Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

see Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis

see Awake Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia

see also Endoscope assisted microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia.

Microvascular decompression is a first-line neurosurgical approach for classical trigeminal neuralgia with neurovascular conflict, but can show clinical relapse despite proper decompression. Second-line destructive techniques like radiofrequency thermocoagulation have become reluctantly used due to their potential for irreversible side effects. Subcutaneous peripheral nerve field stimulation (sPNFS) is a minimally invasive neuromodulatory technique which has been shown to be effective for chronic localised pain conditions.

The most frequently used surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia is Microvascular decompression (MVD), followed closely by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Percutaneous stereotactic rhizotomy (PSR) , despite being the most cost-effective, is by far the least utilized treatment modality 1).

Microvascular decompression (MVD) via lateral suboccipital approach is the standard surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia treatment.

Teflon™ and Ivalon® are two materials used in MVD for TN. It is an effective treatment with long-term symptom relief and recurrence rates of 1-5% each year. Ivalon® has been used less than Teflon™ though is associated with similar success rates and similar complication rates 2)

Although microvascular decompression (MVD) is the most effective long-term operative treatment for TN, its use in older patient populations has been debated due to its invasive nature.


Compared with the standard microscope-assisted techniques, the 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted MVD offers an improved visualisation without compromising the field of view within and outside the surgical field 3).

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, PubMedCochrane Library, and Scopus were queried for primary studies examining pain outcomes after MVD for TN published between 1988 and March 2018. Potential biases were assessed for included studies. Pain freedom (ie, Barrow Neurological Institute score of 1) at last follow-up was the primary outcome measure. Variables associated with pain freedom on preliminary analysis underwent formal meta-analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for possible predictors.

Outcome data were analyzed for 3897 patients from 46 studies (7 prospective, 39 retrospective). Overall, 76.0% of patients achieved pain freedom after MVD with a mean follow-up of 1.7 ± 1.3 (standard deviation) yr. Predictors of pain freedom on meta-analysis using random effects models included (1) disease duration ≤5 yr (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.08-3.95); (2) arterial compression over venous or other (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.91-5.88); (3) superior cerebellar artery involvement (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.02-4.03), and (4) type 1 Burchiel classification (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.32-4.67).

Approximately three-quarters of patients with drug-resistant TN achieve pain freedom after MVD. Shorter disease duration, arterial compression, and type 1 Burchiel classification may predict a more favorable outcome. These results may improve patient selection and provider expectations 4).

Technique

Outcome

Complications

Case series

References

1)

Sivakanthan S, Van Gompel JJ, Alikhani P, van Loveren H, Chen R, Agazzi S. Surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia: use and cost-effectiveness from an analysis of the medicare claims database. Neurosurgery. 2014 Sep;75(3):220-6. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000430. PubMed PMID: 24871139.
2)

Pressman E, Jha RT, Zavadskiy G, Kumar JI, van Loveren H, van Gompel JJ, Agazzi S. Teflon™ or Ivalon®: a scoping review of implants used in microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg Rev. 2019 Nov 30. doi: 10.1007/s10143-019-01187-0. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31786660.
3)

Li Ching Ng A, Di Ieva A. How I do it: 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted microvascular decompression. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 May 29. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03954-w. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31144166.
4)

Holste K, Chan AY, Rolston JD, Englot DJ. Pain Outcomes Following Microvascular Decompression for Drug-Resistant Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neurosurgery. 2020 Feb 1;86(2):182-190. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyz075. PubMed PMID: 30892607.

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is one of the alternatives for treatment for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN).

The first use of SRS by Lars Leksell was for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Initially, this was reserved for refractory cases following multiple operations 1).

The Leksell Gamma Knife and the Accuray CyberKnife systems have been used in the radiosurgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. The 2 techniques use different delivery methods and different treatment parameters. In the past, CyberKnife treatments have been associated with an increased incidence of treatment-related complications, such as facial numbness.

CyberKnife radiosurgical parameters can be optimized to mimic the dose distribution of Gamma Knife plans. However, Gamma Knife plans result in superior sparing of critical structures (brainstem, temporal lobe,and cranial nerves VII and VIII) and in steeper dose fall off away from the target. The clinical significance of these effects is unknown 2).

Indications

Generally recommended for patients with co-morbidities, high-risk medical illness, pain refractory to prior surgical procedures, or those on anticoagulants (anticoagulation does not have to be reversed to have SRS).

Mechanism

Treatment plan

4 -5 mm isocenter in the trigeminal nerve root entry zone identified on MRI. Use 70–80 Gy at the center, keeping the 80% isodose curve outside of the brainstem.

Results: Significant pain reduction after initial SRS: 80–96% 3) 4) 5) 6) but only ≈ 65% become pain free. Median latency to pain relief: 3 months (range: 1 d-13 months) 7).

Recurrent pain occurs with in three years in 10–25%. Patients with TN and multiple sclerosis are less likely to respond to SRS than those without MS. SRS can be repeated, but only after four months following the original procedure.

Outcome

Repeat Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

Case series

A total of 263 patients contributed by 9 member tertiary referral Gamma Knife centers (2 in Canada and 7 in USA) of the International Gamma Knife Research Consortium (IGKRF) constituted this study.

The median latency period of Facial pain response (PR) after SRS was 1 mo. Reasonable pain control (Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale I-IIIb) was achieved in 232 patients (88.2%). The median maintenance period from SRS was 14.1 months (range, 10 days to 10 years). The actuarial reasonable pain control maintenance rates at 1 yr, 2 yr, and 4 yr were 54%, 35%, and 24%, respectively. There was a correlation between the status of achieving BNI-I and the maintenance of facial pain recurrence-free rate. The median recurrence-free rate was 36 mo and 12.2 mo in patients achieving BNI-I and BNI > I, respectively (P = .046). Among 210 patients with known status of post-SRS complications, the new-onset of facial numbness (BNI-I or II) after SRS occurred in 21 patients (10%).

In this largest series SRS offers a reasonable benefit to risk profile for patients who have exhausted medical management. More favorable initial response to SRS may predict a long-lasting pain control 8).

2016

One hundred seventeen patients with medically refractory TN treated by GKRS at the Department of Functional Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, and Department of Neurology, Ruber International Hospital, Madrid, Spain were followed up between 1993 and 2011. Mean maximum dose was 86.5 Gy (range: 80-90 Gy; median: 90 Gy). Clinical response was defined based on the Burchiel classification. They considered classes I and II as a complete response. For toxicity, they use the Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale. Mean duration of follow-up was 66 months (range: 24-171 months).

Complete response at last follow-up in our patients was 81%, with an excellent response while off medication in 52%. Pain-free rates without medication (class I) were 85% at 3 years (confidence interval [CI]: 78%-94%), 81% at 5 years (CI: 72%-91%), and 76% at 7 years (CI: 65%-90%). Complete response rates (classes I-II) were 91% at 3 years (CI: 86%-97%), 86% at 5 years (CI: 79%-93%), and 82% at 7 years (CI: 72%-93%). Poor treatment response rates differed significantly between patients who had undergone previous surgery and were refractory to management with medication prior to GKRS. New or worsening facial numbness was reported in 32.5% (30% score II and 2.5% score III). No anesthesia dolorosa was reported. Permanent recurrence pain rate was 12%.

GKRS achieved favorable outcomes compared with surgery in terms of pain relief and complication rates in our cohort of patients, notwithstanding decreasing pain-free survival rates over time. They consider GKRS to be an initial treatment in the management of medically intractable TN in selected patients 9).


In a single-center, retrospective comparative study, 202 patients with MS and concomitant TN were evaluated. A minimum follow-up of 24 months was required. Patients with a history of microvascular decompression or previous intervention were excluded. There were 78 PBC procedures performed and 124 first-dosage GKRS procedures for a total of 202 patients between February 2009 and December 2013. The PBC procedures were successfully completed in all cases. The two groups were compared with regards to initial effect, duration of effect, and rate of complication(s), including the type and severity of the complication(s).

Immediate pain relief resulted in 87% of patients treated with PBC and in 23% of patients treated with GKRS. The Kaplan-Meier plots for the two treatment modalities were similar. The 50% recurrence rate was at 12 months for the PBC and 18 months for the GKRS. The rates of complication (excluding numbness) were 3% for GKRS and 21% for PBC. The difference was statistically significant (Chi-square test, p = 0.03).

PBC and GKRS are effective techniques for the treatment of TN in patients with MS, with GKRS presenting fewer complications and superior long-term relief. For these reasons, we consider GKRS as the first option for the treatment of TN in MS patients, reserving PBC for patients with acute, intractable pain 10).

Case reports

A 72-year-old -female presented with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and radiological evidence of neurovascular compression on the affected side. She had complete resolution of her pain for 7 years after treatment with GKRS. The patient experienced recurrence and underwent repeat GKRS, this time resulting in another 3 years of pain relief. After the second recurrence, repeat intracranial imaging demonstrated resolution of neurovascular compression.

GKRS is an important treatment option for TN, although the mechanisms behind pain relief from this procedure still remain unclear. While prior histological and radiological studies point to ablative mechanisms for pain relief, this case report suggests that GKRS may result in a decompressive effect in TN due to changes in neurovascular architecture. Despite this finding, TN is known to occur and recur in the absence of neurovascular compression; thus, further work is necessary to understand the etiology of TN and its treatments.

In this case, Moosa et al. demonstrated that vessel-nerve relationships may change over time in TN patients treated with GKRS, which raises the possibility that GKRS could release a neurovascular compression 11).

References

1)

Lunsford LD. Comment on Taha J M and Tew J M: Comparison of Surgical Treatmen ts for Trigemin al Neuralgia: Reevaluation of Radiofrequency Rhizotomy. Neurosurgery. 1996; 38
2)

Descovich M, Sneed PK, Barbaro NM, McDermott MW, Chuang CF, Barani IJ, Nakamura JL, Lijun M. A dosimetric comparison between Gamma Knife and CyberKnife treatment plans for trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2010 Dec;113 Suppl:199-206. PubMed PMID: 21222296.
3)

Brisman R. Gamma knife surgery with a dose fo 75 to 76.8 Gray for trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2004; 100:848–854
4)

Pollock BE, Phuong LK, Foote RL, Sta ord SL, Gorman DA. High-dose trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery associated with increased risk of trigeminal nerve dysfunction. Neurosurgery. 2001; 49:58–62; discussion 62-4
5)

Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC. Stereotact ic radiosurgery for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 2002; 18:42–47
6)

Massager N, Lorenzoni J, Devriendt D, Desmedt F, Brotch i J, Levivier M. Gamma kn ife surgery for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia performed using a far-anterior cisternal target and a high dose of radiation. J Neurosurg. 2004; 100:597–605
7)

Urgosik D, Liscak R, Novotny J, Jr, Vymazal J, Vladyka V. Treatment of essential trigeminal neuralgia with gamma knife surgery. J Neurosurg. 2005; 102 Suppl:29–33
8)

Xu Z, Mathieu D, Heroux F, Abbassy M, Barnett G, Mohammadi AM, Kano H, Caruso J, Shih HH, Grills IS, Lee K, Krishnan S, Kaufmann AM, Lee JYK, Alonso-Basanta M, Kerr M, Pierce J, Kondziolka D, Hess JA, Gerrard J, Chiang V, Lunsford LD, Sheehan JP. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicenter Study. Neurosurgery. 2019 Feb 1;84(2):499-505. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyy142. PubMed PMID: 29688562.
9)

Martínez Moreno NE, Gutiérrez-Sárraga J, Rey-Portolés G, Jiménez-Huete A, Martínez Álvarez R. Long-Term Outcomes in the Treatment of Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia by Gamma Knife Radiosurgery: A Retrospective Study in Patients With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up. Neurosurgery. 2016 Dec;79(6):879-888. PubMed PMID: 27560193.
10)

Alvarez-Pinzon AM, Wolf AL, Swedberg HN, Barkley KA, Cucalon J, Curia L, Valerio JE. Comparison of Percutaneous Retrograsserian Balloon Compression and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia in Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Research Study Article. World Neurosurg. 2016 Oct 15. pii: S1878-8750(16)31016-6. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.10.028. PubMed PMID: 27756676.
11)

Moosa S, Wang TR, Mastorakos P, Sheehan JP, Elias WJ. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia Reduces Neurovascular Compression: A Case Report after 11 Years. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2019 Sep 5:1-5. doi: 10.1159/000501624. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31487732.

Diffusion tensor imaging for trigeminal neuralgia

Diffusion tensor imaging for trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is often classified as type 1 (TN1) when pain is primarily paroxysmal and episodic or type 2 (TN2) when pain is primarily constant in character. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed microstructural changes in the symptomatic trigeminal root and root entry zone of patients with unilateral TN.

Noninvasive DTI analysis of patients with TN may lead to improved trigeminal neuralgia diagnosis of TN subtypes (e.g., TN1 and TN2) and improve patient selection for surgical intervention. DTI measurements may also provide insights into prognosis after intervention, as TN1 patients are known to have better surgical outcomes than TN2 patients 1).


As diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to assess tissue integrity, Leal et al., used diffusion to detect abnormalities in trigeminal nerves (TGN) in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) caused by neurovascular compression (NVC) who had undergone microvascular decompression (MVD).

Using DTI sequencing on a 3-T MRI scanner, we measured the fraction of anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the TGN in 10 patients who had undergone MVD for TN and in 6 normal subjects. We compared data between affected and unaffected nerves in patients and both nerves in normal subjects (controls). We then correlated these data with CSA and V. Data from the affected side and the unaffected side before and 4 years after MVD were compared.

RESULTS: Before MVD, the FA of the affected side (0.37 ± 0.03) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared to the unaffected side in patients (0.48 ± 0.03) and controls (0.52 ± 0.02), and the ADC in the affected side (5.6 ± 0.34 mm2/s) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the unaffected side in patients (4.26 ± 0.25 mm2/s) and controls (3.84 ± 0.18 mm2/s). Affected nerves had smaller V and CSA compared to unaffected nerves and controls (p < 0.05). After MVD, the FA in the affected side (0.41 ± 0.02) remained significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared to the unaffected side (0.51 ± 0.02), but the ADC in the affected side (4.24 ± 0.34 mm2/s) had become similar (p > 0.05) to the unaffected side (4.01 ± 0.33 mm2/s).

CONCLUSIONS: DTI revealed a loss of anisotropy and an increase in diffusivity in affected nerves before surgery. Diffusion alterations correlated with atrophic changes in patients with TN caused by NVC. After removal of the compression, the loss of FA remained, but ADC normalized in the affected nerves, suggesting improvement in the diffusion of the trigeminal root 2).


Herveh et al. studied the trigeminal nerve in seven healthy volunteers and six patients with trigeminal neuralgia using the diffusion tensor imagingderived parameter fractional anisotropy (FA). While controls did not show a difference between both sides, there was a reduction of FA in the affected nerve in three of six patients with accompanying nerve-vessel conflict and atrophy. Reversibility of abnormally low FA values was demonstrated in one patient successfully treated with microvascular decompression 3).


3T MR diffusion weighted, T1, T2 and FLAIR sequences were acquired for Multiple sclerosis related trigeminal neuralgia MS-TN, TN, and controls. Multi-tensor tractography was used to delineate CN V across cisternal, root entry zone (REZ), pontine and peri-lesional segments. Diffusion metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA), and radial (RD), axial (AD), and mean diffusivities (MD) were measured from each segment.

CN V segments showed distinctive diffusivity patterns. The TN group showed higher FA in the cisternal segment ipsilateral to the side of pain, and lower FA in the ipsilateral REZ segment. The MS-TN group showed lower FA in the ipsilateral peri-lesional segments, suggesting differential microstructural changes along CN V in these conditions.

The study demonstrates objective differences in CN V microstrucuture in TN and MS-TN using non-invasive neuroimaging. This represents a significant improvement in the methods currently available to study pain in MS 4).


The aim of a study was to evaluate the microstructural tissue abnormalities in the trigeminal nerve in symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia not related to neurovascular compression using diffusion tensor imaging. Mean values of the quantitative diffusion parameters of trigeminal nerve, fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient, were measured in a group of four symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia patients without neurovascular compression who showed focal non-enhancing T2-hyperintense lesions in the pontine trigeminal pathway. These diffusion parameters were compared between the affected and unaffected sides in the same patient and with four age-matched healthy controls. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense lesions in the dorsolateral part of the pons along the central trigeminal pathway on T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. The mean fractional anisotropy value on the affected side was significantly decreased (P = 0.001) compared to the unaffected side and healthy controls. Similarly, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value was significantly higher (P = 0.001) on the affected side compared to the unaffected side and healthy controls. The cause of trigeminal neuralgia in our patients was abnormal pontine lesions affecting the central trigeminal pathway. The diffusion tensor imaging results suggest that microstructural tissue abnormalities of the trigeminal nerve also exist even in non-neurovascular compression-related trigeminal neuralgia 5).


DTI analysis allows the quantification of structural alterations, even in those patients without any discernible neurovascular contact on MRI. Moreover, our findings support the hypothesis that both the arteries and veins can cause structural alterations that lead to TN. These aspects can be useful for making treatment decisions 6).


The mean diameter of compression arteries (DCA) in NVC patients with TN (1.58 ± 0.34 mm) was larger than that without TN (0.89 ± 0.29 mm). Compared with NVC without TN and HC, the mean values of RD at the site of NVC with TN were significantly increased; however, no significant changes of AD were found between the groups. Correlation analysis showed that DCA positively correlated with radial diffusivity (RD) in NVC patients with and without TN (r = 0.830, p = 0.000). No significant correlation was found between DCA and axial diffusivity (AD) (r = 0.178, p = 0.077).

Larger-diameter compression arteries may increase the chances of TN, and may be a possible facilitating factor for TN 7).


Fractional anisotropy (FA) value quantitatively showed the alteration of trigeminal nerve (TGN) caused by Neurovascular compression (NVC). It provided direct evidence about the effect of NVC which facilitated the diagnosis and surgical decision of Type 2 trigeminal neuralgia (TN) . Besides, significant reduction of FA value may predict an optimistic outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) 8).


Sophisticated structural MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging provide new opportunities to assess the trigeminal nerves and CNS to provide insight into TN etiology and pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have used high-resolution structural MRI methods to visualize patterns of trigeminal nerve-vessel relationships and to detect subtle pathological features at the trigeminal REZ. Structural MRI has also identified CNS abnormalities in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter and demonstrated that effective neurosurgical treatment for TN is associated with a reversal of specific nerve and brain abnormalities 9).


Forty-three patients with trigeminal neuralgia were recruited, and diffusion tensor imaging was performed before radiofrequency rhizotomy. By selecting the cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerve manually, they measured the volume of trigeminal nerve, fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. The apparent diffusion coefficient and mean value of fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were compared between the affected and normal side in the same patient, and were correlated with pre-rhizotomy and post-rhizotomy visual analogue scale pain scores. The results showed the affected side had significantly decreased fractional anisotropy, increased apparent diffusion coefficient and radial diffusivity, and no significant change of axial diffusivity. The volume of the trigeminal nerve on affected side was also significantly smaller. There was a trend of fractional anisotropy reduction and visual analogue scale pain score reduction (P = 0.072). The results suggest that demyelination without axonal injury, and decreased size of the trigeminal nerve, are the microstructural abnormalities of the trigeminal nerve in patients with trigeminal neuralgia caused by neurovascular compression. The application of diffusion tensor imaging in understanding the pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia, and predicting the treatment effect has potential and warrants further study 10).

References

1)

Willsey MS, Collins KL, Conrad EC, Chubb HA, Patil PG. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals microstructural differences between subtypes of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2019 Jul 19:1-7. doi: 10.3171/2019.4.JNS19299. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31323635.
2)

Leal PRL, Roch J, Hermier M, Berthezene Y, Sindou M. Diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the trigeminal nerve root in patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia: a pre- and postoperative comparative study 4 years after microvascular decompression. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 May 2. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03913-5. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31049710.
3)

Herweh C, Kress B, Rasche D, Tronnier V, Tröger J, Sartor K, Stippich C. Loss of anisotropy in trigeminal neuralgia revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. Neurology. 2007 Mar 6;68(10):776-8. PubMed PMID: 17339587.
4)

Chen DQ, DeSouza DD, Hayes DJ, Davis KD, O’Connor P, Hodaie M. Diffusivity signatures characterize trigeminal neuralgia associated with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2016 Jan;22(1):51-63. doi: 10.1177/1352458515579440. PubMed PMID: 25921052.
5)

Neetu S, Sunil K, Ashish A, Jayantee K, Usha Kant M. Microstructural abnormalities of the trigeminal nerve by diffusion-tensor imaging in trigeminal neuralgia without neurovascular compression. Neuroradiol J. 2016 Feb;29(1):13-8. doi: 10.1177/1971400915620439. PubMed PMID: 26678753; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4978338.
6)

Lutz J, Thon N, Stahl R, Lummel N, Tonn JC, Linn J, Mehrkens JH. Microstructural alterations in trigeminal neuralgia determined by diffusion tensor imaging are independent of symptom duration, severity, and type of neurovascular conflict. J Neurosurg. 2016 Mar;124(3):823-30. doi: 10.3171/2015.2.JNS142587. PubMed PMID: 26406792.
7)

Lin W, Zhu WP, Chen YL, Han GC, Rong Y, Zhou YR, Zhang QW. Large-diameter compression arteries as a possible facilitating factor for trigeminal neuralgia: analysis of axial and radial diffusivity. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2016 Mar;158(3):521-6. doi: 10.1007/s00701-015-2673-4. PubMed PMID: 26733127; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4752583.
8)

Chen F, Chen L, Li W, Li L, Xu X, Li W, Le W, Xie W, He H, Li P. Pre-operative declining proportion of fractional anisotropy of trigeminal nerve is correlated with the outcome of micro-vascular decompression surgery. BMC Neurol. 2016 Jul 16;16:106. doi: 10.1186/s12883-016-0620-5. PubMed PMID: 27422267; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4947245.
9)

DeSouza DD, Hodaie M, Davis KD. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Identify Trigeminal System Abnormalities in Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia. Front Neuroanat. 2016 Oct 19;10:95. Review. PubMed PMID: 27807409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5070392.
10)

Chen ST, Yang JT, Yeh MY, Weng HH, Chen CF, Tsai YH. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Evaluate Microstructural Changes and Outcomes after Radiofrequency Rhizotomy of Trigeminal Nerves in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 20;11(12):e0167584. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167584. PubMed PMID: 27997548.
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