short-term neurological recovery over MIS patients. In addition, surgical treatment is recommendable for patients with a GCS ≤ 12. 1).
Randomized controlled trials
Open craniotomy is the most widely studied surgical techniques in patients with supratentorial ICH. Other methods include endoscopic hemorrhage aspiration, use of fibrinolytic therapy to dissolve the clot followed by aspiration, and CT-guided stereotactic aspiration 4) 5).
Intracerebral hemorrhage minimally invasive surgery
Endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage
Early decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) with or without clot evacuation is feasible and safe for managing spontaneous ICH. The experience of Esquenazi et al. in a uncontrolled retrospective series, the largest such series in the modern era, suggests that it may be of particular benefit in patients with large non-dominant hemisphere ICH who are not moribund at presentation. These findings suggest that a prospective randomized trial of DH vs. craniotomy for ICH be conducted.
Over 7 years, DH was performed in 73 patients with clot evacuation in 86% and DH alone in 14%. The average ICH volume was 81 cc and the median DH surface area was 105 cm(2). 26 patients were comatose at initial presentation. Three-month functional outcomes were favorable in 29%, unfavorable in 44% and 27% of patients expired. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (p=0.003), dominant hemisphere ICH location (p=0.01) and hematoma volume (p=0.002) contributed significantly to the outcome, as estimated by a multivariate analysis. Eight surgical complications occurred. 9).