Severe traumatic brain injury outcome

Severe traumatic brain injury outcome

There has been a secular trend towards reduced incidence of severe traumatic brain injury in the first world, driven by public health interventions such as seatbelt legislation, helmet use, and workplace health and safety regulations. This has paralleled improved outcomes following TBI delivered in a large part by the widespread establishment of specialised neurointensive care 1).

Effect of trauma center designation in severe traumatic brain injury outcome

see Effect of trauma center designation in severe traumatic brain injury outcome


Mortality or severe disability affects the majority of patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adherence to the brain trauma foundation severe traumatic brain injury guidelines has overall improved outcomes; however, traditional as well as novel interventions towards intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury have come under scrutiny after series of negative randomized controlled trials. In fact, it would not be unfair to say there has been no single major breakthrough in the management of severe TBI in the last two decades. One plausible hypothesis for the aforementioned failures is that by the time treatment is initiated for neuroprotection, or physiologic optimization, irreversible brain injury has already set in. Lazaridis et al., and others, have developed predictive models based on machine learning from continuous time series of intracranial pressure and partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen. These models provide accurate predictions of physiologic crises events in a timely fashion, offering the opportunity for an earlier application of targeted interventions. In a article, Lazaridis et al., review the rationale for prediction, discuss available predictive models with examples, and offer suggestions for their future prospective testing in conjunction with preventive clinical algorithms 2).


Determining the prognostic significance of clinical factors for patients with severe head injury can lead to an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of head injury and to improvement in therapy. A technique known as the sequential Bayes method has been used previously for the purpose of prognosis. The application of this method assumes that prognostic factors are statistically independent. It is now known that they are not. Violation of the assumption of independence may produce errors in determining prognosis. As an alternative technique for predicting the outcome of patients with severe head injury, a logistic regression model is proposed. A preliminary evaluation of the method using data from 115 patients with head injury shows the feasibility of using early data to predict outcome accurately and of being able to rank input variables in order of their prognostc significance. 3).


A prospective and consecutive series of 225 patients with severe head injuries who were managed in a uniform way was analyzed to relate outcome to several clinical variables. Good recovery or moderate disability were achieved by 56% of the patients, 10% remained severely disabled or vegetative, and 34% died. Factors important in predicting a poor outcome included the presence of intracranial hematoma, increasing age, motor impairment, impaired or absent eye movements or pupillary light reflexes, early hypotension, hypoxemia or hypercarbia, and raised intracranial pressure over 20 mm Hg despite artificial ventilation. Most of these predictive factors were assessed on admission, but a subset of 158 patients was identified in whom coma was present on admission and was known to have persisted at least until the following day. Although the mortality in this subset (40%) was higher than in the total series, it was lower than in several comparable reported series of patients with severe head injury. Predictive correlations were equally strong in the entire series and in the subset of 158 patients with coma. A plea is made for inclusion in the definition of “severe head injury” of all patients who do not obey commands or utter recognizable words on admission to the hospital after early resuscitation 4).


Survival rate of isolated severe TBI patients who required an emergent neurosurgical intervention could be time dependent. These patients might benefit from expedited process (computed tomographic scan, neurosurgical consultation, etc.) to shorten the time to surgical intervention 5).

The impact of a moderate to severe brain injury can include:

Cognitive deficits including difficulties with:

Attention Concentration Distractibility Memory Speed of Processing Confusion Perseveration Impulsiveness Language Processing “Executive functions” Speech and Language

not understanding the spoken word (receptive aphasia) difficulty speaking and being understood (expressive aphasia) slurred speech speaking very fast or very slow problems reading problems writing Sensory

difficulties with interpretation of touch, temperature, movement, limb position and fine discrimination Perceptual

the integration or patterning of sensory impressions into psychologically meaningful data Vision

partial or total loss of vision weakness of eye muscles and double vision (diplopia) blurred vision problems judging distance involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) intolerance of light (photophobia) Hearing

decrease or loss of hearing ringing in the ears (tinnitus) increased sensitivity to sounds Smell

loss or diminished sense of smell (anosmia) Taste

loss or diminished sense of taste Seizures

the convulsions associated with epilepsy that can be several types and can involve disruption in consciousness, sensory perception, or motor movements Physical Changes

Physical paralysis/spasticity Chronic pain Control of bowel and bladder Sleep disorders Loss of stamina Appetite changes Regulation of body temperature Menstrual difficulties Social-Emotional

Dependent behaviors Emotional ability Lack of motivation Irritability Aggression Depression Disinhibition Denial/lack of awareness


Both single predictors from early clinical examination and multiple hospitalization variables/parameters can be used to determine the long-term prognosis of TBI. Predictive models like the IMPACT or CRASH prognosis calculator (based on large sample sizes) can predict mortality and unfavorable outcomes. Moreover, imaging techniques like MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) can also predict consciousness recovery and mental recovery in severe TBI, while biomarkers associated with stress correlate with, and hence can be used to predict, severity and mortality. All predictors have limitations in clinical application. Further studies comparing different predictors and models are required to resolve limitations of current predictors 6).

References

1)

Khellaf A, Khan DZ, Helmy A. Recent advances in traumatic brain injury. J Neurol. 2019 Sep 28. doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09541-4. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31563989.
2)

Lazaridis C, Rusin CG, Robertson CS. Secondary Brain Injury: Predicting and Preventing Insults. Neuropharmacology. 2018 Jun 6. pii: S0028-3908(18)30279-X. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.06.005. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 29885419.
3)

Stablein DM, Miller JD, Choi SC, Becker DP. Statistical methods for determining prognosis in severe head injury. Neurosurgery. 1980 Mar;6(3):243-8. PubMed PMID: 6770283.
4)

Miller JD, Butterworth JF, Gudeman SK, Faulkner JE, Choi SC, Selhorst JB, Harbison JW, Lutz HA, Young HF, Becker DP. Further experience in the management of severe head injury. J Neurosurg. 1981 Mar;54(3):289-99. PubMed PMID: 7463128.
5)

Matsushima K, Inaba K, Siboni S, Skiada D, Strumwasser AM, Magee GA, Sung GY, Benjaminm ER, Lam L, Demetriades D. Emergent operation for isolated severe traumatic brain injury: Does time matter? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26317818.
6)

Gao L, Wu X. Prediction of clinical outcome in severe traumatic brain injury. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2015 Jan 1;20:763-771. PubMed PMID: 25553477.

Cervical traumatic spinal cord injury outcome

Cervical traumatic spinal cord injury outcome

Injury to the spine and spinal cord is one of the common cause of disability and death. Several factors affect the outcome; but which are these factors (alone and in combination), are determining the outcomes are still unknown.

Based on parameters from the International Standards, physicians are able to inform patients about the predicted long-term outcomes, including the ability to walk, with high accuracy. In those patients who cannot participate in a reliable physical neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological examinations may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information. As clinical research on this topic continues, the prognostic value of the reviewed diagnostic assessments will become more accurate in the near future. These advances will provide useful information for physicians to counsel tSCI patients and their families during the catastrophic initial phase after the injury 1).

In cervical traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), the therapeutic effect of timing of surgery on neurological recovery remains uncertain. Additionally, the relationship between the extent of decompression, imaging biomarker evidence of injury severity, and the outcome are incompletely understood.

Aarabi et al., investigated the effect of timing of decompression on long-term neurological outcome in patients with complete spinal cord decompression confirmed on postoperative MRI. AIS grade conversion was determined in 72 AIS grades A, B, and C patients 6 months after confirmed decompression. Thirty-two patients underwent decompressive surgery ultra-early (<12 hours), 25 early (12-24 hours), and 15 late (>24-138.5 hours) after injury. Age, gender, injury mechanism, intramedullary lesion length (IMLL) on MRI, admission ASIA motor score, and surgical technique were not statistically different between groups. Motor complete patients (p=0.009) and those with fracture-dislocations (p=0.01) tended to be operated earlier. Improvement of one grade or more was present in 55.6% in AIS grade A, 60.9% in AIS grade B, and 86.4% in AIS grade C patients. Admission AIS motor score (p=0.0004) and pre-operative IMLL (p=0.00001) were the strongest predictors of neurological outcome. AIS grade improvement occurred in 65.6%, 60%, and 80% of patients who underwent decompression ultra-early, early, and late, respectively (p=0.424). Multiple regression analysis revealed that IMLL was the only significant variable predictive of AIS grade conversion to a better grade (odds ratio, 0.908; CI, 0.862-0.957; p<0.001).

They conclude that in patients with postoperative MRI confirmation of complete decompression following cervical TSCI, pre-operative IMLL, not the timing of surgery, determine the long-term neurological outcome 2).


Preclinical and class III clinical data suggest improved outcomes by maintaining the mean arterial pressure > 85 mm Hg and avoiding hypoxemia at least for 7 days following cervical SCI, and this level of monitoring and support should occur in the ICU 3).


100 cases of patients under 18 years at accident with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury admitted to spinal cord injury SCI centers participating in the European Multi-center study about SCI (EMSCI) between January 2005 and April 2016 were reviewed. According to their age at the accident, age 13 to 17, patients were selected for the adolescent group. After applying in- and exclusion criteria 32 adolescents were included. Each adolescent patient was matched with two adult SCI patients for analysis.

ASIA Impairment scale (AIS) grade, neurological, sensory, motor level, total motor score, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) total score.

Mean AIS conversion, neurological, motor and sensory levels, as well as total motor score, showed no significant statistical difference in adolescents compared to the adult control group after a follow up of 6 months. Significantly higher final SCIM scores (p < 0.05) in the adolescent group compared to adults as well as a strong trend for a higher gain in SCIM score (p < 0.061) between first and last follow up was found.

Neurological outcome after traumatic cervical SCI is not superior in adolescents compared to adults in this cohort. Significantly higher SCIM scores indicate more functional gain for adolescent patients after traumatic cervical SCI. Juvenile age appears to be an independent predictor for a better functional outcome. 4).


A prospective observational study at single-center with all patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), attending our hospital within a week of injury during a period of October 2011 to July 2013 was included for analysis. Demographic factors such as age, gender, etiology of injury, preoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade, upper (C2-C4) versus lower (C5-C7) cervical level of injury, image factors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and timing of intervention were studied. Change in neurological status by one or more ASIA grade from the date of admission to 6 months follow-up was taken as an improvement. Functional grading was assessed using the functional independence measure (FIM) scale at 6 months follow-up.

A total of 39 patients with an acute cervical spine injury, managed surgically were included in this study. Follow-up was available for 38 patients at 6 months. No improvement was noted in patients with ASIA Grade A. Maximum improvement was noted in ASIA Grade D group (83.3%). The improvement was more significant in lower cervical region injuries. Patients with cord contusion showed no improvement as opposed to those with just edema wherein; the improvement was seen in 62.5% of patients. The percentage of improvement in cord edema ≤3 segments (75%) was significantly higher than edema with >3 segments (42.9%). Maximum improvement in FIM score was noted in ASIA Grade C and patients who had edema (especially ≤3 segments) in MRI cervical spine.

Complete cervical SCI, upper-level cervical cord injury, patients showing MRI contusion, edema >3 segments group have a worst improvement in neurological status at 6 months follow-up 5).


A total of 66 patients diagnosed with traumatic cervical SCI were selected for neurological assessment (using the International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury [ISNCSCI]) and functional evaluation (based on the Korean version Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI] and Functional Independence Measure [FIM]) at admission and upon discharge. All of the subjects received a preliminary electrophysiological assessment, according to which they were divided into two groups as follows: those with cervical radiculopathy (the SCI/Rad group) and those without (the SCI group).

A total of 32 patients with cervical SCI (48.5%) had cervical radiculopathy. The initial ISNCSCI scores for sensory and motor, K-MBI, and total FIM did not significantly differ between the SCI group and the SCI/Rad group. However, at discharge, the ISNCSCI scores for motor, K-MBI, and FIM of the SCI/Rad group showed less improvement (5.44±8.08, 15.19±19.39 and 10.84±11.49, respectively) than those of the SCI group (10.76±9.86, 24.79±19.65 and 17.76±15.84, respectively) (p<0.05). In the SCI/Rad group, the number of involved levels of cervical radiculopathy was negatively correlated with the initial and follow-up motors score by ISNCSCI.

Cervical radiculopathy is not rare in patients with traumatic cervical SCI, and it can impede neurological and functional improvement. Therefore, detection of combined cervical radiculopathy by electrophysiological assessment is essential for the accurate prognosis of cervical SCI patients in the rehabilitation unit 6).

References

1)

van Middendorp JJ, Goss B, Urquhart S, Atresh S, Williams RP, Schuetz M. Diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic spinal cord injury. Global Spine J. 2011 Dec;1(1):1-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296049. PubMed PMID: 24353930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3864437.
2)

Aarabi B, Akhtar-Danesh N, Chryssikos T, Shanmuganathan K, Schwartzbauer G, Simard MJ, Olexa J, Sansur C, Crandall K, Mushlin H, Kole M, Le E, Wessell A, Pratt N, Cannarsa G, Diaz Lomangino C, Scarboro M, Aresco C, Oliver J, Caffes N, Carbine S, Kanami M. Efficacy of Ultra-Early (<12 hours), Early (12-24 hours), and Late (>24-138.5 hours) Surgery with MRI-Confirmed Decompression in AIS grades A, B, and C Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.1089/neu.2019.6606. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31310155.
3)

Schwartzbauer G, Stein D. Critical Care of Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries: Preventing Secondary Injury. Semin Neurol. 2016 Dec;36(6):577-585. Epub 2016 Dec 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 27907962.
4)

Geuther M, Grassner L, Mach O, Klein B, Högel F, Voth M, Bühren V, Maier D, Abel R, Weidner N, Rupp R, Fürstenberg CH; EMSCI study group, Schneidmueller D. Functional outcome after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury is superior in adolescents compared to adults. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2018 Dec 11. pii: S1090-3798(18)30247-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.12.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30579697.
5)

Srinivas BH, Rajesh A, Purohit AK. Factors affecting the outcome of acute cervical spine injury: A prospective study. Asian J Neurosurg. 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):416-423. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.180942. PubMed PMID: 28761518; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5532925.
6)

Kim SY, Kim TU, Lee SJ, Hyun JK. The prognosis for patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury combined with cervical radiculopathy. Ann Rehabil Med. 2014 Aug;38(4):443-9. doi: 10.5535/arm.2014.38.4.443. Epub 2014 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 25229022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4163583.

Traumatic Brain Injury: Assessment and Management

Traumatic Brain Injury: Assessment and Management

$127.24

Buy

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also referred to as intracranial injury, occurs due to trauma to the brain. It can cause a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, social and emotional symptoms. Its outcome can vary from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. TBI can occur due to an accident, physical violence or a fall. Its diagnosis involves the use of techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography. Depending on the extent of the injury, confirmed through a diagnosis, treatment can be minimal or extensive involving medications, surgery and rehabilitation therapies. This book discusses the fundamental as well as modern approaches in the assessment and management of traumatic brain injury. The topics included in this book are of utmost significance and bound to provide incredible insights to readers. It will prove to be immensely beneficial to students and researchers in this domain.

WhatsApp WhatsApp us
%d bloggers like this: